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a complete grammar of 















Copyright, 1910, By 

All rights reserved 

(Entered at Stationers' Hall, Londoi 

2 C6 






This volume has been prepared to meet a twofold need. 
An adequate presentation of the International Language 
has become an imperative necessity. Such presentation, 
including full and accurate grammatical explanations, 
suitably graded reading lessons, and similarly graded 
material for translation from English, has not heretofore 
been accessible within the compass of a single volume, or 
in fact within the compass of any two or three volumes. 

The combination of grammar and reader here offered 
is therefore unique. It is to furnish not merely an intro- 
duction to Esperanto, or a superficial acquaintance with 
it, but a genuine understanding of the language and mas- 
tery of its use without recourse to additional textbooks, 
readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords as 
complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' 
study of a grammar and various readers will accomplish 
for any national language. Inflection, word-formation 
and syntax are presented clearly and concisely, yet with 
a degree of completeness and in a systematic order that 
constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note 
are the following: 

The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of 
mere statements that such usages exist. For example, 
clauses of purpose and of result are really explained, in- 


stead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory remark 
that "the imperative follows por ke," or the "use of 
tiel. . .ke and tia. . .ke must be distinguished from that of 
tiel. . .kiel and tia. . .kia," etc., with but little intimation 
of when and why for ke, tiel. . .ke and tia. . .ke are likely 
to occur. 

Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with 
the general character of the language is assured, as well 
as the possession of a fair vocabulary. They are intro- 
duced gradually, with adequate explanation and illustra- 
tion. Of importance in connection with word-formation 
is an element distinctly new — the explanation and classi- 
fication of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are 
withheld until the use of simple words is familiar. 

Another new feature is the gradual introduction of 
correlative words in their logical order, and in their proper 
grammatical categories, before they are called "correl- 
atives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally presented 
is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and 
grammatical character of the words, not merely an ar- 
bitrary alphabetical arrangement. The use of primary 
adverbs precedes the explanation of adverb derivation; 
prepositions, especially de, da, je, etc., receive careful at- 
tention, also the verb system, and the differentiation of 
words whose English equivalents are ambiguous. 

A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that 
almost without exception new forms and constructions 
are illustrated by means of words or roots already familiar. 
Likewise, the new words or roots of each lesson recur at 
least once in the next lesson, and usually in some lesson 
thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only 


a thorough appUcation of the grammatical principles of 
the lesson, but a review of those in the preceding lesson, 
and no use is raade of words or constructions not yet ex- 
plained. The comparative ease of the language, and the 
lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the read- 
ing exercises to be long enough for the student to feel 
that he has really mastered something. These exercises 
are further unique, in that each after the fifth is a co- 
herent narrative, and nearly every one is a story of genu- 
ine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, 
would alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used 
in first and second year work in national languages. 
(For list of titles, see Table of Contents.) 

The second element of the twofold need which this 
volume meets is the necessity for a presentation of Espe- 
ranto, not as a thing apart, but in that form which will 
make it most serviceable as an introduction to national 
tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern 
languages, Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave 
the way for surmounting the many difficulties confronting 
both student and teacher. Through Esperanto, the labor 
in the acquirement of these languages may be reduced in 
the same proportion in which the pleasure and thorough- 
ness of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, 
the grammatical constructions of Esperanto are here ex- 
plained as consistently as possible in accordance with the 
usage of national languages, especially those in the school 
curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them. 
Such matters as contrary to fact conditions, indirect quota- 
tions, clauses of purpose and of result, accusatives of time 
and measure, expressions of separation, reference, etc., thus 


become familiar to the student, long before he meets them 
in the more difficult garb of a national tongue, whose ex- 
ceptions seem to outnumber its rules, and whose idioms 
prove more puzzling than its exceptions, unless approached 
by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International 
Language, Esperanto. 

Ivy Kelleeman. 
Washington, D. C, 
August 3, 1910. 


Lesson Page 
I. Alphabet. — Vowels. — Consonants. — Names of the 
Letters. — Diphthongs. — Combinations of Conso- 
nants. — Syllables. — Accent 1 

II. Nouns. — The Article. — Adjectives. — Attributive Ad- 
jectives. — Present Tense of the Verb 4 

III. The Plural Number. — Predicate Adjective and Noun 7 

IV. Transitive Verbs. — The Accusative Case. — The Con- 

junction Kaj. — The Negative Ne 9 

V. The Complementary Infinitive. — Interrogation. — The 

Conjunction Nek 12 

VI. Personal Pronouns. — Agreement with Pronouns. — - 

Conjugation of the Verb 15 

VII. The Past Tense. — Prepositions. — Accusative Case of 

Personal Pronouns 18 

VIII. Reflexive Pronouns. — Reflexive Verbs 20 

IX. Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun. — Posses- 
sive Adjectives. — Pronominal Use of Possessive 

Adjectives. — La Kato kaj la Pasero 24 

X. The Accusative of Direction. — The Article for the 
Possessive Adjective. — Apposition. — La Arabo kaj 

la Kamelo 27 

XI. Possessive Case of Nouns. — Impersonal Verbs. — Verbs 
Preceding their Subjects. — Coordinating Conjunc- 
tions. — La Arabo en la Dezerto 30 

XII. Indirect Statements. — The Indefinite Personal Pro- 
noun Oni. — The Future Tense. — La Ventoflago . 34 
XIII. The Demonstrative Pronoun Tiu. — Tenses in Indirect 
Quotations. — Formation of Feminine Nouns. — En 
la Parko 37 



Lesson Page 

XIV. The Demonstrative Pronoun Ci tiu. — Possessive Form 
of the Demonstrative Pronoun. — The Suffix -I1-. — 
The Expression of Means or Instrumentahty. — La 
Mango 41 

XV. The Demonstrative Adjective. — Adverbs Defined and 
Classified. — Formation of Opposites. — La Ruza 
Juna Viro 44 

XVI. The Demonstrative Adverb of Place. — Accompani- 
ment. — The Adverb For. — The Meaning of Povi. — • 
Malamikoj en la Dezerto 48 

XVII. The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb. — Comparison 
of Adjectives. — Manner and Characteristic. — Diri, 
Paroli and Rakonti. — Frederiko Granda kaj la 
Juna Servisto 52 

XVIII. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.— 
Derivation of Adverbs. — Comparison of Words 
Expressing Quantity. — Comparisons Containing 
01. — Causal Glauses. — Pri la Sezonoj 55 

XIX. Ju and Des in Comparisons. — The Preposition Inter. 
— The Preposition Pro. — Prepositions with Ad- 
verbs and Other Prepositions. — La Autuno kaj 
la Vintro 59 

XX. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree. — 
Prepositions Expressing Time - Relations. — En 
Septembro 63 

XXI. The Accusative of Time. — Adverbs and the Accusa- 
tive of Time. — The Preposition Por. — La Sezonoj 
kaj la Mondo 66 

XXII. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time. — Clauses Ex- 

pressing Anticipation. — The Infinitive with 
Anstatau, Por, Antaii ol. — The Expression of a 
Part of the Whole. — Diogeno kaj Aleksandro 
Granda 70 

XXIII. Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole. — The 

Demonstrative Adverb of Quantity. — Result 
Clauses. — En la Butiko 74 


Lesson Page 

XXIV. The Interrogative Pronoun. — The Present Active 
Participle. — Compound Tenses. — The Progres- 
sive Present Tense.— The Suffix -Ej-.— En Nia 

Domo 77 

XXV. The Interrogative Adjective. — The Imperfect Tense. 
— Salutations and Exclamations. — Word Forma- 
tion. — Koni and Scii. — La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon 82 

XXVI. The Interrogative Adverb of Place.— The Past Ac- 
tive Participle. — Adverb Derivation from Prepo- 
sitions. — Adverbs Expressing Direction of Mo- 
tion.— The Suffix -Eg-.— La Pluvego 86 

XXVII. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb. — The Perfect 
Tense. — The Preposition fie. — The Suffix -At-. — 
Tempo and Fojo. — The Orthography of Proper 
Names. — Roberto Bruce kaj la Araneo .... 90 

XXVIII. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason. — 
The Infinitive as Subject. — Present Action with 
Past Inception. — The Suffix -IJ1-. — Logi and 
Vivi. — Pri la Ave kaj la Avino 94 

XXIX. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree. — 
The Pluperfect Tense. — Cardinal Numbers.^ 
The Accusative of Measure. — Nia Familio . . 98 

XXX. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity. — Modifiers 
of Impersonally Used Verbs. — Formation of 
Cardinal Numerals. — The Suffix -An-. — Leciono 
Pri Aritmetiko 102 

XXXI. The Relative Pronoun.— The Future Perfect Tense. 
— Ordinal Numerals. — Alfredo Granda kaj la 

Libro 105 

XXXII. Kia as a Relative Adjective. — Kie as a Relative 
Adverb. — The Future Active Participle. — The 
Periphrastic Future Tenses. — The Suffix -Ind-. 
— Alfredo Granda kaj la Kukoj 109 

XXXIII. Kiam as a Relative Adverb. — Kiel as a Relative 
Adverb. — Numeral Nouns and Adverbs. — 
Word Derivation from Prepositions. — La Invito 114 


Lesson Page 

XXXIV. Prepositions as Prefixes.— The Suffix -Ebl-.— Ex- 
pression of the Highest Degree Possible. — • 
Titles and Terms of Address. — Ce la Festo . . 118 
XXXV. Kiom as a Relative Adverb. — The Present Pas- 
sive Participle. — Fractions. — Descriptive Com- 
pounds. — La Hinoj 122 

XXXVI. The Present Passive Tense.— The Use of De to 
Express Agency. — The General Meaning of 
De. — ^Word Derivation from Primary Ad- 
verbs. — The Suffix -1st-. — Antikva Respubliko 126 
XXXVII. The Distributive Pronoun.— The Preposition Po.— 
Dependent Compounds. — La Capelo sur la 

Stango 130 

XXXVIII. The Distributive Adjective.— The Imperfect Pas- 
sive Tense. — Compound Tenses of Impersonal 
Verbs. — Reciprocal Expressions. — The Suffix 
-Uj-.— Vilhelmo Tell kaj la Porno 134 

XXXIX. The Distributive Adverb of Place.- The Future 
Passive Tense. — Possessive Compounds. — The 
Time of Day.— The Suffix -Obi-.— En la 

Stacidomo 138 

XL. The Distributive Temporal Adverb. — The Dis- 
tributive Adverb fiial. — The Past Passive Par- 
ticiple. — The Perfect Passive Tense. — The 
Preposition Lau. — The Suffix -Em-, — La Per- 

dita Infano 141 

XLI. The Distributive Adverb Ciel.— The Distributive 
Adverb fiiom. — The Pluperfect Passive Tense. 
— The Future Perfect Passive Tense. — The Ex- 
pression of Material. — The Suffix -Et-. — La 

Donaco 145 

XLII. The Future Passive Participle. — The Passive Peri- 
phrastic Future Tenses. — The Generic Article. 
—The Suffix -Ec-.— Sur la VaporSipo .... 149 
XLIII. The Indefinite Pronoun. — Participial Nouns. — The 
Prefix Ek-.— The Suffix -Id-.— La Nesto sur 
la Tendo 153 


Lesson Page 

XLIV. The Indefinite Adjective. — The Indefinite Adverb 
of Place. — Predicate Nominatives. — La Cevalo 

kaj la Sonorilo 157 

XLV. The Indefinite Temporal Adverb. — The Indeiinite 
Adverb lal. — Causative Verbs. — Emphasis by 

Means of Ja. — Ce la Malnova Ponto 160 

XL VI. The Indefinite Adverb lel.— The Indefinite Adverb 
lom.— The Suffix -Ad-.— The Use of Mem.— 

Arfiimedo kaj la Krone j 164 

XL VII. The Negative Pronoun. — The Adverbial Partici- 
ple. — The Prefix Re-. — La Filozofo Arfiimedo . 168 
XLVIII. The Negative Adjective.— The Negative Adverb 
of Place. — The Negative Temporal Adverb. — ■ 
The Suffix -A]-.— The Adverb Jen.— Du 

Artkonkursoj 172 

XLIX. The Negative Adverbs Nenial, Neniel, Neniom. — 

The Suffix -Ig-.— La Krepusko 176 

L. The Pronouns ending in -0. — Correlative Words. 
—The Use of Ajn.— The Suffix -Ing-.— La 

Gordia Ligajo 180 

LI. The Pronoun Ambau. — Formations with -Ig- and 
-Ig-. — Factual Conditions. — La Monahoj kaj 

la Azeno 184 

LII. The Conditional Mood. — Compound Tenses of the 
Conditional Mood. — Less Vivid Conditions. — 
Independent Use of the Conditional Mood. — • 

The Prefix Dis-. — Pri la Gravitado 188 

LIII. Conditions Contrary to Fact. — The Verb Devi. — 

The Preposition Sen. — La Filozofo Sokrato . . 192 
LIV. Summary of Conditions. — Clauses of Imaginative 
Comparison. — The Use of Al to Express Refer- 
ence. — The Suffix -Estr-. — La Ostracismo de 

Aristejdo 196 

LV. The Imperative Mood. — Resolve and Exhortation. 
— Commands and Prohibitions. — Less Peremp- 
tory Uses of the Imperative. — The Use of 
MoSto. — La Glavo de Damoklo 200 


Lesson Faqh 

LVI. The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses. — The 
Preposition Je. — The SufRx -Op-. — La MarSado 

de la Dekmil Grekoj 204 

LVII. Clauses Expressing Purpose.^Further Uses of the 
Accusative. — Synopsis of the Conjugation of 
the Verb. — The Suffix -Um-. — La Reirado de 

la Dekmilo 209 

LVIII. Permission and Possibility. — The Prefix Ge-. — 
The Suffix -Ac-. — Interjections. — Aieksandro 

Granda 215 

LIX. The Position of Unemphatic Pronouns. — Some 
Intransitive Verbs. — The Suffix -Er-. — The 
Prefixes Bo- and Duon-. — Correspondence. — 

Kelkaj Leteroj 218 

LX. Some Transitive Verbs. — Ehsion. — The Prefix 
Eks-.— The Prefix Pra-,— The Suffixes -Cj- 
and -Nj-. — Weights and Measures. — The In- 
ternational Money System. — Abbreviations. — 
Pri La Kamero 224 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary 233 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary 273 

Index S25 



1. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following 
letters: a, b, c, c, d, e, f, g, g, h, fi, i, j, j, k, 1, m, n, o, p, 
r, s, §, t, u, u, V, z. 


2. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows: 

a as in far. 

e as in fiance, like a in fate.* 

i as in machine. 

as in toll, for. 

u as in rude, rural. 


3. The consonants b, d, f, h, k, 1, m, n, p, t, v, z, are pro- 
nounced as in English, and the remaining eleven as fol- 

c like ts in hats, tsetse. 

t like ch in chin, much. 

g like g in go, big. 

g like g in gem, j in jar. 

fi is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat 

only partially open.f 
j like y in yes, beyond. 
} like z in azure, s in visual. 

1 is slightly trilled or rolled. 

* This " long a " sound in English frequently ends with a vanish, — a brief 
terminal sound of T, which makes the vowel slightly diphthongal, as in day, 
aye. Such a vanish must not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels. 

t As in pronouncing German and Scotch ch, Spanish j, Irish gh, Russian x, 
Classical Greek x, etc. There are only a few words containing this consonant. 

LESSON I. [§§4-6 

s like s in see, basis. 

§ like sh in shine, rash, ch in machine. 

t. like w or consonantal u. See Diphthongs, 5. 


4. The vowels are named by their sounds, as given in 2. 
The names of the consonants are bo, co, co, do, fo, go, |o, 
ho, fio, jo, Jo, ko, lo, mo, no, po, ro, so, so, to, 60, vo, zo. 
These are used in speaking of the letters, in pronouncing 
them in abbreviations, as ko to po for k. t. p. ( = etc.), 
and in spelling words, as bo, i, ro, do, o, birdo. 


5. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered 
as a single sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs 
in Esperanto contain an i or u sound as the second element, 
but in order to avoid confusion with combinations of 
vowels not forming diphthongs (as in naiva, like English 
naive, etc.), they are written with j and vi instead. Their 
pronunciation is as follows: 

aj like ai in aisle. 

ej like ei in vein, ey in they. 

oj like oi in coin, oy in hoy. 

uj like ui in ruin, u(e)y in gluey. 

eu like ayw in wayward, or like e{h)oo pronounced together. 

au like ou in oui, ow in owl. 


6. Each consonant, in a combination of two or more 
consonants, is pronounced with its full value, whether 

§7] LESSON I. 3 

within a word or at its beginning. There are no silent 

a. Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the 
groups kn, kv, gv, sv, in such words as knabo, kvin, gvidi, 

b. The combination kz, as in ekzisti, ekzameno, must 
not be modified to the gs or ks represented by x in exist, 

c. The combination sc, as in escepte, scias, is equivalent 
to the combination sts in last said, first song, pronounced 
together rapidly. The s in a word beginning with sc may 
be sounded with the end of the preceding word, if that 
word ends in a vowel, as mis-cias for mi scias. 

d. The n and g are pronounced separately in the com- 
bination ng, in such words as lingvo, angulo, producing the 
sound of ng heard in linger, not that in singer. 

e. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded, as inter- 
rilato, ellasi, like inter-relate, well-laid. 


7. Each word contains as many syllables as it has 
vowels and diphthongs. The division of syllables within 
a word is as follows: 

a. A single consonant goes with the following vowel, as 
pa-no, be-la, a-e-ro. 

b. A consonant followed by 1 or r (which are liquids) 
goes with the 1 or r, as in ta-blo, a-kra, a-gra-bla. 

c. Otherwise, the syllable division is made before the 
last consonant of the group, as sus-pek-ti, sank-ta, deks- 

d. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they 

4 LESSON II. [§§8-11 

are attached, as dis-meti, mal-akra, and compound words 
are divided into their component parts, as cef-iirbo, sun- 

8. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon 
the syllable before the last, as ta-blo, a-gra-bla, sus-pek-ti. 


Q. (To be pronounced aloud, and correctly accented) 
Afero, trairi, najbaro, aero, hodiau, pacienco, centono, 
fiielo, ec, samideano, treege, obei, obeu, Etiropo, gvidi, 
^ojo, fiiujn, justa, guste, jugi, jaiido, lingvo, knabo, larga, 
pagi, kvieteco, ekzeraplo,' ellerni, fojo, krajono, forrajdi, 
kuirejo, cevalejo, sankteco, scio, nescio, edzo, meze, duo- 
bla, §ipo, sargi, poso, svingi, sklavo, palaj, safajo, atmos- 
fero, monaho, geometrio, laiidi, vasta, eksplodi, sen6esa, 
sensencajo, malluma, arbaranoj, mango, fresa, aiiskulti, 


10. Words which are the names of persons or things are 
called nouns. The ending, or final letter, of nouns in 
Esperanto is o: 

knabo, boy. porno, apple. 

cevalo, horse. tablo, table. 


11. The definite article is la, the, as la knabo, the boy, 
la cevalo, the horse, la tablo, the table, la porno, the apple. 
In Enghsh there is an indefinite article "a, an," for the 
singular, but none for the plural. Esperanto has no indefi- 

§§12-15] LESSON II. 6 

nite article for either singular or plural. Therefore knabo 
may mean boy, or a J)oy, pomo may mean apple or an 


12. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) 
to express a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. 
The ending of adjectives in Esperanto is a: 

bela, beautiful. granda, large. 

flava, yellow. forta, strong. 


13. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality 
it expresses. When directly preceding or following its 
noun, it is called an attributive adjective: 

la granda £evalo, the large horse. floro flava, a yellow flower. 
bela birdo, a beautiful bird. forta knabo, a strong boy. 


14. Words which express action or condition are called 
verbs. When representifig an act or condition as a fact, 
and dealing with the present time, they are said to be in 
the present tense. The ending of all Esperanto verbs in 
the present tense is -as: 

kuras, runs, is running. brilas, shines, is shining. 

flugas, flies, is flying. dormas, sleeps, is sleeping. 

15. The yjerson or thing whose action or condition the 
verb expresses is called the subject of the verb: 

La suno brilas, the sun shines (is shining), subject: suno. 
Knabo kuras, a boy runs {is running), subject: knabo. 

6 LESSON II. [§16 


(To be memorized in this and in all following lessons.) 

bela, beautiful. kaj, and. 

birdo, bird. kantas, sings, is singing. 

blanka, white. knabo, boy. 

bona, good. kuras, runs, is running. 

brilas, shines, is shining. la, the. 

£evalo, horse. luno, moon. 

dormas, sleeps, is sleeping. marias, walks, is walking. 

flava, yellow. porno, apple. 

floro, flower. suno, sun. 

flugas, flies, is flying. tablo, table. 

forta, strong. violo, violet. 

granda, large. viro, man. 


1. Bona viro. 2. La granda tablo. 3. Blanka floro. 
4. Flava birdo. 5. La bela birdo kantas^ 6. ^orta 
knabo kuras. 7. La bona viro marsas. 8. La bela fievalo 
kuras. 9. La suno brilas. 10. Birdo flugas kaj knabo 
kuras. 11. Cevalo blanka marsas. 12. La bela luno 
brilas. 13. La knabo kantas kaj la viro dormas. 14. 
Bela granda pomo. 15. La bona knabo kantas. 16. La 
granda 6evalo dormas. 17. La suno brilas kaj la luno 
brilas. 18. Granda forta tablo. 19. Violo flava. 20. La 
bona flava pomo. 


1. A beautiful flower. 2. A good large table. 3. A 
yellow violet and a white violet. 4. The moon is-shining 
(shines). 5. The good boy is-walking (walks). 6. The 
beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies). 7. The strong man 
is-sleeping (sleeps). 8. The white bird is-singing (sings). 

§§16-19] LESSON III. 7 

9. A strong horse runs, and a man walks. 10. The sun 
shines, and the boy is-singing (sings). 11. The large yel- 
low apple. 12. An apple large and good. 


i6. The plural number of nouns, that is, the form which 
indicates more than one person or thing, is made by adding 
-j * to the noun, as viroj, men, from viro, man ; tabloj, 
tables, from tabic, table. 

17. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it 
in number, being given the plural form by the addition of 
the ending -j.* An adjective modifying two or more 
nouns used together is of course given the plural form : 

bonaj viroj, good men. 
grandaj cevaloj, large horses. 

belaj birdo kaj floro (for bela birdo kaj bela floro), beautiful bird 
and (beautiful) flower. 

18. The article is invariable, that is, does not change in 
form when used with plural nouns, as la viro, the man, la 
viroj, the men. The verb is also invariable in form' 

La viroj marlas, the men walk, the men are walking. 

La suno kaj la luno brilas, the sun and the moon are shining. 

La viro estas, the man is. 

La viroj estas, the men are. 


19. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or 
predicated of the subject of the verb, as when used with 

* -oj is pronounced like oy in boy, -aj like ai in aisle. See 5. 

8 i^ESsoN HI. [§§20-21 

the verbs " to be," "to seem," etc., it is caUed a predicate 


La birdo estas bela, the bird is beautiful. 
La knabo sajnas bona, the boy seems good. 
La viroj estas fortaj, the men are strong. 

20. A noun may a] so be used as part of the predicate, 
and is then called a predicate noun: 

Violoj estas floroj, violets are flowers. 

La kolombo estas birdo, the dove is a bird. 

21. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number 
with the word or words with which they are in predicate 
relation ; 

Rozoj estas beiaj, roses are beautiful. 

La knabo kaj la viro sajnas fortaj, the boy and the man seem strong. 


alta, high, tall. kolombo, dove. 

arbo, tree. kusas, lies, is lying, lie. 

cambro, room. longa, long. 

domo, house. rozo, rose. 

en, in. ruga, red. 

estas, is, are. sego, chair. 

folio, leaf. sidas, sits, sit, is sitting. 

freSa, fresh. sur, on. 

^ardeno, garden. sajnas, seems, seem, 

kampo, field. verda, green. 


1. La alta viro estas en la gardeno. 2. Blanka cevalo 
estas en la kampo. 3. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. 
4. Ija bona] knaboj estas en la domo. 5. La fiambroj en la 
bela domo estas grandaj. 6. Fresaj floroj kusas sur la 
tablo. 7. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. 8. Lalunokaj 


la suno sajnas grandaj. 9. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj. 
10. Ija knaboj sajnas fortaj. 11. Rugaj pomoj estas sur 
la tablo en la fiambro. 12. La fortaj viroj sidas sur segoj 
en la longa fiambro. 13. I^a arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. 

14. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas. 15. Fortaj cevaloj 
marsas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. 16. La knaboj 
dormas en la granda domo. 17. Rugaj, flavaj, kaj verdaj 
folioj estas en la gardeno. 18. Longa tablo estas en la 
domo. 19. Belaj birdoj flugas kaj kantas en la kampo. 
20. Fresaj rozoj sajnas belaj. 21. La folioj estas verdaj 
kaj rugaj. 


1. The trees in the garden are tall and green. 2. The 
rooms in the house are long. 3. The flowers on the table 
are red, yellow and white. 4. The leaves are long and 
green. 5. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the garden. 
6. In the garden are yellow roses. 7 . The birds in the field 
are doves. 8. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. 
9. Fresh violets are beautiful flowers. 10. The horses in 
the green fields seem strong. 11. Doves are-singing (sing) 
in the garden. 12. The men in the large house sleep. 13. 
The house is long and high, and the rooms in the house are 
large. 14. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. 

15. Green leaves are on the trees in the large garden. 



22. The verbs so far given have been intransitive verbs, 
expressing a state or an action limited to the subject, and 
not immediately affecting any other person or thing, as 
la knabo kuras, the boy runs. On the other hand a transi- 

10 LESSON IV. [§§23-26 

tive verb expresses an act of the subject upon some person 
or thing; as, la knabo trovas ,the boy finds . 


23. The person or thing acted upon is called the direct 
object of a transitive verb, and is given the ending -n. 
This is called the accusative ending, and the word to which 
it is attaciied is said to be in the accusative case:* 

La viro havas segon, the man has a chair. 
La knabo trovas florojn, the boy finds flowers. 

24. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the 
accusative case is made to agree in case, by addition of the 
same accusative ending -n.* This prevents any doubt as 
to which of two or more nouns in a sentence is modified 
by the adjective, and permits of variation in the order of 
the words: 

La knabo trovas belan floron, the boy finds a beautiful flower. 
Florojn belajn la viro havas, the man has beautiful flowers. 
La viro havas grandan segon, the man has a large chair, 
Rugan rozon la knabo havas, the boy has a red rose. 

25. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the 
accusative case, nor is tlie accusative ending ever attached 
to the article, which is invariable as stated in 18. 


26. In the expression both . . . and . . , the conjunc- 
tion kaj is used for both words, being merely repeated: 

La viro kaj mar§as kaj kuras, the man both walks and runs. 
La 6evalo estas kaj granda kaj forta, the horse is both large and 

* The ending -n follows the ending -j, if the word to be put in the accusative 
case is in the plural number. 

§27] LESSON IV. 11 

La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn, the boy has both roses and 

Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj, both the boy and the man are tall. 

27. The negative word meaning "hot" when forming 
part of a sentence, and " no " when used as an answer to a 
question, is ne. When used as a sentence-negative, it 
usually immediately precedes the verb. For emphatic 
negation of some other word than the verb, ne may pre- 
cede that word: 

Violoj ne estas rugaj, violets are not red. 
La viroj ne sidas sur se^oj, the men are-not-sitting on chairs. 
La kolombo kantas, ne flugas, the dove is-singing, not flying. 
La domo estas blanka, ne verda, the house is white, not green. 


apud, near, in the vicinity of. koloro, color. 

benko, bench. larga, wide, broad. 

branco, branch. mangas, eat, eats. 

diversa, various. mola, soft. 

felica, happy. nigra, black. 

frukto, fruit. ne, not, no. 

havas, have, has. rompas, break, breaks. 

herbo, grass. sed, but. 

ili, they. trovas, find, finds, 

kolektas, gather, collect. vidas, see, sees. 


1. La knaboj ne estas en la 6ambro en la blanka domo. 
2. Ili estas en la granda gardeno. 3. La gardeno sajnas kaj 
longa kaj larga. 4. La felicaj knaboj vidas la belan ^ar- 
denon. 5. Ili vidas florojn apud alta arbo. 6. La floroj 
havas diversajn kolorojn. 7. La knaboj kolektas kaj 
rugajn kaj fiavajn florojn. 8. Sed ili ne trovas fruldojn en 
la gardeno. 9. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. 10. La alta 

12 LESSON V. [§28 

arbo havas verdajn foliojn sur la branfioj. 11. La knaboj 
rompas brancon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. 12. Hi vidas 
florojn sur la brancoj, sed la florojn ill ne kolektas. 13. 
La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la gardeno, sed kusas sur 
la mola herbo. 14. La kolomboj sidas sur la arboj, kaj 
ili estas felicaj. 15. La knaboj vidas la belajn birdojn. 

16. Fortaj nigraj cevaloj mangas la herbon en la kampo. 

17. La knaboj vidas la cevalojn, sed la cevaloj ne vidas la 
knabojn. 18. La cevaloj ne dormas, ili mangas 19. La 
fresa herbo estas verda kaj mola. 20. Felicaj estas kaj la 
knaboj kaj la fievaloj. 21. La pomo estas bona frukto 


1. Green leaves are on the trees. 2. The boys break 
branches and gather the apples. 3. They are near the tall 
tree in the garden. 4. They find leaves on the tree, 
but they do not see the fruit. 5. The house is long, broad 
and high. 6. The rooms in the house are both long and 
wide. 7. The men have strong black horses. 8. The 
horses eat the fresh green grass in the field. 9. The men 
sit on benches in the garden. 10. The boys do not sleep, 
but they lie on the soft grass. 11. They see both the birds 
and the flowers, and they seem happy. 12. The flowers 
have various colors, but the grass is green. 13. The doves 
are not sitting on the tree, they are flying near the trees. 

14. Beautiful red roses are lying on the table in the house. 

15. The large red apples are near the yellow roses. 



28. The infinitive is a form of the verb which expresses 
merely the general idea of the action or condition indicated, 

§§29-31] LESSON V. 13 

and has some of the characteristics of g, noun. The ending 
of the infinitive is -i, as kuri, to run, esti, to he, havi, to have. 

29. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of an- 
other verb, serving as a direct object to a transitive verb, 
is called a complementary infinitive. If the complementary 
infinitive is from a transitive verb, it may itself have a 
direct object: 

La knabo volas kuri, the hoy wishes to run. 

Birdoj Satas kanti, birds like to sing. 

La knabo volas havi Cevalon, the boy wishes to have a horse. 

Ill volas trovi florojn, they wish to find flowers. 


30. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a ques- 
tion. Unless some directly interrogative word (as " who," 
"when," "why," etc.) is used, the sentence is rendered 
interrogative by use of the word cu. This interrogative 
particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the words 
of which are left in the same order as for a statement. 
Since there is no inversion of order, there is no necessity 
for a word like English "do" or " does," to introduce the 
verb : 

6u la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good? 
Cu ill havas florojn? Have they flowers? 

Cu la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? {Are the doves sing- 


31. In the expression neither . . . nor . . . , the con- 
junction nek is used for both words. Since an adjective 
modifier of two or more words connected by nek must 
necessarily modify them separately, the adjective remains 
in the singular number: 

Hi nek marSas nek kuras, they neither walk nor run. 

14 LESSON V. [§31 

La viro havas nek domon nek gardenon, the man has neither a 

house nor a garden. 
Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda, neither the rose nor the violet 

is green. 


(Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form.) 

bruna, brown. matura, ripe. 

£erizo, cherry. Mario, Mary. 

6u, (30). nek, neither, nor. 

dol£a, sweet. persiko, peach, 

gusto, taste. jes, yes. 

U, it. preferi, to prefer. 

Gertrudo, Gertrude. §ati, to like. 

knabino, girl. voli, to wish. 


1. Cu persiko estas ruga? 2. Jes, gi estas kaj ruga kaj 
dol6a. 3. Cu cerizoj estas brunaj ? 4. Ne, ili estas nek 
brunaj nek nigraj, sed flavaj. 5. Cu la pomo estas frukto? 
Jes, gi estas bona frukto. 6. Cu la viro kaj la knabo havas 
pomojn? 7. Ne, ili havas nek pomojn nek persikojn. 
8. Cu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. Mario kaj 
Gertrudo havas la frukton. 10. Ili estas en la domo, kaj 
mangas la maturan frukton. 11. La persikoj havas dolcan 
guston. 12. La knabinoj volas havi florojn, sed la knaboj 
preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. 13. Ili volas trovi 
maturajn fierizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. 14. La cerizoj 
havas belan rugan koloron. 15. La persikoj sajnas molaj 
kaj bonaj. 16. Mario rompas branfion, kaj vidas fierizojn 
sur la bran&oj. 17. Gertrudo estas feli6a, kaj volas havi 
la belan frukton. 18. Gertrudo estas alta, bela knabino. 
19. Mario satas fierizojn. 20. La knaboj kaj knabinoj 
sidas sur la verda herbo, kaj mangas la fierizojn. 21. Ili 
ne volas mangi pomojn, ili preferas la dolcajn 6erizojn. 
22. La f olioj apud la 6erizoj estas nek largaj nek longaj . 

P2| LESSON VI. 15 


1. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. No, they have 
fresh fruit. 3. The boys do not wish to gather flowers. 
4. They prefer to break the branches, and find the sweet 
cherries. 5. Gertrude wishes to eat apples, but Mary has 
neither apples nor peaches. 6. Do the girls like to sit in 
the house and eat fruit? 7. Yes, they like to sit in the 
house, but they prefer to walk in the field. 8. Are ripe 
peaches brown? 9. No, they are red and yellow. 10. Has 
the peach a sweet taste? 11. Do the girls see the beautiful 
black horses in the fields? 12. Yes, they see the horses, 
but the horses seem not to see the girls. 13. Mary sits on 
the soft green grass, and eats ripe fruit. 



32. Words which stand in the place of nouns, as "you," 
"he," "who," "which," are called pronouns. Pronouns 
referring to the person speaking (/, we), the person ad- 
dressed (you, thou), or the person or thing spoken of (he, 
she, it, they), are called personal pronouns. They are con- 
sidered singular or plural, according to whether they refer 
to one or more persons. Since the meaning of such pro- 
nouns indicates the number, no plural ending is ever 
attached to them. The personal pronouns are: 

Singular. Plural. 
First person: mi, / (me), ni, we (us). 
Second person: vi, you.* vi, you. 
Third person: li, he (him). 

§i, she (her), ili, they (them). 
gi, it. 

*iThere is another pronoun ci, thou, for the second person singular, used in 
solemn style, as in the Bible, in poetry, and also for intimate or familiar ad- 
dress when desired, like German du, French tu, etc. 

16 LESSON YI. [§§33-34 


33. Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns, or ad- 
jectives modifying such pronouns, are made; to agree with 
them in number: 

Ni estas bonaj kaj felicaj, we are good and happy. 

Rozoj estas floroj, ili ne estas fruktoj, roses are flowers, they are not 

Gertrude, vi estas bona, Gertrude, you are good. 
Knabinoj, cu vi estas felicaj? Girls, are you happy? 


34. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. 
The combination of the verb with eacli of the personal pro- 
nouns in succession for its subject, is called the conjuga- 
tion of the verb. Following is the conjugation of the 
present tense of esti, and of vidi : 

mi estas, / am. mi vidas, / see. 

vi estas, you are. vi vidas, you see. 

li (si, fi) estas, he {she, it) is. li (si, gi) vidas, he (she, it) sees. 

ni estas, we are. ni vidas, we see. 

vi estas, you (plural) are. vi vidas, you (plural) see. 

ili estas, they are. ili vidas, they see. 


al, to, toward. hodiau, today. 

Arturo, Arthur. kudri, to sew. 

ail, or (nu . . au . ., either . .or . .) Roberto, Robert. 

car, because. skui, to shake. 

doni, to give. stari, to stand. 

fali, to fall. sub, under, beneath. 

fenestro, window. virino, woman. 


1. Knaboj, 6u vi volas sidi en la domo, aii en la gardeno? 
2. Ni preferas sidi hodiau en la gardeno, sub la granda 

§34] LESSON VI. 17 

arbo. 3. Cu vi havas pomojn, au cerizojn? 4. Ni havas 
nek pomojn nek cerizojn, sed ni havas dolfiajn persikojn. 
5. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn persikojn, car li satas 
kolekti frukton. 6. Arturo, cu vi rompas la brancojn? 
7. Ne, sed mi skuas brancon, kaj la persikoj falas. 8. Mi 
staras sub la arbo, kaj kolektas la dolcan frukton. 9. La 
frukton mi donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo. 10. Mi volas doni 
persikon al Heleno, sed hodiau si estas en la domo. 11. Si 
sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras. 12. Si preferas kudri, 
kaj "^'olas nek marsi nek sidi eu la gardeno. 13. Kaj si kaj 
la virino apud si volas kudri hodiaii. 14. Hi estas felicaj, 
car ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. 15. La 
birdoj estas kolomboj, kaj sidas sur la arbo. 16. Sub la 
arboj en la kampo staras cevaloj, kaj ili mangas laverdan 
. molan herbon. 17. Ni donas pomojn al ili, car ili satas 
pomojn. 18. Ni estas felicaj, car ni havas belajn persi- 
kojn maturajn kaj bonajn. 19. Roberto, vi estas alta, sed 
vi, knabinoj, ne estas altaj. 


1. Does Arthur break the branch and gather the ap- 
ples? 2. No, he shakes the branch, and the apples fall. 
3. They are ripe and sweet. 4. Robert, do you wish to 
stand beneath the tree? 5. No, I do not wish to stand 
under it, but near it. 6. I wish to give both the peaches 
and the apples to the woman. 7. She is sitting in the house, 
near the window. 8. Mary is sitting in (on) a chair near 
her. 9. Both Mary and the woman are sewing. 10. 
They prefer to sew, and do not wish to walk in the garden 
to-day. 11. They are happy because they like to sew. 12. 
Tliey do not wish to gather flowers, or walk, or see the birds. 
13. They have neither apples nor peaches, but they do not 
wish to eat. 14. They give the fruit to the boys and girls. 

18 LESSON" VII. [§§35-3? 



35. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which 
took place in past time, or a condition which existed in 
past time. The ending of this tense is -is, as kuris, ran, 
flugls, flew, brilis, shone. The conjugation of esti and also 
of vidi in the past tense is as follows: 

mi estis, I was. mi vidis, / saw. 

vi estis, you were. vi vidis, you saw. 

li (si, gi) estis, he {she, it) was. li (M, ^) vidis, he (she, it) saw. 

ni estis, we were. ni vidis, we saw. 

vi estis, you (plural) were. vi vidis, you (plural) saw. 

ill estis, they were. ili vidis, they saw. 


36. A preposition is a word like "in," "on," placed be- 
fore a noun or pronoun to indicate some relation between 
this and another word. The preposition is said to govern 
the noun or pronoun, which is called its complement. 
In English, the complement of a preposition seems to be 
put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun, but to remain 
unchanged in form if it is a noun . In Esperanto the prepo- 
sition does not affect the form of the word governed, which 
remains in the nominative case: 

La arbo estas en la ^ardeno, the tree is in the garden. 

Bonaj pomoj estas sur gi, good apples are on it. 

Mi donis cerizojn al li, / gave cherries to him. 

La knabo estas apud mi, the hoy is near me. 

Sub la arbo staris £evalo, under the tree stood a horse. 


37. For use as the object of a verb, any pronoun may be 

§37] LESSON VII. 19 

put in the accusative case by addition of the accusative 
ending -n (23) : 

La viro vidis vin kaj min, the man saw you and me. 
Li vidis ilin kaj nin, he saw them and us. 
Mi vidis nek lin nek Sin, / saw neither him nor her. 
Ni volas havi |in, we wish to have it. 


agrabla, pleasant, agreeable. luma, light (not dark). 

bildo, picture. muro, wall. 

blua, blue. nun, now. 

danki, to thank. pianko, floor. 

de, from. pordo, door. 

diri, to say. rigardi, to look (at). 

infano, child. tapiSo, carpet. 

interesa, interesting. tra, through. 


1. Hodiaii la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda 
domo. 2. Hi staras apud la tablo, en agrabla luma 6am- 
bro. 3. Gi havas altajn largajn fenestrojn. 4. Sub la 
tablo kaj segoj, mola tapiso kusas sur la pianko. 5. La 
tapi§o havas belajn kolorojn, rugan, bluan, flavan, kaj 
verdan. 6. Virino marsis tra la pordo, kaj staris apud la 
tablo. 7. Si havis interesajn bildojn, kaj donis ilin al la 
knaboj kaj la knabinoj. 8. Si diris "Cu vi volas rigardi la 
bildojn?" 9. "Jes, ni dankas vin," diris la infanoj, kaj 
§i donis al ili la bildojn. 10. Granda bildo falls de la tablo, 
sed Arturo nun havas gin. 11. Li donas gin al Mario, si 
dankas lin, kaj donas gin al Roberto. 12. Ih volis doni 
gin al Gertrudo, sed si diris "Ne, mi dankas vin, mi ne 
satas rigardi bildojn." 13. Si marsis de la tablo al la 
fenestro kaj diris "Mi preferas kudri." 14. Si volis sidi en 
granda sego apud la fenestro. 15. La virino rigardis sin 

20 LESSON vm. [§§38-39 

kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi, knaboj kaj knabinoj," 
6ar ili estas interesaj bildoj. 16. Gertrudo diris "Vi estas 
bona al ni, sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo au la fenestro, 
17. Mi kolektis dolcajn violojn en la gardeno, kaj nun mi 
volas rigardi la dolcajn florojn, kaj kudri." 


1. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. They 
gathered fresh flowers and gave them to the woman. 3. 
The happy children were in the garden, but now they are 
in the house. 4. The rooms in the house are light, because 
they have large wide windows. 5. The doors in the room 
are wide and high. 6. The carpets on the floor seem soft, 
and have various beautiful colors. 7. A large strong table 
stands near the door. 8. We can sit near the table and 
look through the windows. 9. Gertrude is-looking-at the 
various pictures. 10. She looks-at them, and seems to be 
happy. 11. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. 
12. Helen walked near the table and shook it. 1.3. Arthur 
did not see the pictures because they were lying on the 
floor. 14. He looked-at the pictures on the wall, but they 
are neither interesting nor beautiful. 15. Robert looked 
through the window, and saw us in the pleasant garden. 


38. A pronoun which refers to the same person or thing 
as the subject of the verb in the sentence, but is used in 
some other relation than subject of that verb, is said to be 
used reflexively, or to be a reflexive pronoun. 

39. The first and second personal pronouns, mi, ni, and 

§40] LESSON VIII. 21 

vi, (ci) are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and 
second persons. There can be no ambiguity, since words 
such as "me, myself, us, ourselves," can refer to no one else 
than the person or persons speaking; while words such as 
" you, yourself, yourselves (thee, thyself)," can refer to no 
one else than the person or persons addressed: 

Mi vidas min, / see myself. 

Mi diris al mi, I said to myself. 

Ni havas tapison sub ni, we have a carpet under us. 

Ni amuzis nin, we amused ourselves. 

(Ci trovas domon apud ci, thou findest a house near thee.) 

Vi diras al vi, you say to yourself (yourselves). 

Vi amuzas vin, you amuse yourself (yourselves). 

40. When the verb is in the third person, a pronoun of 
the third person, used otherwise than as the subject, might 
or might not refer to the subject of that verb. For exam- 
ple, "He sees a bird near him," may mean that the subject 
sees a bird near himself, or near another person. If such 
a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the 
subject of the verb, Esperanto uses a special reflexive 
pronoun si (accusative sin), which means him{self), her 
(self), it(self), t.hem (selves), according to the gender and 
number of the verb : * 

Li amuzas sin, he amuses himself. 

Arturo vidis birdon apud si, Arthur saw a bird near him(self). 

§i trovas floron apud si, she finds a flower near her(self). 

Mario trovis sin sur blua tapiso, Mary found herself on a blue 

La tapiso havas diversajn kolorojn en si, the carpet has various 

colors in it(self). 
La birdo kasas sin sub la folioj, the bird hides itself under the leaves. 
Hi amuzas sin, they amuse themselves. 

* From the very fact that si always refers to the subject of the verb, it is 
evident that si can never itself be used as subject or part of the =iubject of the 

22 LESSON VIII. [§4l 

La viroj havas se^ojn apud si, the men have chairs near them(selves) . 
La virinoj trovas florojn apud si, the women find flowers near them- 

La arboj havas cerizojn sur si, the trees have cherries on them(selves). 
Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapison, under them(selves) the children 
found a soft carpet. 


41. A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct ob- 
ject is sometimes called a reflexive verb, from the fact that 
some languages have had or still have a special reflexive or 
middle form of the verb, to express an act of the subject 
on or for itself,, or they have certain verbs whose use is 
chiefly or exclusively reflexive.* The conjugation of a 
verb-reflexively is therefore as follows: 

mi amuzas min (or mi min amuzas), / amuse myself. 

vi amuzas vin (or vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourself. 

li (si, gi) amuzas sin (or sin amuzas), he (she, it) amuses him (her, 

it) self. 
ni amuzas nin (or ni nin amuzas), we amuse ourselves. 
vi amuzas vin (or vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourselves. 
ili amuzas sin (or ili sin amuzas), they amuse themselves. 


Alfredo, Alfred. komenci, to begin. 

amuzi, to amuse. laiidi, to praise. 

antau, before, in front of. legi, to read. 

aparteni, to belong. libro, book. 

griza, gray. perdi, to lose. 

iri, to go. skatolo, small box or case. 

Johano, John. strato, street. 

ka§i, to hide, to conceal. si, himself, etc. (40). 

*As Greek erpawovro, they turned themselves; Latin exerceor, I exercise myself, 
vescor, I eat (I feed myself); German ich hilte m'ch, I beware (I gvard myself); 
Spanish me alegro, or alegrome, I rejoice (/ gladden myself); French' il s'arrete, 
he halts {he stops himself). 

§41] LESSON VIII. 23 


1. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la gardeno. 2. 
Johano kasis sin, kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon. 3. Alfredo 
sin kasis en alta arbo, kaj Johano trovis Alberton. 4. 
Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kasis apud la floroj, kaj la knaboj 
trovis la knabinojn. 5. La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en 
laagrablakampo. 6. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma 
cambro en la domo. 7. La muro havas interesajn bildojn 
sur si. 8. Tra la fenestro antau si Johano rigardas la 
virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. 9. Li havas molan 
grizan tapison sub si, kaj ne volas se^on. 10. Li kaj Al- 
fredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. IL Hi marsis al 
la pordo, kaj trovis rugan skatolon antau si. 12. En la 
skatolo estis libro, kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apar- 
tenas al mi." 13. Li diris al Alfredo "Car ni trovis gin, 
mi volas legi la libron." 14. Virino antau pordo komencis 
rigardi la knabojn, kaj ili diris al si "Cu la libro apartenas 
al vi? Ni trovis gin en skatolo." 15. La virino diris "Jes, 
hi perdis gin, kaj mi dankas vin, car vi donas al mi la ska- 
tolon kaj la libron." 16. Si iris al la strato, kaj la knaboj 
iris al la domo. 


1. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. 
2. I found it in front of me, near the door. 3. You began 
to praise yourselves, but I do not praise myself. 4. They 
hid themselves, and I stood near them. 5. The birds sit 
on the tree, because it has ripe cherries on it. 6. Alfred 
amused himself on the street, but we like to amuse our- 
selves in the house. 7. The trees have good fruit on them. 
8. She found herself in a beautiful light room. 9. The 
carpet on the floor had various colors in it, and the high 

24: LESSON IX. [§§42-43 

wall had pictures on it. 10. The pictures had boys and 
girls in them. 11. The book belongs to her, but it fell 
from the box. 12. The table has red and blue and yellow 
flowers on it. 13. Did you see the doves near the flowers 
in front of (before) you? 14. The birds saw the fruit on 
the tree in front of them, and flew to the branches. 15. I 
sat on the bench in the garden, and began to read an inter- 
esting book. 16. They hid themselves in the leaves and 
began to sing. 17. The child is in a pleasant room. 


42. Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third 
person, the third personal pronouns, 11, si, gi, ili, when 
used otherwise than as subjects, never refer to the subject 
of the verb, but always to some other person or thing: 

La knabo laiidas lin, the hoy praises him (another person). 

§i donas porno jn al li, she gives apples to her (to another person). 

La birdo vidis gin, the bird saw it (something else than the bird). 

La knabo j kasis ilin, the boys hid them (other persons or things). 

Ili trovis ilin apud si, they found them (other persons or things) 

near them(selves). 
La birdoj flugis al ili, the birds flew to them. 


43. Words like "my," "his," "your," which indicate 
ownership or some possessive relation, are called possessive 
adjectives* Possessive adjectives are formed from the 
personal pronouns by adding the adjective ending -a, as 
mia, my, via, your (cia, thy), lia, his, sia, her, gia, its, nia, 

* Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns, although really they 
are not pronouns at all, but pronominal adjectives with a possessive meaning. 

§§44-45] LESSON IX. 25 

our, via, your (plural), ilia, their. The limitation in the use 
of the third personal pronouns (42) is also true of the ad- 
jectives derived from them: 

Mia domo kaj miaj gardenoj estas grandaj, my house and my gardens 

are large. 
Johano sidas sur via se^o, John is sitting in your chair. 
Li havas lian cevalon, he has his (another person's) horse. 
Cu vi legis §iajn librojn? Did you read her books? 

44. Reflexive possessive adjectives, like the reflexive 
pronoun, refer to the subject of the verb in the sentence. 
For the first and second persons, they are the same as the 
personal possessive adjectives. The reflexive possessive 
adjective of the third person is sia, his, her, its, their, 
formed by adding the ending -a to the reflexive pronoun 

Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tabic, / have my hooks on my table. 

Johano perdis siajn librojn, John lost his (John's) books. 

Mario estas en sia cambro, Mary is in her room. 

La birdoj flugis al sia arbo, the birds flew to their tree. 


45. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively, as 
"the book is mine," or may modify some word or words 
not expressed, as "mine are large." Instead of having 
special forms, like English mine, yours, hers, etc., Esperanto 
uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded by the 

La granda libro estas la mia, the large book is mine. 

La via estas granda, la miaj estas belaj, yours is large, mine are 

Hi havas la sian, sed ne la lian, they have theirs, but not his. 
La iliaj Sajnas esti bonaj, theirs seem to be good. 

26 LESSON IX. [§4o 


diro, saying, remark. mango, meal, 

§is, as far as, up to, down to. nesto, nest. 

hierau, yesterday. pasero, sparrow. 

juna, young. patro, father. 

kapti, to catch, to seize. post, after, behind. 

kato, cat. surprizi, to surprise. 

kolera, angry. teni, to hold, to keep. 

lavi, to wash. vizago, face. 


1. Hierau mi perdis mian grizan katon. 2. Ilia kato 
kaptis nian birdon. 3. Via kolera diro surprizis mian 
patron. 4. Cu la granda kampo apartenas al sia patro? 
5. Ne, gi ne estas la lia. 6. La lia estas bela, sed mi pre- 
feras la mian. 7. Cu vi satas vian libron aii la ilian? 8. . 
Li havas nek siajn cevalojn nek la iliajn. 9. La knabinoj 
sajnas esti koleraj. 10. Tli komencis legi siajn librojn. 
IL La viro kaptis kaj tenis siajn fievalojn, sed li ne trovis 
iliajn cevalojn. 12. Sia libro kusas sur la planko, post sia 
sego. 13. Si ne trovis ilian libron, sed la junaj infanoj 
trovis la nian. 


Griza kato iris de la domo ^is la strato. Gi vidis paseron 
antatt si, kaj volis mangi gin. La kato staris post granda 
arbo, kaj kaptis la paseron. La pasero diris " Bona kato 
lavas sin antau sia mango, sed vi ne lavis vian vizagon." 
5 La interesa diro surprizis la katon. Ija kato ne tenis la 
paseron, -sed komencis lavi sian vizagon. La pasero flugis 
de la kato gis la arbo. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis 
mian.mangon, 6ar mi komencis lavi min antati la mango!" 
Nun la katoj ne lavas sin antaii la mangoj . Hi havas siajn 

§46] LESSON X. 27 

mangojn, kaj post la mangoj ill lavas la vizagojn. Laio 
paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun, sed ill tenas la paserojn. 
La katoj estas felicaj, sed la paseroj ne estas felicaj. 
La junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj. 


1. The boys are not in their (own) house, but they are in 
his. 2 Is the large beautiful house yours ? 3. The woman 
walked through the door of their house, as far as her room. 
4. The room has interesting pictures on its walls. 5. We 
praised their flowers yesterday, and they gave them to us. 
6. Their books are in their (the books') box. 7. They are 
on their (the boys') table. 8. The gray cat was angry be- 
cause it did not hold the bird. 9. The sparrow surprised 
it, and it commenced to wash its face. 10. The sparrow 
wished to fly as far as the tall tree, but the cat held it. 
11. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face, but you 
are not a good cat." 12. The sparrow was angry because 
the cat seized it and held it. 13. The bird did not lose its 
meal, but the angry cat lost its meal. 14. Do you see his 
cat or hers? 15. I see both his and hers, but oars is not 
in our garden. 16. My father is a tall strong man. 17. 
I hke to look at him. 18. The children saw the young 
birds in the nest. 



46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion, the 
word indicating the place, person or thing toward which 
the motion is directed is given the accusative ending. 
This is also true if the word is the complement of any 
preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate mo- 

28 LESSON X. [§§47-48 

tion in a certain direction. (The prepositions al, to, to- 
ward, gis, as far as, tra, through, express motion in tiie di- 
rection of their complements, and could not well be used 
except in a sentence whose verb expresses motion. Conse- 
quently the accusative is not used after any of these three) : 

Li iris gardenon, he went to the garden {" gardenward "). 

La viro iros Bostonon, the man will go to Boston (" Bostonward ").* 

Li estis en la gardeno, kaj kuris en la domon, he was in the garden 

and ran into the house. 
6i ne estas sur la tablo, fi falis sur la plankon, it is not on the table, 

it fell upon the floor. 
Ili falis sub la tablon gis la planko, they fell under the table as far as 

the floor (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase). 
Mi iris tra la domo en mian cambron, / went through the house into 

my room. 


47. In many sentences where the possessor is already 
sufficiently indicated, English nevertheless uses a pos- 
sessive adjective, as in "I wash my face," "he shakes his 
head," but on the other hand omits it entirely with certain 
words indicating relationship, as in "Brother gave it to 
me," etc. In both cases Esperanto uses the article in- 
stead of the possessive adjective, unless the fact of pos- 
session is to be emphasized: 

Mi lavas la vizagon, / wash my face. 

Li skuas la kapon, he shakes his head. 

La patro estas alta, Father is tall. 

Mi donis gin al la patro, I gave it to Father. 


48. Enghsh often uses the preposition "of" between two 
words where no idea of possession really exists, as "the city 

*Cf. English *' he went home," " he went homeward," etc. 

§48] LESSON X. 29 

of Boston." Since nouns used in apposition refer to the 
same thing, and are in the same grammatical construction, 
Esperanto does not use a preposition: 

La urbo Bostono estas granda, the city (of) Boston is large. 

Mia amiko Johano estas alta, my friend John is tall. 

Cu vi ne konas min, vian amikon? do you not know me, your friend f 


arabo, arab. meti, to put, to place. 

baldau, soon, nazo, nose. 

Bostono, Boston. nur, only, merely. 

frato, brother. pusi, to push. 

kamelo, camel. trans, across. 

kapo, head. tuta, whole, entire, all. 

kolo, neck. urbo, city. 

korpo, body. varma, warm. 


Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. Apud domo trans 
la strato li vidis kamelon. La kamelo iris trans la straton 
gis la pordo, kaj diris al la arabo, "Frato, mi ne estas varma, 
mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian varman domon." La 
arabo skuis la kapon, sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra 6 
la pordo en la fiambron. La kamelo komencis pusi sian 
tutan vizagon en la domon. Baldaii li havis la kapon gis 
la kolo en la domo. Post la kapo iris la kolo en gin, kaj 
baldaii la tuta korpo estis en la domo. La arabo estis 
kolera, 6ar li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo. lo 
Li kuris al la kamelo, kaptis lin, tenis lin, kaj diris, 
"Frato, vi volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. La 
6ambro ne estas granda sed gi estas la mia, kaj mi pre- 
feras sidi en gi." "Via diro estas bona," diris la kamelo, 
"via domo ne estas granda, sed gi estas varma, kaj mi is 
§atas stari en gi. Mi preferas stari kaj kusi en gi, kaj mi 

30 LESSON XI. [§49 

donos al vi mian arbon trans la strato. Cu vi ne volas iri 
sub la arbon?" Kaj la kamelo pusis la arabon de lia domo 
en la straton de la urbo. La kamelo nun trovis sin en 
ovarma cambrOj sed la juna arabo staris trans la strato kaj 
ne estis varma. 


1. The cat ran across the street. 2. Across the street it 
found a sparrow. 3. It caught the bird, but began to wash 
its face, and the sparrow flew to the nest. 4. I went into 
the garden as far as the large tree. 5. I did not hold my 
book, and it fell upon the floor. 6. It began to fall under 
the table, but I seized it. 7. My brother pushed the books 
into their box, and put it on the table. 8. We went to the 
city of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. 9. 
The arab shook his head and said, "No." 10. But the 
camel commenced to go through the door. 11. His re- 
mark did not seem to surprise the camel. 12. The camel 
pushed its head and neck, and soon its whole body into the 
warm house. 13. It wished to put merely its nose into it. 
14. The arab was angry, because it pushed itself into his 
house. 15. He said, "Brother, the house is mine, and I do 
not wish to have you in it." 16. But soon after the remark, 
the whole camel was in the house. 17. He pushed the 
young arab into the street. 18. He went across the street 
and stood upon the grass under a tree. 

49. The preposition de is used to express possession or 

La muroj de la domo, the walls of the house. 
La koloroj de la floroj, the colors of the flowers- 

§50-62] LESSON XI. '61 

La libro de la knabo, the hook of the boy {the boy's book). 

Bran£o de la arbo, a branch of the tree. 

La gardeno de la viroj, the garden of the men (the men's garden)^ 


50. Verbs with an impersonal or indeterminate subject, 
as "it rains," "it is snowing," are called impersonal, be-r 
cause there is no actual subject, the word "it" serving 
merely as an introductory particle. No such particle is 
used with impersonal verbs in Esperanto: 

Pluvas, it rains, it is raining. 
Wegis hierau, it snowed yesterday. 


51. When the verb in a sentence precedes its subject, 
English often uses an introductory particle, such as 
"there," "it." In Esperanto no such particles are needed: 

Estas floroj sur la tablo, there are flowers on the table. 

Estis Johano, ne Alfredo, en la gardeno, it was John, not Alfred, in 

the garden. 
Estas domo en la kampo, there is a house in the field. 
Estis mi, it was I. 


52. Words like slvl, kaj, nek, sed, which join words, 
word-groups, or sentences together are conjunctions. All 
the conjunctions given so far connect words, phrases,* or 
sentences of similar rank or kind. 

These are called coordinating conjunctions, and the 

* A phrase is aword-group forming an expression, but not containing a verb, 
as " through the house," " of the man," " before me," etc. 

82 LESSOR XI. [§52 

words, phrases, or sentences connected by them are said to 
be coordinate: * 

Cu vi marlas au kuras? (Au connects the verbs.) 

Si iris, kaj ni estis felifiaj. (Kaj connects the sentences.) 

Nek vi nek mi vidis |in. (The second nek connects the pronouns, 

the first being introductory and adverbial.) 
Au li afl si perdis la libron. (The second au connects the pronouns, 

the first being introductory and adverbial.) 
6i falls sur la segon, sed ne sur la plankon. (Sed connects the 

Li ne Satis |in. Tamen li tenis gin. (Tamen connects the sentences.) 


akvo, water. porti, to carry. 

amiko, friend. rica, rich, wealthy. 

ankati, also. sable, sand. 

bezoni, to need. sako, sack, bag. 

dezerto, desert. seka, dry. 

fidela, faithful. tamen, nevertheless. 

mono, money. trinki, to drink. 

negi, to snow. veni, to come. 

pluvi, to rain. vojo, road, way. 


Arabo iris trans grandan sekan dezerton. Kamelo, lia 
fidela amiko, portis lin. La kamelo ankau portis belajn 
tapisojn, 6ar la arabo estis ri6a viro. La arabo ha vis ne nur 

* Coordinating conjiinctions may be further classified according to their 


Aii is disjiTQctive, connecting alternates, and expressing separation. 

Kaj is copulative, expressing imion. 

Nek is disjimctive, expressing separation and also negation. 

Sed is adversative, expressing opposition, contrast, or modification of a previ- 
ous statement. 

Tamen is adversative, affirming something in spite of a previous objection or 

Do, so, then, consequently, is argumentative, expressing a logical inference or re- 
sult in a somewhat conversational manner. 

§52j LESSON XI. 33 

tapisojn, sed ankau sakojn. En la sakoj estis akvo, tax en 
la dezerto nek pluvas nek negas. La viro trinkis akvon, 5 
kaj ankatt donis akvon al sia kamelo. La kamelo marMs 
kaj marsis, sed ne venis al la domo de la arabo, 6ar ill perdis 
la vojon. La suno brills, kaj la sablo de la dezerto sajnis 
varma. La arabo ne trovis la vojon, kaj baldaii li ne 
havis akvon. Tamen la kamelo marsis kaj marsis, kaj 10 
baldaii la arabo vidis sakon antati si, sur la seka sablo. 
Li estis felifia kaj diris al si "Cu estas akvo en gi ? Mi volas 
trinki, kaj volas doni akvon al mia fidela kamelo." Li 
ankau volis lavi la tutan vizagon en la akvo, 6ar li estis 
varma. Post sia diro li kaptis la sakon, kaj komencisis 
rigardi en gin. Li metis la nazon en gin, sed ne trovis 
akvon en la sako. Nek li nek lia fidela kamelo havis 
akvon, 6ar estis nur mono en la sako. La arabo estis 
kolera, car li ne volis monon, li bezonis akvon. Li havis 
m5non en sia domo en la urbo, kaj volis trovi akvon. Ca 20 
li tamen metis la sakon trans la kolon de sia kamelo? Ne, 
li ne volis meti gin sur sian kamelon, 6ar li estis kolera 
Li ne tenis la sakon, sed gi falls sur la sablon, kaj kusis 
apud li. La sako nun kusas sur la sablo de la granda 
dezerto, kaj la mono estas en gi. 25 


1. Today it is raining, but yesterday it was snowing. 

2. Did your friend John carry his chair into the house? 

3. I saw your good friends on the way to the city. 4. Is 
the large sack behind the door theirs? 5. Neither she nor 
her brother saw the whole city. 6. They went to the city 
of Boston and lost their way. 7. There are interesting 
houses across the street. 8. The body of a camel is large, 
and its neck is long. 9. The camel pushed its head into 
the house of the arab, and he was angry. 10. On the sand 

34 LESSOK ill. [§53 

in the desert there lies a sack. 11. In the sack there is 
money. 12. was warm, and wished to drink 
water. 13. He also wished to give water to the faithful 
camel. 14. Nevertheless, he found only money in the sack. 
15. He was angry, and did not keep the sack. 16. Yester- 
day he wished to find money, but today he prefers water. 
17. Nevertheless there is only sand in the desert. 18. He 
wished to come from the dry desert to the house of a faithful 
friend. 19. Both he and his friends are rich. 20. They 
went to his house yesterday, and came to theirs today. 
21. They do not need money. 



53. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause * 
dependent upon a verb meaning "say," "think," "know," 
"believe," or a similar expression, as in "I know that he 
came," "I hear that he is good," is called an indirect state- 
ment. (The direct statement is "he came," "he is good.") 
An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sen- 
tence by the subordinating conjunction ke, that.-f 

Mi diras ke li estas bona, / say that he is good. 

Johano diras ke vi venis hierau, John says that you came yesterday. 

§i opinias ke estas mono en la sako, she thinks that there is money in 

the bag. 
Ni vidas ke negas, we see that it is snowing. 

*A clause is a group of words including a verb, which is dependent upon or 
subordinate to a main verb or sentence, as " — that he came," " — when he went," 
*' — that he is good," etc. 

t In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be omitted, either 
" I think that he is good," or " I think he is good," being usually permissible. 
But in Esperanto there is no variation, and the conjunction ke is never omitted. 

§§54-55] LESSON xu. 35 


54. When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired, as 
in the expressions "one knows," "they say," "people say," 
"you can see," etc., the indefinite personal pronoun oni is 
used. This pronoun may also be used in translating such 
expressions as "it is said," "I am told," etc.: 

Oni diras ke li estas rica, they say (one says) that he is rich. 

Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj, one sees that they are friends. 

Mi opinias ke oni §atas lin, / think that people like him {that he is 

Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto, / was told {people said to 

me) that there is sand in the desert. 
Oni opinias ke §i estas felica, it is thought {one thinks) that she is 

Cu oni vidis nin en la ^ardeno ? Were we seen {did people see us) in 

the garden? 
Oni §atas agrablajn infanojn, people like agreeable children {agreeable 

children are liked). 


55. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state 
as about to take place, or as one that will take place in 
future time. The ending of this tense is -os, as kuros, 
will run, flugos, will fly, brilos, will shine. The conjugation 
of esti and also of vidi in the future tense is as follows: 

mi estos, / shall be. mi vidos, I shall see. 

vi estos, you will be. vi vidos, you will see. 

li (§i, gi) estos, he {she, it) will be. li (si, gi) vidos, he (she, it) will see. 

ni estos, we shall be. ni vidos, we shall see. 

vi estos, you {plural) will be. vi vidos, you {plural) will see. 

ili estos, they will be. ili vidos, they will see. 


audi, to hear. greno, grain (wheat, corn, etc.). 

blovi, to blow. ke, that (conjunction). 

36 LESSON XII. [§55 

kontrafl, against. orienta, east, eastern. 

montri, to show, to point out. pluvo, rain. 

norda, north, northern. suda, sovih, southern. 

nova, new. velki, to wilt, to wither. 

okcidenta, west, western. vento, wind. 

oni, (see 54). ventoflago, weathercock. 

opinii, to think, to opine. vetero, weather. 


Estis varma vetero, la suno brilis, kaj suda vento blovis. 
Tamen la nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si, "La sudan 
venton mi ne satas. Mi preferas orientan venton." La 
vento orienta aiidis la diron kaj gi venis kontrau la vento- 

6 flagon. Pluvis kaj pluvis, kaj oni estis kolera kontraii la 
ventoflago, car gi montras orientan venton. Gi diris, 
"Pluvas nun, sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan 
veteron. Oni estos kolera kontraii mi, car mi montras 
orientan venton." La okcidenta vento aiidis la vento- 

10 flagon, kaj baldaii venis. Gi ne estis forta, sed gi estis 
seka kaj agrabla vento, kaj ne portis pluvon. La viroj, 
virinoj, kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki, sed ili ne havis akvon. 
La greno kaj la floroj velkis, kaj la frukto ankaii falis. 
La nova ventoflago diris, "Oni estos kolera kontraii mi, 

15 car ne pluvas. Oni opinios ke, 6ar mi montras okcidentan 
venton, la frukto falas, kaj la greno kaj floroj velkas. Mi 
satas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" 
Norda vento aiidis kaj venis al la ventoflago. La vetero 
ne estis agrabla, kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne estis 

sovarmaj. Negis, kaj oni estis kolera. Oni diris "La greno 
kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron, sed hodiaii negas. 
Ni preferas la sudan venton. Ni havis gin, antaii la 
orienta, la okcidenta, kaj la norda ventoj. La ventoflago 
ne estas fidela amiko al ni. Gi ne montras bonajn ventojn, 

25 kaj ni volas rompi gin ! " 

§56] LESSON xiir. 37 

Oni kuris al la domo, kaptis la novan ventoflagon, kaj 
ankati rompis ^in. Gi falls, kaj ku§is sur la vojo antaii la 


1. One can see that the weathercock points-out the 
winds. 2. They say that the west wind will be a dry wind. 
3. The weathercock now shows that an agreeable south 
wind blows. 4. People will be angry with (against) the 
weathercock, because it points-out a north wind. 5. A 
north wind is not warm, and the grain and fruit will need a 
warm wind. 6. It snowed, and the young children were not 
warm, because the north wind blew. 7. People will like a 
south wind, but an east wind will carry rain. 8. Can one 
find money in the desert ? 9. Do you think (that) he is in 
the house? 10. He is said to be (they say that he is) on 
the street. 11. It is thought (people think) that the camel 
is a faithful friend. 12. I am told (people tell me) that 
the camel has a large body, and a long neck. 13. One can 
see that it is not beautiful. 14. People do not like to drink 
warm water. 15. Nevertheless we shall drink warm 
water in the city. 16. It was beautiful weather yesterday, 
but today we shall have good weather also. 17. 1 think 
that a warm wind will blow soon. 18. My friend has a 
beautiful new house. 



56. The demonstrative pronoun tiu, that, is used to indi- 
cate a person or a definitely specified thing. The plural is 
tiuj, those: 
Tiu estas la via, kaj mi volas tiun, that is yours, and I wish that one. 

88 LESSON XIII. . [§§57-59 

Tiuj estos koleraj kontrau vi, those will he angry with you. 
Li audis tiujn, he heard those (persons, or things). 

57. The demonstrative pronoun tiu is also used as a 
pronominal adjective, in agreement with a noun: 

Tiu vento estos varma, that wind will he warm. 
Mi vidas tiun ventoflagon, / see that weathercock. 
Tiuj infanoj estas junaj, those children are young. 
Mi trovos tiujn librojn, / shall find those books. 


58. The verb in an indirect statement (53) or an indirect 
question * remains in the same tense in which it would be 
if the statement or question were direct. (In English this 
is true only if the introductory verb is present or future, 
since after an introductory past tense the tense of the in- 
direct quotation is changed, and am, is, are, have, will 
become was, were, had, would, etc.) 

Mi diras ke li estas bona, / say that he is good. 

" diris " " " " , I said that he was good. 

" diros " " " " , I shall say that he is good. 
Li miras £u mi aiidas, he wonders whether I hear. 
" miris " " " he wondered whether I heard. 
" miros " " " he will wonder whether I hear. 
Mi opiniis ke ^i estas bona, I thought that it was good (I thought " it 

is good "). 
Oni miris cu li venos, they wondered whether he would come (they won- 
dered " will he come f "). 


59. Feminine nouns corresponding to distinctly mascu- 
line nouns such as frato, knabo, viro, may be formed from 

* An indirect question is introduced by cu, whether, after verbs meaning "ask," 
"wonder," "know," etc.: 

Mi miras cu li venis, 7 wonder whether he came. 
Oni demandas cu li estas rica, people ask whether he is rich. 

§59] LESSON XIII. 39 

these by insertingthe suffix -in- just before the noun-ending 


fratino, sister (from frato, brother) . patrino, mother (from patro, father) . 
knabino, girl (from knabo, boy), virino, woman (from viro, man). 


almenau, at least. paroli, to talk, to speak. 

fiapelo, hat. parko, park. 

£ielo, sky, heaven. preskau, almost. 

file, son. pri, concerning, about. 

konstrui, to build. promeni, to take a walk. 

miri, to wonder. super, above. 

morgau, tomorrow. timi, to fear, to be afraid (of). 

nubo, cloud. tin, that (56). 

ombrelo, umbrella. zorga, careful. 


Miaj junaj amiko kaj amikino, kaj ankaii ilia patrino, 
iris hierati al la parko. La infanoj diris al la patrino ke la 
parko estas agrabla, kaj ke ili volas promeni en gi. La 
knabino parolis al sia frato pri la belaj floroj. Si diris al li 
ke la floroj velkas, kaj ke la herbo en preskati la tuta parko 5 
bezonas pluvon. La knabo diris hodiaii al mi ke hieraii li 
kaj lia fratino audis la birdojn en la arboj super siaj kapoj. 
Li diris ke li miris pri tiuj birdoj, tamen li opinias ke la 
birdoj baldau konstruos siajn nestojn en tiuj arboj. La 
infanoj promenis, kaj baldau ili vidis ke grizaj nuboj venas 10 
sur la cielon, kaj mia juna amikino timis ke pluvos. Si par- 
olis al la patrino pri la nuboj kaj la pluvo, montris al si 
la grizajn nubojn, kaj diris ke si volas iri al la domo. Ili ko- 
mencis marsi al la strato, kaj preskaii kuris, fiar ili ne havis 
ombrelon. Tra la fenestroj de la domoj oni rigardis ilin, 15 
kaj la knabo miris cu li kaj liaj patrino kaj fratino amuzas 

* Of. English names similarly formed from masculine names, as Pauline, 
Josephine, Ernestine, Geraldme, etc., also German Konigin, queen, from Konig, 
king; Limin, lioness, from Lowe, lion, etc. 

40 LESSON XIII. [§59 

tiujnvirojn kaj virinojn. Tamen la patrino diris ke si ne 
timas ke si amuzos tiujn, sed ke si timas la pluvon. Si kaj 
la filino volas esti zorgaj pri almenaii la novaj 6apeloj. 

20 La filo diris al si ke li ankaii estas zorga, sed ke li opinias 
ke ne pluvos. Baldaii la patro venis al ili, kaj portis 
ombrelojn, car li ankau timis la pluvon. Li miris 6u la 
infanoj kaj ilia patrino havas ombrelojn. Baldaii pluvis, 
sed ili estis selcaj, car ili havis la ombrelojn. Morgaii 

ir, ili ne promenos en la parko, sed iros al la urbo. 


1. The east wind is dry and the south wind will be too 
warm. 2. A west wind blew against the weathercock, but 
the grain needed a south wind. 3 A north wind is blow- 
ing and I think that it will soon snow. 4. It (51) will be 
beautiful weather tomorrow, because a pleasant wind is 
now blowing. 5. The flowers will wither because those 
children gathered them. 6. They are talking about that 
park, but I do not wish to take-a-walk, because there are 
clouds in (on) the sky. 7. At least we shall take an um- 
brella, and my brother will hold it over our heads. 8. My 
sister said "Mother and I are-afraid that it will rain." 9. 
My young sister will be careful about that new umbrella. 
10. I wonder whether she will take-a-walk tomorrow. IL 
That park is pleasant and the grass is soft and green. 
12. The birds are building their nests now, in those 
branches above our heads. 13. The sky above us is blue, 
and a west wind is beginning to blow. 14. I can see that 
weathercock, on that large house near the park. 15. 
Mother says that my sister will have a new hat tomorrow. 
16. She will be careful of (about) that hat. 17. My 
father's friend is very careful of his son. 18. One sees that 
he is not a strong bov. 

§§60-62] LEssoisr xiv. 41 



60. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjec- 
tive) meaning "ttiis" is formed by using with tiu (56) the 
word ci, which expresses the general idea of nearness or 
proximity. (Consequently the literal meaning of ci tiu 
is that one nearby, thai one here.) The word ci may either 
precede or follow the pronoun: 

Ci tiu estas la mia, this is mine. 

Mi vidis ci tiun, / saiv this one. 

Cu vi volas tiujn ci ? Do you wish these f 

Ci tiu knabino estas mia fratino, this girl is my sister. 

Mi vidis £i tiujn Capelojn, I saw these hats. 

Ci tiuj amikoj promenos, these friends will take a walk. 

61. The words tiu and ci tiu m_ay be used to distinguish 
between persons or things previously mentioned and just 
mentioned : 

Gertrudo kaj Mario estas en la parko. Tiu rigardas la florojn, £i tiu 
kolektas ilin. Gertrude and Mary are in the park. The former 
(that one) looks at the flowers, the latter (this one) gathers them. 


62. To express possession, the demonstrative pronouns 
tiu and 6i tiu have the special possessive or genitive forms 
ties, that one's, and ci ties, this one's. The use of ties and 
ci ties to mean "the former" and "the latter" is similar 
to the use of tiu and ci tiu shown in 61 : 

Mi iris al ties domo, / went to that one's house. 
Ci ties filoj estas junaj, this person's (this one's) sons are young. 
Mi satas ties koloron, sed preferas £i tiun floron, I like that one's 
color, but prefer this flower. 

42 LESSON XIV. [§§63-64 

La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj. Ties estas nova, sed 
£i ties sajaas bela, Father and his friend are talking about their 
houses. The former's is new, but the latter's seems beautiful. 


63. Names of instruments, tools or utensils may be 
formed by adding the suffix -il- (followed by the ending 
-o) to roots * whose meaning permits: 

flugilo, wing (from flugi, to fly}. 

kaptilo, snare, trap (from kapti, to catch). 

kudrilo, needle (from kudri, to sew). 

montrilo, indicator, (clock) hand (from montri, to point out, show). 

tenilo, handle (from teni, to hold). 


64. The means or instrumentality through which an act 
is accomplished is expressed by use of the preposition per : 

Onx kudras per kudrilo, one sews by means of (with) a needle. 
La birdoj flugas per flugiloj, the birds fly by (with) wings. 
Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj, he amuses himself with (by) those pic- 
Mi trovis gin per via helpo, / found it by (through) your help. 


akra, sharp. najbaro, neighbor. 

buso, mouth. per, by means of (64). 

dekstra, right (not left). supo, soup. 

ti (see 60). telero, plate. 

forko, fork. terpomo, potato. 

helpo, help. ties, that one'^ (62). 

kafo, coffee. tranci, to cut. 

kulero, spoon. tre, very, exceedingly. 

mano, hand. viando, meat. 

* The root of a word is that part of it which contains the essential meaning, 
and to which the verb endings -i, -as, -is, -os, the noun ending -o, the adjective 
ending -a, etc., are attached, when no suffix intervenes. Thus, vir- is the root 
of viro and of virino; kur- is the root of kuri, etc. 

§64] LESSON XIV. 43 

LA MAN60. 

Hierau mi miris cu mi havos bonan man^on en la 
domo de mia amiko. Sed mi opiniis ke mi havos tre 
bonan mangon, car mia amiko satas doni bonajn man- 
gojn al siaj amilroj. Oni metis tre bonan supon antaii 
mi, kaj mi mangis tiun per granda Imlero. Post la 5 
supo mi havis viandon. Ci tiun mi tenis per forko, 
kaj trancis per akra trancilo. La forko, trancilo kaj 
kulero estas mangiloj. Mi havis ne nur viandon, sed 
ankati novajn terpomojn. Mi trancis tiujn 6i per la tran- 
cilo, sed mi metis ilin en la buson per forko. Mi tenis la lo 
forkon en la dekstra mano, kaj metis la tranfeilon trans 
mian teleron. Oni bezonas akran trancilon, sed oni ne 
bezonas tre akran forkon. Post la viando kaj la terpomoj, 
oni donis al mi fresajn maturajn cerizojn. Hi kusis sur 
granda telero, kaj havis belan koloron. Ilia gusto is 
estis ankati bona. Mi preskaii ne diris ke mi ankatt 
havis kafon. Mi parolos morgaii al mia amiko pri lia 
kafo, kaj laudos gin. Post la mango, najbaro de mia 
amiko venis en ci ties demon, kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj 
novaj domoj. Per la helpo de sia patro, mia amiko kon-20 
struos grandan domon. Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan 
sed ne tre grandan domon. Ties nova domo estos bela, 
sed mi opinias ke mi preferos 6i ties domon. Mia amiko 
volis doni almenaii kafon al sia najbaro, sed li diris ke li ne 
volas trinki kafon. Tamen li volis persikon. Li tenis as 
tiun en la mano, kaj mangis tiun. 


1. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies, but 
they do not have hands. 2. They will build their nests, and 
sing about the young birds. 3. Those children were talk- 


ing to me yesterday about their cat. 4. They said that it 
likes to catch and eat sparrows. 5. Tomorrow it will hide 
(itself) behind a tree, and will catch a young sparrow. 
6. The children will gather peaches in that-person's gar- 
den, and will put them upon a plate. 7. They will shake 
the whole tree by means of a branch. 8. The sweet fruit 
above them will fall upon the soft green grass. 9. The 
children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. 10. 
They seem almost ripe, and tomorrow the children will 
pick (gather) them, with the help of their father. 11. It 
is said (54) that the grain in that-man's field very [much] 
needs rain. 12. People also think that the flowers will 
wither, for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. 
13. My careful young friend will carry an umbrella in his 
hand tomorrow, because he fears the rain. 14. He sees 
those gray clouds in (on) the sky. 15. He holds the um- 
brella by its handle. 16. The weathercock is an indicator 
concerning the weather. 17. One eats meat with a fork, 
and soup with a spoon. 18. One holds the spoon in the 
right hand. 19. A knife is sharp, but one does not need 
a sharp fork. 20. We shall have a very good meal, and 
also very good coffee. 



65. The demonstrative adjective related to the demon- 
strative pronoun tiu (56) is tia, that kind of, that sort of, 

Tia floro estas bela, that hind of a flower is beautiful. 

Mi satas tian viandon, / like that sort of meat. 

Tiaj najbaroj estas agrablaj, such (that kind of) neighbors are pleasant. 

Mi volas aiidi tiajn birdojn, I wish to hear such birds. 

§66] LESSOR XV. 45 


66. An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of 
a verb, adjective, another adverb, or phrase. It may ex- 
press manner, time, degree, negation, etc. Adverbs are 
either primary, as "now," "almost," or derived, as "glad- 
ly," "sweet-ly," The Esperanto primary adverbs given 
in this and in preceding lessons may be classified as follows: 

(a) Temporal Adverbs (expressing time) : 
baldaii, soon. morgaii, tomorrow. 

hierau, yesterday. nun, now. 

hodiau, today. tuj, immediately. 

(b) Adverbs of Degree. 
almenau, at least. preskaii, almost. 

nur, merely. tre, very, much. 

(c) Adverbs Expressing Other Ideas, 
addition: ankau, also. emphasis: ec, even. 

interrogation: cu, (30, p. 38, ftn.). affirmation: jes, yes. 
proximity: £i, (60). negation: ne, not, no, (27). 

a. An adverb usually precedes, but may also follow, 
the word or words which it modifies. It must be so placed 
as to leave no doubt about which of two words or word- 
groups it is intended to modify. Thus, mi preskau volis 
havi tiun clearly means / almost wished to have that; but 
mi volis preskafl havi tiun might mean either "I almost 
wished to have that," or more probably "I wished almost 
to have that." An example of permissible variation in the 
position of adverbs is shown in questions to which an 
affirmative answer is expected. Such questions may be 
put in the form of a statement, followed by cu ne (instead 
of having cu introduce the sentence, with ne in its normal 
position) : 
Li venos, 6u ne? He will come, will he notf 

46 LESSON XV. [§67 

La vetero estas bela, cu ne ? The weather is beautiful, is it not f 
Vi audis tiun diron, £u ne ? You heard that remark, did you not ? 


67. ti the meaning of a word is sucli tiiat it can have a 
direct opposite, such opposite may be formed from it by 
use of the prefix mal- : * 

malalta, low, short (from alta, high, tall). 
malamiko, enemy (from amiko, friend). 
maldekstra, left (from dekstra, rigid). 
malhelpi, to hinder (from helpi, to help). 
maljuna, aged, old (from juna, young). 
malnova, old, not new (from nova, new). 


dum, during. povi, to he able. 

ec, even. preni, to take. 

gardi, to guard. propone, proposal. 

helpi, to help, to aid. respond!, to answer. 

honti, to be ashamed. ruza, sly, cunning. 

kara, dear. §teli, to steal. 

kontenta, satisfied. tia, that kind of (65). 

kuraga, courageous. _ tuj, immediately. 

nokto, night. voco, voice. 


Ruza juna viro kaj bona maljuna viro iris trans dezerton. 
Tiu havis nigran 6evalon, 6i tiu havis blankan cevalon. 
"Vi gardosniajn cevalojn dum la nokto, cu ne?" diris la 
juna viro per dol6a vo6o al sia amiko, "Car dum la nokto 
5oni ne povos vidi mian nigran cevalon, sed malamikoj 
povos tuj vidi vian blankan fievalon. Oni povos steU tian 
fievalon, 6ar vi estas maljuna kaj malforta, kaj ne povos 
malhelpi mal amiko jn." Tia propone ne sajnis agrabla al 

*C7. English malcontent, " discontented." maladro't, " clumsy." 

§67] LESSOif XV. 47 

la maljuna viro. Li ne estis kontenta, tamen li ne volis 
perdi sian fievalon, car li estis malrica. Li diris al si ke lo 
li donos sian blan];an devalon al la juna viro, kaj prenos 
ties nigran fievalon. Tuj li diris al 6i tiu "Sed per via 
helpo mi ne perdos mian fievalon: mi donos la mian al vi, 
kaj prenos vian fievalon. La via estas malbela, sed gi 
estas almenati nigra; vi donos gin al mi, 6u ne?" 'Mes,"i5 
respondis la ruza juna viro, kaj li donis sian nigran 
6evalon al tiu, kaj prenis la blankan fievalon. "Nun," 
diris la maljuna viro, "Vi estas kuraga kaj forta, kaj vi 
gardos la 6evalojn, 6u ne? Vi povos malhelpi malami- 
kojn per tiu granda akra trandilo, kaj oni ne povos ste-20 
li vian blankan cevalon." La ruza juna viro ne hontis. Li 
respondis "Mia kara amiko, mi nun dormos, 6ar oni ne 
stelos blankan 6evalon. Mi povos vidi tian fievalon dum 
la nokto, kaj malhelpi malamikojn. Sed tiu fievalo via 
(that horse of yours) havas la koloron de la nokto, kaj e6 25 
nun oni povas §teli gin." La malkontenta maljuna viro 
diris per koJera voco "Cu vi ne hontas pri tia propono?" 
Tamen la ruza juna viro tuj komencis dormi, kaj la mal- 
juna viro gardis la 6evalojn dum la tuta nokto. 


(Words to be formed with the prefix mal- are italicised.) 

1. Does one eat potatoes and meat with a fork or a 
spoon? 2. One puts soup into the mouth by means of a 
spoon. 3. One cuts fruit with a knife, and puts the fruit 
upon a plate. 4. The coffee was cold, and I was much 
dissatisfied. 5. My knife was dull, nevertheless I almost 
immediately cut my (the) left hand. 6. I was ashamed, 
but I think that the handle of that knife was very short. 
7. The grass is wet today, and I fear that we shall not be 

48 LESSON XVI. [§§68-69 

able to take a walk, even in that small park. 8. I dislike 
to go-walking upon the hard streets. 9. The courageous 
young man and his aged friend talked about their enemies. 
10. They wished to be careful about their horses. 11. The 
young man was very sly, and wished to sleep during the 
night. 12. He said that one can steal a black horse during 
the dark night. 13. He said that either (aU) he or the old 
man would guard the horses. 14. The old man answered 
that he would give to him his [own] white horse. 15. He 
took that one's black horse. 16. He was ashamed, and 
was very angry at his faithless friend. 17. But he stayed- 
awake, and guarded the horses. 



68. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the 
pronouns tiu and ci tiu are tie, there, in (at) that place, and 
6i tie, here, in (at) this place : 

La telero estas tie, the plate is there (in that place). 

La libroj kuSas £i tie, the books lie here (in this place). 

Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie ci, I found you there and him here. 

Tie la vetero lajnas tre agrabla, there the weather seems very pleasant. 

69. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward 
the place indicated by tie or ci tie, the ending -n is added 
to the adverb (46), forming tien, thither, there, and ci tien, 
hither, here : 

Li iros tien, he will go there (thither). 
Mi venis £i tien, I came here (hither). 
Ni estis tie, kaj venis ci tien, we were there and came here (hither). 

§§70-72J LESSON XVI. 49 


70. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the 
preposition kun, with, along with : * 

La viro venis kun sia amiko, the man came with his friend. 
Mi promenos kun vi, / shall go walking ivith you. 
La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato, the boy with that man is his 


71. The adverb for, away, may be used independently, 
as Li iris for de mi, he went away from me, but it is more 
frequently used as a prefixf to give a sense of departure, 
loss or somewhat forcible removal: 

foriri, to go away, to depart. 

forkuri, to run away, to escape. 

forlasi, to leave alone, to abandon, to desert. 

formangi, to eat away, to eat up. 

forpreni, to take away, to remove. 

fortrinki, to drink away, to drink up. 

72. The verb povi, to be able, is used to translate En- 

* Kun must not be confused with per (64), which expresses instrumentality, 
although per may often be translated by English " with." The English prepo- 
sition " with " may be said to have three rather clearly defined different mean- 
ings. In the linguistic history of this word, the original meaning was " against," 
still shown in fight with, strive with, contend with, withstand, etc. (Cf. German 
widerstreiten, to strive with, widerhalten, to resist, etc.) Gradually this word 
" with " usurped the meaning of the original preposition " mid," expressing 
association or accompaniment {cf. German niit, " with ", which it crowded out 
of the language except in one unimportant compound). The word " by " was 
also encroaching upon " mid " from another direction, and so " mid's " successor 
" with " came to be interchangeable with " by " in expressing instrumentality. 
Thus, English " with " indicates opposition, accompaniment, or instrumen- 
tality, for which three senses Esperanto has the three prepositions kontraii, 
kun, and per, respectively. 

t Cf. the prefix for- in English " forfend," to kee-p av:ay, to avert, " fdrbid," 
fo exclude from, to command against, " forbear," to refrain from, etc. 

50 LESSON XVI. [§72 

glish can, which is defective, that is, does not occur in all 
of the forms a verb may have: 

Mi povas paroli, / am able to talk, I can talk. 
Mi povis paroli, / was able to talk, I could toXk. 

Mi povos paroli, / shall be able to talk, . 

Mi volas povi paroli, / wish to be able to talk, . 


el, ovi of, out. peli, to drive, to chase. 

£irkau, around, roundabout. polo, pocket. 

for, away (71). rajdi, to ride. 

frua, early. rapidi, to hasten. 

glavo, sword. resti, to remain, to stay. 

horo, hour. saga, wise. 

kun, with (70). tie, there (68). 

lasi, to leave. voki, to call. 


Juna viro kaj lia saga patro volis iri trans la dezerton, 
kun siaj amikoj. La amikoj estis fortaj, kaj la juna viro 
estis tre kuraga. Hi restis en malgranda urbo dum la 
nokto, kaj forrajdis kun tiuj amikoj. La patro kaj 

5 la filo opiniis ke la amikoj kun ili povos helpi per 
siaj akraj glavo j. Ili opiniis ke ili povos forpeli la 
malamikojn. E6 en la dezerto oni trovas malamikojn. 
Tiaj malamikoj forprenas la monon de bonaj viroj. 
La juna viro estis kontenta, 6ar li estis kun la amikoj. 

10 La maljuna viro estis kontenta 6ar li estis kun sia filo. 
Baldaii la nokto venis. Estis tre malluma tie en la 
dezerto, kaj ili preskaii ne povis vidi. Dum la fruaj 
horoj de la nokto la patro atidis vo6ojn, kaj preskati 
tuj li vidis la malamikojn. La ruzaj malbonaj viroj 

israpidis tien, kaj vokis la maljunan viron. La malkura^aj 
amikoj de la patro kaj filo nek restis tie, nek helpis 

§72] LESSON XVI. 61 

forpeli la malamikojn. Hi tuj forkuris. La malamikoj 
staris cirkati la patro, kaj forpusis lin de lia fievalo. La 
filo volis malhelpi ilin, sed li ne povis. Li povis nur resti 
kun la patro, kaj gardi lin tie kontraii la glavoj de la 20 
malamikoj. Baldau la malamikoj komencis forpreni la 
monon el la po§oj de la saga maljuna viro. La kolera filo 
diris per maldolSa (bitter) vo6o "Cu vi ne hontas? Cu vi 
lasos al ni nek la Sevalojn nek nian monon?" Sed la ma- 
lamikoj respondis "Ne, ni lasos al vi nek la fievalojn nek la 25 
monon. Ni ne estas malsagaj." Post tiu diro ili tuj 
forrapidis, kaj prenis kun si la cevalojn. 


1. The foolish friends of the young man and his aged 
father did not stay with them. 2. They did not help them 
with their swords, but ran away at once (tuj), and were 
not ashamed. 3. The old man heard disagreeable voices 
behind him, and soon he saw the enemy. 4. The enemy 
called them, and hastened there (69). 5. Those sly bad 
men took the money out of the pockets of the courageous 
young man. 6. They stood around him, and also around 
his father. 7. The father and son could not even guard 
their horses. 8. The enemy did not leave (to) these their 
horses, but took both the horses and the money. 9. Soon 
the enemy rode away, during the late hours of the night. 
10. The father and son were angry and dissatisfied. 11. 
They said "We fear and dislike such men." 12. The 
father said "By the help of our neighbors we can (povos) 
find those bad men, and drive them away, out of the 
desert." 13. The son replied, "Dear Father, such a pro- 
posal seems good, and I will help with my long sharp 
sword. 14. But we are now in the desert, and the road 
to the city is long. 15. We cannot ride thither, but we can 

52 LESSON XVII. [§§73-75 

walk thither. 16. Can you not hasten, with {-per) my 
help?" 17. The wise old man answered, "Yes, my son, 
with such help I can walk thither." 


73. The demonstrative temporal adverb related to the 
demonstrative pronoun tiu is tiam, then, at that time: 

Tiam li rajdos al la urbo, then he will ride to the city. 
Nun ili estas sagaj, sed tiam ili estis malsagaj, now they are wise, but 
at that time they were foolish. 


74. An adjective may have three degrees, positive, 
comparative and superlative. English has various ways of 
forming the comparative and superlative degrees (as by 
the suffixes -er, -est, the adverbs more, most, and irregular 
methods as in good, better, best, etc.). Esperanto has only 
one method, using the adverbs pli, more, and plej, most : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

bela, beautiful, pli bela, more beautiful, piej bela, most beautiful. 

bona, good, pli bona, better, plej bona, best. 

malbona, bad, pli malbona, worse, plej malbona, worst. 

saga, wise, pli saga, wiser, plej saga, wisest. 

75. The preposition el is used with words expressing the 
group or class out of which a superlative is selected and 
mentioned : 

Li estas la plej juna el tiuj, he is the youngest of (out of) those. 

Vi estas la plej felica el ni, you are the happiest of us. 

Tiu estis la plej ruza el la viroj, that one was the craftiest of the men. 

^76-77] LESSON XVII. 53 


76. The actions or feelings which accompany an act or 
state, or the characteristic which permanently accom- 
panies a person or thing, may be expressed by a substan- 
tive with the preposition kun : * 

Li prenis gin kun la plej granda zorgo, he took it with the greatest care. 
Mi audis lin kun intereso kaj plezuro, / heard him with interest and 

§i estas virino kun bona gusto, she is a woman with (of) good taste. 
Mi havas £evalon kun forta korpo, / have a horse with a strong body. 


77. The verbs diri, to say, paroli, to talk, to speak, and 
rakonti, to relate, having in common th'e general idea of 
speech or expression, must not be confused in use: 

Mi diris al vi ke pluvas, / said to (told) you that it was raining. 

Mi diris gin al vi, / said it to you (I told you). 

Mi parolis al vi pri gi, / talked (spoke) to you about it. 

Mi rakontis gin al vi, / related (told) it to you. 


ami, to love. pli, more (74). 

ekster, outside (of). plumo, pen. 

Frederiko, Frederick. rakonti, to relate ('ji) 

gratuli, to congratulate. refo, king. 

intereso, interest. servisto, servant. 

letero, letter. skribi, to write. 

plej, mx)st (74). tiam, then (73). 

plezuro, pleasure. zorgo, care. 

* Sometimes the manner of an action may be expressed by the instrument of 
it, expressed by the preposition per with a substantive modified by an adjective: 
Li kantis per dolca vo£o, he sang wHh (by means of) a sweet voice. 
Vi pusis min per forta mano, you pushed me with a strong hand. 

54 LESSON XVII. [§77 


Hierati mi legis interesan libron pri Frederiko Granda 
(pie Great). En gi oni rakontas ke la rego kun plezuro 
legis ail skribis per sia plumo, dum malfruaj horoj de la 
nokto. Agrabla juna knabo, la plej juna el la servistoj, 
5 tiam restis ekster la pordo. Car la rego legis plej interesan 
novan libron, li ne opiniis ke la hero estas malfrua. Li 
vokis sian malgrandan serviston, sed la knabo, nek venis 
nek respondis. La rego iris tien, kaj trovis la knabon 
ekster la pordo. Li vidis ke la knabo dormas sur malalta 

losego. Tiam Frederiko Granda ne estis kolera, sed hontis 
tax li vokis la infanon. La rego Frederiko vidis leteron en 
la poso de la knabo. Tuj li prenis la leteron el lia poso, 
kaj rigardis gin. Gi estis letero al la servisto, de lia pa- 
trino. Si ne estis ri6a virino, si lajnis esti tre malri6a. 

15 En ci tin letero la patrino diris per la plumo ke si amas la 
filon. Si dankis lin 6ar li skribis al si longan leteron. Si 
ankaii dankis lin 6ar li donis al si monon. La rego volis 
esti tre bona al tia filo. Kun la plej granda zorgo li metis 
monon el sia poso kun la letero kaj tiam lasis la leteron en 

20 ties poso. Tiam li f ormarsis al sia fiambro, kaj vokis la mal- 
grandan serviston. La knabo tuj aiidis, kaj rapidis tra 
la pordo. Li kuris trans la cambron, kaj staris antati la 
rego. "Cu vi dormis?" diris Frederiko Granda. "Jes, 
mi timas ke mi preskaii dormis," respondis la knabo, "kaj 

25 mi tre hontas." Tiam li metis la manon en la poson, kaj 
trovis la monon. Li §ajnis pli malfelifia kaj diris kun 
granda timo "Malamiko metis 6i tiun monon en mian 
poson! Oni opinios ke mi §telis gin! Oni malamos min, 
kaj forpelos min!" Frederiko respondis, "Ne, mi donis gin 

30 al vi, 6ar mi amas bonajn knabojn. Mi gratulas vian 
patrinon, 6ar §i havas tian filon." 

§78] LESSON XVIII. 55 


1. An interesting story is related (54) about Frederick 
the Great. 2. His youngest servant stayed outside of the 
door. 3. The king called him, and he hastened thither and 
stood before him. 4. Yesterday he did not hear the king. 
5. The king called him, but he did not answer. 6. The 
king thought that the boy had gone away with the older 
servants, and he was angry. 7. He left his book on the 
table, and went to the door. 8. Then he saw that the little 
boy was sleeping there. 9. He looked at him with greater 
interest, and saw a letter in his pocket. 10. The letter was 
from the boy's mother. 1 1 . He had written a letter to her, 
with his pen, and had given (to) her money, because she 
was poor. 12. He wrote longer letters with pleasure, be- 
cause he was a most faithful son. 13. The king congratu- 
lated the mother of the boy, concerning such a son. 14. 
(The) king Frederick wished to be kinder {pli bona) to the 
boy. 15. He placed his book upon the table, near his 
sword, and talked to the little servant. 16. Then the older 
servants came, and stood around the king. 17. They 
walked with great care, and the younger servant did not 
hear them IS. They loved the little boy, and wished to 
help him. 



78. The demonstrative adverb of motive or reason, re- 
lated to the demonstrative pronoun tiu, is tial, therefore, 
for that reason, so: 

Tial la servisto foriris, therefore the servant went away. 
Tial mi gratulis lin, for that reason I congratulated him. 
Tial oni forpelis lin, so thei' drove him away. 

66 LESSON XVIII. [§§'i^9-85^ 


79. Adverbs may be derived from roots whose meaning 
permits, by addition of the adverb-ending -e, as felice, 
happily, kolere, angrily. The comparison of adverbs is 
similar to that of adjectives: 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

sage, wisely, pli sage, 7nore wisely, plej sa^e, most wisely. 

bone, well, pli bone, better, plej bone, best. 

malbone, badly, pli malbone, worse, plej malbone, worst. 

ruze, slyly, pli ruze, more slyly, plej ruze, most slyly. 


80. The opposites (67) of pli and plej are malpli, less, and 
malplej, least. Their use is similar to that of pli and plej, 
(These adverbs may also modify verbs) : 

Li estas malpli kuraga, he is less courageous. 

Tiuj estis malplej akraj, those were least sharp. 

La vento blovis malpli forte, the wind blew less strongly. 

Li skribis malplej zorge, he wrote least carefully. 

Mi malpli timas ilin, / fear them less. 

Vi malplej bezonoshelpon, you will need help least. 


81. Since in their precise sense the words pli,' malpli, 
plej, malplej, express degree, a quantitative meaning is 
given by multe, much, in the desired degree of comparison: 

multe, much, pli multe, more (in amount), plej multe, most. 

malpli multe, less, " malplej multe, least. 

malmulte, little, pli malmulte, Uss " plej malmulte, least. 


82. In a comparison made by the use of pli or malpli. 

§83] LESSON XVIII. 57 

the case used after ol, than, must indicate clearly the sense 

intended : 

Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sin, / love them more than (I love) her. 
Mi amas ilin pli multe ol si, / love them more than she (loves them). 
Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabo, you helped the man less 

than the boy (helped him). 
Vi helpis la viron mialpli multe ol la knabon, you helped the man less 

than (you helped) the boy. 


83. A clause giving a cause or reason is introduced by 
car, because, for, or by the combination tial ke, for this 
'reason that, because, for: 

Mi venis frue, car mi volis vidi vin, I came early, for I wished to see 

La floroj velkis tial, ke ne pluvis, the flowers wilted for this reason, 

that it did not rain. 


anstatau, instead of multa, much (multaj, many). 

aprilo, April. ofta, frequent (ofte, often). 

aiigusto, August. ol, than (82). 

jaro, year. printempo, spring (season). 

junio, June. tago, day. 

Julio, July. . sezono, season. 

majo. May. somero, summer. 

marto, March. tial, therefore (78). 

monato, month. viutro, winter. 


La vintro estas la malplej agrabla sezono el la tuta jaro. 
Negas tre multe, kaj tial oni nur malofte promenas, 6ar la 
stratoj estas tro malsekaj. Oni marsas kun granda zorgo, 
kaj malrapide (slowly), tial ke oni ne volas fall kaj pres- 
kati rompi la kolon. Oni zorge gardas sin tiam kontraii la 

58 LESSON XVIII. [§83 

malvarmaj nordaj ventoj. La manojn oni metas en la 
poSojn, sed la vizagon oni ne povas bone gardi. Mi ne 
§atas resti ekster la domo dum tia vetero. Mi multe pre- 
feras sidi en varma luma 6ambro, kaj skribi leterojn per 

10 bona plumo. La monatoj de la printempo estas marto, 
aprilo kaj majo. La bela printempo sajnas pli agrabla ol 
la vintro. Giaj tagoj estas pli longaj kaj pli varmaj, giaj 
ventoj blovas malpli forte. En 6i tiu sezono la kampoj 
kaj arboj frue komencas montri plej belajn kolorojn. La 

isbirdoj konstruas siajn nestojn, kaj dolce kantas. Oni 
povas promeni sur la moia herbo, anstataii siir malsekaj 
malagrablaj stratoj . Pluvas pli multe en aprilo, tamen post , 
la pluvo la herbo sajnas pli verda, kaj la nuboj baldaii for- 
flugas de la blua cielo. Dum majo oni trovas violojn, kaj 

20 en junio oni vidas tre multajn rozojn. Sed la plej agrabla 
el la sezonoj estas la somero. Anstataii, malvarmaj ven- 
toj la somero havas la plej belan veteron, kun suda au 
okcidenta ventoj. La longaj tagoj estas varmaj, sed la 
noktoj estas tute agrablaj. Tiam oni havas pli bonajn 

gsfruktojn ol dum la printempo. La monatoj de la somero 
estas junio, julio kaj atigusto. Mi plej satas junion. Cu 
vi §atas gin pli multe ol mi? Cu vi satas aiiguston pli 
multe ol julion? 


L I read-a most interesting book about Frederick the 
Great. 2. It relates that he often stayed-awake and read 
with great interest during the later hours of the night. 3. 
His youngest servant was a small boy. 4. The king loved 
this boy more than [he loved] the older servants. 5. The 
winter is a less pleasant season than the spring, but the 
summer is more pleasant than that [season]. 6. During 
March the east winds blow most strongly, and shake the 

§84] LESSON" XIX. 59 

trees very much. 7. In April one needs his umbrella, for 
(the reason that) there are often clouds in the sky and it 
rains a great deal (very much). 8. The streets are very 
wet, but the water does not seem to wash them. 9. In 
May one begins to find sweet violets, and the birds in the 
trees above our heads sing very sweetly. 10. In June the 
most beautiful roses are seen (54). 11. July and August 
are the warmest months of the whole year. 12. The days 
are longer than the nights, and the weathercock shows 
west and south winds, instead of those disagreeable north 
and east winds. 13. One stays outside [of] the house then 
with greater pleasure, and goes walking in the parks. 

14. I think that I like the summer better than you [do]. 

15. Therefore I praise the summer more than you [do]. 

16. However, I praise you more than [I praise] your 
younger brother. 17. He is less wise than you. 



84. In clauses expressing a comparison between two ob- 
jects, acts or states, the adverbial use of English " the 
. . . the . . ." (meaning "by how much ... by that 
much . .")* is rendered by the adverbs ju and des, re- 
spectively : 

Ju pli bona li estas, des pli felica li estos, the better he is, the happier 
he will he. 

Ju pli ofte mi rigardas, des pli mi volas rigardi, the oftener I look, the 
more I wish to look. 

Ju pli bele la luno brilas, des pli oni Satas la nokton, the more beauti- 
fully the moon shines, the more one likes the night. 

* Cf. Shakespeare, As You Like It, V, II, 49, By so much the more shall I 
tomorrow be at the height of heart-heayiness, by how much I shall think my 
brother happy in having what he wishes for. 

60 LEssoi-r XIX. [§§85-86 

Ju malpli pluvas, des pli la floroj velkas, the less it rains, the more the 

flowers vrither. 
Ju malpli multe vi helpas, des malpli multe mi laiidos vin, the less you 

help, the less I shall praise you. 
6ar vi helpis, mi des pli multe laiidos vin, because you helped, I shall 

praise you the {that much) more. 


85. In English, the preposition "between" is used in 
reference to two persons or things, and "among" in refer- 
ence to thr<^e or more. As the difference in meaning is not 
essential, Esperanto has but the one preposition inter to 
express both between and among: 

Li sidas inter vi kaj mi, he is sitting between you and me. 

Li sidas inter siaj amikoj, he is sitting among his friends. 

La monato majo estas inter aprilo kaj junio, the month of May is be- 
tween April and June. 

Inter tiuj libroj estas tre interesa libro, among those books there is a 
very interesting book. 


86. Cause or reason may be expressed not only by an 
adverb (78) or a clause (83), but also by use of the prepo- 
sition pro, because of, on account of, for the sake of, for. It 
directs the thought away from the complement toward the 
action, feeling or state caused by it, or done in its interest 
or behalf: 

La floroj velkas pro la seka vetero, the flowers wilt because of the dry 

Mi skribis la leteron pro vi, / wrote the letter for you (for your sake). 
Pro tiuj nuboj mi timas ke pluvos, on account of those clouds I fear 

that it will rain. 
Oni satas Serizojn pro la dolca gusto, people like cherries because of 

the sweet taste. 

§87] LESSON XIX. 61 


87. Prepositions may be used with adverbs or with 
prepositional phrases when the meaning permits: 

La kato kuris el sub la tablo, the cat ran out-jrom under the table. 

Li venos el tie, he will come out of there. 

De nun li estos zorga, from now he will be careful. 

Li staris dekstre de la vojo, he stood on the right of the road. 

Mi iros for de ci tie, I shall go away from here. 


autuno, autumn, fall. nego, snow. 

decembro, December. novembro, November, 

des, (see 84). nuda, bare, naked. 

februaro, February. oktobro, October. 

glacio, ice. pro, because of (86). 

inter, between, among (85). rikolti, to harvest. 

januaro, January. rivero, river. 

ju, (see 84). septembro, September. 

kovri, to cover. tero, ground, earth. 


La sezonoj de la jaro estas la vintro, la printempo, la so- 
mero, kaj la autuno. La autuno estas inter la somero kaj 
la vintro. Giaj monatoj estas septembro, oktobro kaj no- 
vembro. En septembro oni povas kolekti maturajn fruk- 
tojn. Tiam ankaii oni rikoltas la flavan grenon de la e 
kampoj. Dum ci tiu monato kaj dum oktobro la fohoj 
sur la branSoj komencas esti rugaj kaj flavaj, anstataii 
verdaj. La herbo velkas, kaj bruna tapiso sajnas kovri 
la teron. Baldaii la folioj falas al la tero, kaj en novembro 
la arboj estas tute nudaj. Pli ati malpli frue negas. La 10 
glacio ofte kovras la akvon en la riveroj, kaj restas sur la 
stratoj kaj la vojoj. La mola blanka nego kovras la teron, 

62 LESSON XIX. [§87 

kaj ku§as sur la brancoj de la arboj. Tiam, pro la fortaj 
ventoj, gi falas de la branfioj al la tero. La birdoj frue 

IS lasas tian veteron, kaj flugas de 61 tie al pli sudaj kampoj 
kaj arboj. Ill ne povas resti, pro la malvarmaj tagoj kaj 
noktoj. Hi malsata.s la negon kaj la glacion pli multe ol 
ni. Ju pli multe negas, des pli malofte ni volas promeni. 
Ni preferas resti en la dome, anstatati ekster gi. Ju pli ni 

20 rigardas la nudajn branfiojn de la arboj, des pli malagrabla 
§ajnas la vintro. Tamen la junaj infanoj tre satas tian 
veteron, kaj ju pli negas, kaj ju pli forte la norda vento 
blovas, des malpli ili estas kontentaj en la domo. Hi volas 
kuri sur la nego, cirkaii la arboj kaj inter ili, kun siaj 

25 junaj amikoj. Ili povas bone amuzi sin per la nego. La 
monatoj de la vintro estas decembro, januaro kaj feb- 
ruaro. Gi estas la plej malvarma sezono. 


1. September, October and November are the months 
of autumn. 2. In these months, people harvest the yellow 
grain and gather various fruits. 3. The leaves on the 
trees around us begin to have red and yellow colors. 
4. They begin to fall from the branches and lie upon the 
ground. 5. The more strongly the cold north wind blows 
through the branches, the sooner the leaves fall from there. 

6. They lie under the bare trees, with the brown grass. 

7. The sooner it snows, the sooner the ground will seem to 
have a white carpet. 8. The snow will completely {tute) 
cover the grass during the months of the winter. 9. These 
months are December, January and February. 10. From 
that time {de tiam) the ice and snow will cover the roads, 
and altogether {tute) hide them. 11. There will often be 
ice on the water of the river. 12. We like this season of the 
year more than March, April and May. 13. We Hke it even 

§§88-89] LESSON XX. 63 

more than the summer. 14. The months of the latter 
(62) are June, July and August. 15. The summer is the 
warmest season of the entire year. 16. Therefore we often 
say that the summer is the pleasantest season. 17. Be- 
cause of its many pleasures, the summer is dear to me. 
18. It is between the spring and the autumn. 



88. The demonstrative adverb of manner and degree, 
related to the demonstrative pronoun tiu, is tiel, in that 
(this) manner, in such a way, thus, so. Like English "thus," 
"so," tiel may modify adjectives and other adverbs, by 
indicating degree: 

Cu oni tiel helpas amikon? Does one help a friend in that (this) way? 

Mi lin skribis tiel, / wrote it thus (in such a way). 

La vetero estas tiel bela, the weather is so beautiful. 

Tiel mallonge li parolis, thus briefly he spoke. 

Mi ti"Ovis tiel belan floron, / found such a beautiful flower. 

Li prenis tiel multe, he took that much (so much). 


89. The relations which prepositions express may be of 
various kinds.* As in English, a certain number of prepo- 
sitions primarily expressing place may also express time- 
relations. Such prepositions are antaii, Cirkau, de, en, 
gis, inter, post, and je (whose use in other than time- 
relations will be explained later) : 

Mi foriros cirkaii junio, / shall depart about June. 

*As already shown, kun expresses accompaniment, per expresses instrumen- 
tality, pro expresses cause, kontrafl expresses opposition, anstataii expresses 
substitution, sur, apud, sub, etc., express place, dum expresses time, etc. 


De tiu horo mi estis via amiko, jrom that how I was your friend. 

Li ne parolis al mi de tiu semajno, he did not speak to me since (from) 

that week. 
En la tuta monato ne negis, it did not snow in (at any time within) 

the entire month. 
Mi dormis gis malfrua horo, I slept until (up to) a late hour. 
&is nun li ne vidis vin, until now he did not see you. 
Inter marto kaj junio mi iros tien, between March and June I shall 

go there. 
Je malfrua horo li foriris, at a late hour he went away. 
Mi iros tien je diman£o, / shall go there on Sunday. 
Je tiu horo li vokis min, at that hour he called me. 
§i ne restis tie post juIio, she did not stay there after July. 
Post ne longe mi vokos vin, soon (after not long) I shall call you. 

90. When a definite date or point in time is expressed, 
antaii means "before." Wlien used with an expression of 
an amount of time, it is to be translated by "ago" following 
the expression (not by "before" preceding it): 

Antaii dimanco mi foriros, before Sunday I shall go away. 

Mi vidis lin antaii tiu horo, / saw him before that hour. 

Li skribos gin antau la nova jaro, he will write it before New Year. 

Antau multaj jaroj mi trovis gin, many years ago I found it. 

Mi rompis gin antau longa tempo, / broke it a long time ago. 

Antaii tre longe vi legis tiun libron, you read that book very long ago. 

Li venis antaii ne longe, he came recently (not long ago). 

Antau malmultaj jaroj li forkuris, a few years ago he escaped. 


dimanfio, Sunday. mateno, morning. 

energia, energetic. promeno, walk, promenade, 

frosto, frost. rakonto, story, narrative. 

je, at, on (89). ripozi, to rest, to repose. 

kota, muddy. semajno, week. 

labori, to work, to labor tempo, time. 

laca, tired, weary. tiel, thus, so (88) 

lundo, Monday. tro, too, too much. 

mardo, Tuesday. ' vespero; evening. 

§90] LESSON XX. 65 


Antau multaj jaroj ni preferis resti en nia malgranda 
domo trans la rivero, dum la tuta Sed nun ni 
restas tie nur gis oktobro. De aiigusto gis oktobro la 
vetero estas tre agrabla tie, sed baldau post tiu monato la 
fortaj ventoj blovas, kaj la folioj komencas fali. La t 
frosto kovras la teron, kaj baldaii negas tre ofte. Ju pli 
nudaj estas la arboj, des pli malbelaj ill sajnas. La 
vetero antau novembro ne estas tro nialvarma, sed post tiu 
monato ni opinias ke la urbo estas pli agrabla ol domo inter 
kampoj kaj arboj, trans larga rivero. La frosto, nego kaj lo 
glacio kovras la teron en decembro, januaro kaj februaro. 
Sed la monato septembro sajnas tre agrabla, pro siaj 
multaj plezuroj. La viroj laboras energie en la kampoj, 
de la mateno gis la vespero. Hi rikoltas la flavan grenon, 
kaj kolektas la fruktojn. Sed je dimanfio oni ne laboras is 
tiel energie, sed dormas gis malfrua horo, tial ke je tiu 
tago oni ripozas. Je lundo oni komencas labori tre frue, 
kaj je mardo oni ankaii laboras energie. En septembro 
la vojoj ne estas tro kotaj, kaj longaj promenoj estas ofte 
agrablaj. Ju pli ofte mi promenas kun miaj amikoj, des so 
pli multe mi satas tiajn promenojn. Sed hierati mi e'stis 
tre laca post la promeno, tial mi ripozis sur granda mola 
sego. Antati ne longe la patro promenis kun mi, sed ni 
ne estis tiel lacaj je tiu tago. Sajnas ke ju pli ofte ni 
promenas, des malpli lacaj ni estas post la promenoj. 26 
Post ne longe mi estos pli forta. 


1. Many years ago we had a small house across the river. 
2. We did not remain there during the entire year, but 
only in the warmer months of the summer. 3. Often we 

66 LESSON XXI. [§91 

stayed until September or even until October. 4. My 
younger brothers and sisters amused themselves very well 
there from (the) morning until (the) evening. 5. They 
amused themselves among the flowers and trees, or went 
from there into the large fields. 6. Here the men work 
energetically, and harvest the ripe yellow grain. 7. Only 
on Sunday do they rest, because on that day one does not 
work. 8. Between August and November the men work 
more than in the winter. 9. In December and after that 
month they rest, for (83) from that time the frost, ice and 
snow cover the ground. 10. Because of the snow on the 
ground, long walks are not pleasant in the winter. 11- 
Recently (90) we went walking in the park across the river, 
but we were so tired after that walk! 12. The longer the 
walk is, the sooner one wishes to rest. 13. On Monday it 
rained, so (78) we read stories and wrote letters, in a pleasant 
light room in our house. 14. Before evening, however, the 
sun shone, and the streets were not so muddy. 15. On 
Tuesday these streets were almost dry, and soon the roads 
near the river and between the fields will also be dry. 
16. A few years ago those roads were very good. 



91. Duration of time and a date or point in time maybe 
expressed not only by use of the prepositions dum, during, 
and je, at, on, but also (as in English) without the use of 
any preposition. When no preposition is used, the word 
or words indicating time are put in the accusative case: 

Li restis tie la tutan semajnon (dum la tuta semajno), he stayed there 
the whole week (during the whole week). 

§§92-94] LESSON XXI. 67 

§i estis felica longan tempon (dum longa tempo), she was happy a 

long time (during a long time; for a long time). 
Ni rajdos tagon kaj nokton (dum tago kaj nokto), we shall ride a day 

and a night [during a day and a night; for a day and a night). 
Mi venis dimancon (je dimanfio), / came Sunday (on Sunday). 
Tiun horon (je tiu horo), li forkuris, that hour (at that hour) he escaped. 

92. Although generally preferable, an accusative con- 
struction must be carefully placed, or avoided altogether, 
if confusion with other accusatives (expressing direction 
of motion, direct object, etc.) might result: 

Mi volas iri Bostonon je lundo, I wish to go to Boston on Monday. 
Mi volas iri al Bostono lundon, I wish to go to Boston Monday. 
Lundon mi volas iri Bostonon, Monday I wish to go to Boston. 


93. An accusative of time, as well as a temporal adverb, 
may further define or be defined by another expression of 

Li venis longan tempon antau tiu horo, he came a long time before 

that hour. 
Jaron post jaro ili restis tie, year after year they stayed there. 
hodiau matene, this morning. Merau nokte, last night. 
hodiaii vespere, this evening. dimancon matene, Sunday morning. 
hodiau nokte, tonight. lundon vespere, Monday evening. 

hieraii vespere, last evening. mardon nokte, Tuesday night. 

94. An accusative of time does not necessarily imply 
that the act or state mentioned occurs oftener than the 
instance cited. An adverb from the same root usually 
gives an idea of frequency or repetition: 

Li iros al ilia domo dimancon, he will go to their house Sunday. 
Li iras al ilia domo dimance, he goes to their house Sundays. 
Li laboris tagon kaj nokton, he worked a day and a night. 
Li laboras tage kaj nokte, he works day and night (by day and by 

68 LEssox XXI. [§95 


95. The object or purpose with reference to which an 
act is performed or a condition exists is expressed by the 
preposition per, for. It directs the thought toward its 
complement, contrasting thus with pro (86): 

Mi havas libron por vi, / have a hook for you. 

Mi ne havas la tempon por tiel longa promeno, I have not the time for 

so long a {such a long) walk. 
Hi faris gin por via plezuro, they did it for your pleasure. 


brila, brilliant. merkredo, Wednesday. 

Dio, God. mezo, middle. 

dividi, to divide. mondo, world. 

fail, to make. pad, to be at peace. 

forgesi, to forget. por, for (95). 

gojo, joy. plori, to weep. 

konstanta, constant. preta, ready. 

kvieta, quiet, calm. ridi, to laugh. 

lando, land, country. riproci, to reproach. 


Antaii tre longa tempo Dio faris la mondon. Li vidis ke 
la floroj havas belajn kolorojn, ke la arboj estas altaj kaj 
verdaj. Tiam li vokis la sezonojn kaj diris "Belan mon- 
don mi faris por vi. Cu vi gardos gin tage kaj nokte, kaj 

5 estos tre zorgaj pri gi ? " La sezonoj respondis "Jes," kaj 
ridis pro gojo. Mallongan tempon ili §ajnis esti tre 
felifiaj inter la arboj kaj floroj de la nova mondo. Sed ne 
multajn semajnojn ili tiel zotge gardis la mondon. Ili 
komencis malpaci (quarrel) inter si, de la mateno gis la 

10 vespero, kaj ofte forgesis la arbojn kaj florojn. Ju pH ili 
malpacis, des malpli zorge ili gardis la mondon. La mal- 
konstanta printempo ne satis la kvietan vintron, kaj ploris 

§95] LESSON XXI. 69 

pri la malvarma nego. La varma brila somero diris ke la 
aMuno estas tro malbrila. La laca autuno volis ripozi, 
kaj riprocis la malkonstantan printempon pri 6i ties kota is 
vetero. Pli kaj pli multe ili malpacis, kaj post ne longe 
ili tute ne restis amikoj . Tiam la autuno diris "Mi ne povas 
pli longan tampon labori kun vi pro la mondo. Niaj 
gustoj estas tro diversaj. Tial hodiaii matene ni dividos 
la mondon inter ni." La vintro respondis "Bone! Mi estas 20 
preta," kaj la somero kaj la printempo ridis pro gojo. 
Tiun tagon ili dividis la mondon inter si. I;a vintro kon- 
struis sian domon en la plej nordaj kaj sudaj landoj . Tie 
la frosto, nego kaj glacio kovras la tutan landon, dum la 
tuta jaro. La brila energia somero prenis por si la mezon 25 
de la mondo. Tial la vetero tie estas plej varma kaj brila. 
La atituno kaj la printempo prenis por si la landoj n inter 
la vintro kaj la somero. Tial la vetero estas nek tro varma 
nek tro malvarma en ci tiuj landoj. Tiam la sezonoj 
rakontis al Dio ke ili tiel dividis la mondon inter si. 30 


1. Tuesday my brother heard an interesting story, and 
Wednesday evening after a pleasant walk he related it to 
me. 2. The story is, that many years ago God made the 
beautiful new world, and gave it to the seasons. 3. They 
laughed for joy, and said that they would guard it well. 
4. They were ready for pleasure, and also were willing 
(volis) to work energetically for-the-sake-of the new young 
world. 5. Almost a year they were happy, but these sea- 
sons were too diverse, and could not long remain friends. 
6. The brilliant summer wept and reproached the tired au- 
tumn. 7. The autumn preferred to rest, and disliked the 
muddy weather of the inconstant spring. 8. The quiet 
winter concealed itself beneath the frost and soft white 

70 LESSON XXII. [§§96-97 

snow, and wished to sleep. 9. The longer they kept the 
world among them, the more they quarreled. 10. Soon 
the autumn made the proposition, "We will divide the 
world." 11. Immediately that morning the seasons di- 
vided the world among themselves. 12. The northern and 
southern lands now belong to the winter, and the middle 
of the world belongs to the summer. 1,3. The spring and 
autumn took for themselves those lands between the winter 
and summer. 



96. The time during which an act takes place or a con- 
dition exists may be expressed not only by an adverb or 
accusative of time (91), or by use of the preposition dum, 
but also by a clause introduced by dum: 

Li venis dum vi f orestis, he came while (during-the-time-that) you were 

Dum la sezonoj malpacis, ili forgesis pri la mondo, while the seasons 

quarreled, they forgot about the world. 
Ni ridas pro g;ojo dum negas, we laugh for joy while it is snowing. 


97. A clause expressing an action or condition as preced- 
ing or anticipating that of the main verb is introduced by 
antau ol: 

Mi foriros antau ol vi venos, / shall depart before you (will) come. 
Antaii ol vi riprocis lin, li ne ploris, before you reproached him, he did 

not weep. 
Vi ploris antafi ol vi ridis, you wept before {sooner than) you laughed. 

§§98-100j LESSON XXII. 71 


98. An infinitive may be substantively* used with 
anstataii to express substitution, witii por to express pur- 
pose (C/. Old English "But what went ye out /or to see," 
Matt, xi, 8), and with antau ol to express anticipation.! 
It is usually translated by the English infinitive in -ing: 

Anstatau resti li foriris, instead of staying he went away. 

Vi malhelpas anstatau helpi min, you hinder instead of helping me. 

Wi venis por helpi vin, we came to help {in order to help) you. 

Mi estas preta por iri merkredon, / am ready to go {for going) Wednes- 

Li havos tro multe por fari, he will have too much to do. 

Mi laboros antau ol ripozi, / shall work before resting. 

Antaii ol foriri, li dankis min, before going away, he thanked me. 

Dio faris la mondon antau ol doni |;in al la sezonoj, God made the 
world before giving it to the seasons. 


99. After nouns indicating a quantity or portion of some 
indefinite whole, the substantive expressing that indefinite 
whole is preceded by the preposition da, of: 

Estas skatolo da £erizoj tie, there is a box of cherries there. 
Mi trovis grandan sakon da mono, / found a large bag of money. 
Li havas teleron da viando, he has a plate of meat. 
Post horoj da gojo ofte venas horoj da malgojo, after hours of joy 
there often come hours of sorrow. 

100. The preposition da must not be used if a quantity 
or portion of a definite or limited whole is expressed. If 

* Substantive is the general name for nouns and pronouns, that is, for words 
which indicate persons, things, etc., and may be used as subject or object of a 
verb, complement of a preposition, etc. 

t The infinitive may be used with antau ol if its subject is the same as the 
subject of the main verb. Otherwise the construction explained in 97 must 
be used. 

72 LESSON XXII. [§100 

the word indicating the whole is limited by la, it is thereby 
made definite: 

Telero de la maturaj pomoj, a plate of the ripe apples. 
Sako de la bona kafo, a sack of the good coffee. , 


Aleksandro, Alexander. koai, to be acquainted with. 

barelo, barrel. laiita, loud. 

bruo, noise. lito, bed. 

da, of (99). logi, to dwell, to reside. 

demandi, to inquire, to ask. nombro, number (quantity), 

Diogeno, Diogenes. pura, clean. 

greka, Greek. sufica, sufficient, enough. 

kelkaj, several, some. veki, to wake. 

kvankam, although. viziti, to visit. 

Cjfono, rag. vesto, garment, clothes. 


Antaii multaj jaroj saga greka viro, Diogeno, logis en 
granda urbo. Li opiniis ke ju pli malmulte oni bezonas, 
des pli felica oni estas. Per montri al la mondo ke li ne 
bezonas multe, kaj ke tial li havas sufice por esti felica, 

sli logis en granda malnova barelo, anstataii havi domon. 
Anstatau kusi nokte sur lito au almenau sur mola tapiso, 
li ec dormis en tin barelo. Oni multe parolis pri Diogeno 
en la urbo, ne nur car li tiel logis, sed ankaii pro liaj sagaj 
diroj. Post kelke da tempo {some time) la rego Alek- 

10 sandro Granda venis tien por viziti la urbon. Dum li estis 
tie li aiidis pri Diogeno, kaj demandis pri li. " Cu li logas 
en la urbo?" Aleksandro diris. " Kvankam vi ne konas hn, 
mi opinias ke mi volas vidi tian viron." Oni respondis 
" Diogeno estas saga viro, sed anstatau logi en domo, li pre- 

isferas sidi la tutan tempon en malnova barelo. Anstatau 
porti (wearing) purajn vestojn, li portas nur malpurajn 
cifonojn, car li opinias ke ju pli malmulte li bezonas, des 

§100] LESSOlif 5XII. 73 

pli feli6a li estos." Aleksandro diris " Antau ol foriri de 
via lando mi vizitos tiun viron." Antati ol li foriris de la 
urbo, Aleksandro iris kim nombro da amikoj por viziti20 
Diogenon, kaj trovis lin en lia barelo. " Cu tiu viro volas 
paroli al mi?" demandis Diogeno per lauta voco. Aleksan- 
dro Granda respondis " Mi estas la rego Aleksandro, kaj 
mi volas koni vin. Mi vidas ke kvankam vi estas saga vi 
estas tre malrica. Cu vi ne volas kelkajn novajn vestojnss 
anstataii tiuj malpuraj cifonoj?" Diogeno tuj diris 
" Antau ol vi venis kaj staris inter mi kaj la suno, ci tiu 
tre varme brilis sur min. Cu vi venis por fari bruon kaj 
por veki min?" Aleksandro ridis kaj diris " Mi vidas ke 
vi havas sufice por esti felida. Tial mi estas preta por so 


1. Diogenes was a wise man who dwelt in a Greek city, 
many years ago. 2. In order to show to the inconstant 
world that one does not need much in order to be happy, 
he did not have even a house or a bed. 3. He stayed day 
and night in a big barrel, instead of residing in a house. 
4. He preferred to wear old rags, instead of good clean 
clothes. 5. He said " The less one needs, the happier he 
will be." 6. While Alexander the Great was visiting that 
city, people talked to him about Diogenes. 7. They asked 
" Are you acquainted-with that wise man?" 8. Soon the 
king went with a number of his friends to that-man's big 
barrel, in the middle of the city. 9. Diogenes was asleep, 
but the noise of the loud voices waked him, and he said 
angrily " You are standing between me and the sun! 
Will you not go away at once?" 10. Although several of 
the men laughed, Alexander said "We did not come to 
quarrel with you. 11. I see that you have enough to be 
happy, so instead of talking and making a noise we shall 

74 lEssoN XXIII. [§§101-103 

leave (go away from) you at once." 12. Before Diogenes 
could answer, Alexander had quietly walked away. 



loi. After adverbs used to indicate a quantity or portion 
of some indefinite whole, as well as after nouns of such 
meaning (99), the substantive expressing the indefinite 
whole is preceded by the preposition da : * 

Multe da bruo, much {a quantity of) noise. 

Tiel malmulte da tempo, so little {such a small quantity of) time. 

Kelke da pomoj, some {an indefinite number of) apples. 

102. Verbs may be modified by an adverb and prepo- 
sitional phrase containing da : 

Li trinkis malmulte da akvo, he drank little {not much) water. 
Estas multe da sablo en la dezerto, there is much sand in the desert. 
Ju pli negas, des pli multe da nego ku§as sur la vojoj, the more it 
snows, the more snow lies on the roads. 

103. It is evident from the above examples that an 
adverb followed by da has a somewhat collective sense, 
indicating a general sum, mass, or portion of the whole, 
without distinction of particulars. An adjective of quan- 
titative meaning, on the other hand, usually indicates con- 
sideration of the individuals composing the sum or mass 

En urbo oni havas multe da bruo, in a city one has much noise. 
Ni audis multajn bruojn, we heard many {different) noises. 
Tie oni havas multe da plezuro, there one has much pleasure. 
Oni havas multajn plezurojn tie, people have many {different) pleas- 
ures there. 

*A prepositional phrase containing da, whether following a noun or an ad- 
v*'':b, is sometimes called a partitive construction. 

§§104-105] LESSON xxiii. 75 


104. The demonstrative adverb of quantity related to 
the demonstrative pronoun tiu is tiom, that (this) much, 
that many, that quantity, so much, etc.: — 

Mi donis tiom da mono al vi, / gave that much (that amount of) money 

to you. 
Mi a£etis tiom da viando, / bought that much meat. 
Tiom de la libroj mi legis, that many of the books I read. 


105. A clause of result (also called a consecutive clause) 
expresses an action or condition as due to, or resulting 
from, something indicated in the main sentence, as " he is 
so strong that he can do it," " I had so much pleasure that 
I laughed heartily." In Esperanto a result clause is 
introduced by ke, preceded (directly or in the main sen- 
tence) by an adverb or adjective of manner, degree, or 
quantitj' : 

Diogeno estis tiel saga greka viro ke Aleksandro laudis lin, Diogenes 
was such a wise Greek man that Alexander praised him. 

Mi havis tiom da plezuro ke mi tre ridis, / had so much pleasure thai 
I laughed very much. 

&i estas tia vilago ke mi §atas logi tie, it is such {that sort of) a village 
that I like to live there. 


aceti, to buy. kontuzo, bruise. 

asparago, asparagus. lakto, milk. 

brasiko, cabbage. legomo, vegetable. 

butiko, store, shop ovo, egg. 

frago, strawberry. pizo, pea. 

funto, pound. sabato, Saturday. 

glaso, glass, tumbler. tiom, that much (i04). 

Jaiido, Thursday. vendredo, Friday. 

kremo, cream. vilago, village. 

76 LESSON xxxu. [§105 


Hodiau matene mi iris kun la patrino al la plej granda 
butiko en nia vilago. Tie si afietis tiom da legomoj kaj 
fruktoj ke ni tute ne povis porti ilin. Tial juna knabo 
venis kun ni, kaj portis kelke da ili por ni. La patrino ne 

5 acetis tiel multe je vendredo, sed hodiau estas sabato, kaj si 
volis aceti legomoj n por dimanco, 6ar dimance oni ne povas 
iri en la butikojn. Tial sabate oni kutime a6etas sufice 
por la mangoj de sabato kaj dimanfio. Meze de la butiko 
staras multe da bareloj. En ci tiuj oni trovas grandan 

10 nombron da f resaj puraj legomoj . La patrino acetis tiel 
multe da asparago kaj novaj pizoj, kaj tiel grandan sakon 
da terpomoj, ke la tablo restis preskaii nuda. Mi vidis 
brasikon tie, sed tiun legomon mi malsatas, kvankam oni 
diras ke gi estas tre bona legomo. Antaii ol foriri de la 

15 butiko la patrino acetis kelke da ovoj, kaj rigardis la 
fruktojn en bareloj apud la pordo. Ili sajnis tiel bonaj ke si 
acetis kelkajn maturajn pomojn kaj skatolon da fragoj. 
Dum oni donis al si la fruktojn, mi acetis kelkajn funtojn 
da sukero. Tiam ni estis pretaj por foriri el la butiko. 

3oSur la vojo ni aiidis tiel grandan bruon ke mi lasis la pa- 
trinon kaj kuris trans la straton. Mi trovis tie infanon,la 
filon de nia najbaro. Li faris la bruon, 6ar li falls de la arbo 
antaii sia domo, kaj tre laute ploris. Li diris al mi ke li 
havas multajn kontuzojn sur la kapo. Car mi bone 

85 konas la infanon, mi demandis " Cu vi volas grandan 
rugan pomon? Mi havas tian pomon por vi." Li tuj 
kaptis la pomon, kaj mi foriris. Tiam la patrino kaj mi 
iris al la domo. 


I. I shall go to the village today with my younger sister. 
2. We wish to buy some eggs, vegetables and fruit for 

§106] LESSON XXIV. 77 

Mother. 3. Mother prefers to remain in the house, be- 
cause it is raining. 4. It rained on Thursday and Friday, 
but today it is not raining very much. 5. The air is warm 
and pleasant, and we shall carry umbrellas with us. 6. 
We shall buy some new peas, a box of strawberries and 
several pounds of sugar. 7. Thus we shall have enough 
for the meals of Saturday and Sunday. 8. I wonder 
whether we shall see such asparagus and such cabbage on 
the tables or in the barrels. 9. Although I do not often 
eat such vegetables, Father and Mother are very fond ot 
{multe satas) both cabbage and asparagus. 10. We shall 
also buy enough milk for several glasses of milk, and we 
shall need much cream for the strawberries. 11. It seems 
that we shall buy such a number of vegetables that we 
cannot carry them. 12. While we were standing near the 
door, ready to go toward the village (46), we heard a loud 
voice. 13. A child was standing in the street, and crying. 
14. He wished to go with his mother to visit some friends. 
15. 1 suppose that a noise on the street waked him, and he 
did not wish to remain in his bed. 


106. The interrogative pronoun (and pronominal ad- 
jective) is kiu, who, which. .Since the use of this pronoun 
indicates a question, the sentence containing it does not 
need the interrogative adverb cu (30) : 

Kiu vokas vln ? Who calls youf 

Kiun vi vokas? Whom do you calif 

Kiuj el vi vokis nin ? Which {ones) of you called us? 

Kiujn li lielpis? Whom (which ones) did he help? 

Kiun tagon vi venos? What day will you come? 

78 LESSON XXIV. [§§107-109 

Kiujn legomojn vi preferas? What vegetables do you prefer? 
Mi miras kiun libron vi acetis, / wonder which hook you bought? 

107. The interrogative pronoun kiu has a possessive or 
genitive form kies, whose: 

En kies domo vi logas? In whose house do you reside? 
Kies amikojn vi vizitis? Whose friends did you visit? 


108. A participle is a verbal adjective, as in "a crying 
child." It agrees like other adjectives with the word 
modified (19, 24). The participle from a transitive verb 
(22) may take a direct object, and a participle expressing 
motion may be followed by an accusative indicating direc- 
tion of motion (46). The present active participle, ex- 
pressing what the word modified is doing, ends in -anta, 
as vidanta, seeing, iranta, going: 

La ploranta infano volas dormi, the crying child wishes to sleep. 
Mi vidas la falantajn foliojn, / see the falling leaves. 
Kiu estas la virino a£etanta ovojn ? Who is the woman buying eggs? . 
Mi parolis al la viroj irantaj vilagon, / talked to the men {who were) 
going toward the village. 


109. A participle may be used predicatively with a form 
of esti, as Mi estas demandanta, I am asking, La viro estas 

acetanta, the man is buying. Such combinations are called 
compound tenses, in contrast to the simple or aoristic* 
tenses. Compound tenses occur less often in Esperanto 
than in English, and an aoristic Esperanto tense may often 
be translated by an English compound tense, as La birdoj 

*An aoristic tense consists of but one word (ending in -as, -OS, etc.) and ex- 
presses an act or state as a whole, without specifying whether it is finished, still 
in progress, or yet begim. 

§§110-111] LESSON XXIV. 79 

flugas, the birds are flying. When used to form a compound 
tense, the verb esti is called the auxiliary verb. No other 
verb is ever used as an auxiliary (a simpler method than in 
English, which uses be have, do, will, shall, would, etc.). 


110. The compound tense formed by using the present 
active participle with the present tense of esti is called the 
progressive present tense. It differs from the aoristic present 
by expressing an action as definitely in progress, or a 
condition as continuously existing, at the moment of 
speaking. The conjugation of vidi in this tense is as fol- 

mi estas vidanta, / am seeing. 

vi estas vidanta, you are seeing. 

li (li, gi) estas vidanta, he (she, it) is seeing. 

ni estas vidantaj, we are seeing. 

vi estas vidantaj, you (plural) are seeing. 

ili estas vidantaj, they are seeing. 


111. Words expressing the place where the action indi- 
cated by the root occurs, or where the object indicated by 
the root may be found, are formed by inserting the suffix 
-ej- before the noun-ending:* 

fievalejo, stable (from Cevalo, horse). 

dormejo, dormitory (from dormi, to sleep). 

herbejo, meadow (from herbo, grass). 

lo^ejo, lodging-place, dwelling (from. Io|;i, to dwell, to lodge). 

* Similar formations are made in English with the sufGx -yt as bakery, bindery, 
grocery, etc. This suifix is equivalent to the -ei in German Backerei, bakery, 
Druckerd, printing-office, etc., and to the -ie in French patisserie, pastry-shop, 
imprimerie, printing-shop, etc. 

80 LESSON XXIY. [§111 


alia, other, another, kuiri, to cook. 

baki, to bake. kurteno, curtain. 

dika, thick. kutimo, custrjm. 

facila, easy. leciono, lesson. 

familio, family. lerni, to learn. 

kanapo, sofa. pano, bread. 

kies, whose (107). persono, person. 

kiu, who (106), salono, parlor. 


Oni ofte miras kies domo en nia vilago estas plej bela, 
kaj kiu domo estas la plej agrabla logejo. Nia domo ne 
estas tre granda, sed gi estas nova kaj ni multe §atas gin. 
Gia salono estas granda, kun belaj puraj kurtenoj ko- 
svrantaj la fenestrojn, kaj inola dika tapiso kovranta la 
plankon. Ci tie estas kelkaj segoj, malgranda tablo, kaj 
longa kanapo. Persono j vizitantaj nin kutime sidas en 
6i tiu 6ambro, kaj dum ni estas sidantaj tie ni nur parolas, 
anstataii skribi au legi. Alia cambro en la domo estas tre 

Joluma kaj agrabla, sed malpli granda. Ci tie staras tablo 
sufifie granda por nia tuta familio, kaj en tiu cambro oni 
mangas. Ofte ni restas tie longan tempon post la mango, 
car la patro rakontas interesajn rakontojn al ni, kaj ni 
multe ridas, kaj demandas pri tiuj rakontoj, kaj tiel bone 

isamuzas nin ke mi preskaii forgesas pri miaj lecionoj. 
Tamen mi havas multe da lecionoj por lerni, kaj ili tute ne 
estas facilaj. Je tre frua horo matene mi iras al la lernejo, 
kun miaj fratoj kaj fratinoj. Nur sabate kaj diman6e ni ne 
iras tien. La lernejo estas malnova kaj malgranda, sed 

so oni estas nun konstruanta no van pli grandan lernejon apud 
nia domo. Dum la infanoj estas lernantaj siajn lecionojn 
tie, la patrino kutime iras al la bakejon, por aceti sufice da 
pano, por la mangoj de la tago. Ofte si iras ankaii al 

§111] LESSON XXIV. 81 

aliaj butikoj. Jaudon si acetis kelke da novaj pizoj, kaj 
da asparago. Vendredon si afietis kelkajn funtojn das 
sukero, skatolon da fragoj, kaj sufi6e da kremo kaj lakto. 
Hodiau §i estas acetanta brasikon kaj sakon da terpomoj. 
Si volas kuiri tre bonaii mangon, tamen si havas tro multe 
por fari en la kuirejo, car si ne havas servistinon. 


1. Who is the woman sitting on the sofa in the parlor? 
2. I can not easily see her, but I hear her voice. 3. I 
wonder whose voice that is. 4. However, I think that it 
is the voice of a friend of Mother's. 5. Now I can see her, 
although she does not see me. 6. I am well acquainted 
with her. 7. She is a friend of our whole family, and is 
visiting a neighbor of ours (najbaron nian) in this city. 
8. My sister is sitting on the sofa in another room, and 
learning her lessons. 9. Soon she will go to school. 10. 
Whose book is she reading? 11. That thick book is mine, 
but the other books on the table near her are hers. 12. 
She prefers to sit in the sewing-room (iii) to read or write 
(98), because the curtains in front of the windows are not 
too thick, and so (78) that room is very light and pleasant. 
13. She also likes to look at the falling snow, and the men 
and women walking on the muddy streets. 14. On ac- 
count of the cold weather, people are wearing thick clothes. 
15. The men and boys are keeping their hands in their 
pockets while they walk. 16. The girls walking toward 
the school are friends of my sister's. 17. In that school 
they learn to cook. Soon they will be able to bake bread, 
and even to cook a whole meal. 18. 1 think such a custom 
is very good. 19. Many persons can not cook well enough 
(sufiSe bone). 

82 LESSON XXV. [§§112-114 


112. The interrogative adjective related to the inter- 
rogative pronoun kiu, is kia, what kind of, what sort of: 

Kiajn vestojn li portis? What sort of clothes did he wear? 
Kian panon vi preferas? What kind of bread do you prefer? 
Mi miras kia persono li estas, / wonder what sort of a person he is, 
Kia vetero estas? What sort of weather is it? 
Kia plezuro ! What a pleasure! 


113. The compound tense formed by using the present 
active participle with the past tense of esti represents an 
act or condition as in progress in past time, but not per- 
fected, and is called the imperfect tense. The conjugation 
of vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estis vidanta, I was seeing. 

vi estis vidanta, you were seeing. 

li (§i, gi) estis vidanta, he (she, it) was seeing. 

ni estis vidantaj, we were seeing. 

▼i estis vidantaj, you were seeing. 

ili estis vidantaj, they were seeing. 


114. The compound tense formed by using the present 
active participle with the future tense of esti represents an 
act or condition as in progress — or a condition as existing 
continuously — at a future time, and is called the progressive 
future tense. The conjugation of vidi in this tense is as 
follows : 

mi estos vidanta, I shall be seeing. 
vi estos vidanta, you will be seeing. 
li (ti, gi) estos vidanta, he (she, it) will be seeing. 




ni estos vidantaj, we shall he seeing. 
vi estos vidantaj, you will be seeing. 
ili estos vidantaj, they will he seeing. 


115. When the word or words expressing a salutation or 
exclamation may be regarded as the direct object of a verb 
which is not expressed, these words are put in the accusa- 
tive case: 

Bonan matenon! Good morning! (I wish you " good morning.") 
Bonan nokton! Good night! (I wish you a " good night.") 
Multajn salutojn al via patro ! (I send) many greetings to your father! 
Dankon! Thanks! (I give to you " thanks.") 
Cielon! Heavens! (I invoke the " heavens.") 


116. The majority of roots have such a meaning that 
at least two kinds of words, and often three or four, may 
be formed from them by use of the general endings for 
verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. (Each root will 
hereafter be quoted but once in the vocabularies, with a 
hyphen separating it from the ending with which it appears 
first in the reading lesson, or with which it is most fre- 
quently used.) Following are examples of word forma- 
tion from roots already familiar: 









to shine 

shine, brilliance 

shining, brilliant 






to hloom 

flower, blossom 







to rejoice 

joy, gladness 

joyful, glad 


to bruise 

bruise, contusion 





entire, whole. 



84 LESSON XXV. [§11? 

KONI AND sen. 

117. The verb koni, which means " to know " in the 
sense of " to be acquainted with," is used in speaking of 
persons, languages, places, etc. Koni always has a direct 
object. It is never followed by ke, cu, kiu, or any other 
interrogative word. Scii means " to know " in the sense 
of " to be aware," " to have knowledge." It is not used 
in speaking of persons.* 

Cu vi konas tiun personon? Do you know that person? 

Mi scias ke li estas nia najbaro, / know that he is our neighbor. 

Mi bone konas Bostonon, / am well acquainted with Boston. 

Mi ne scias £u li konas ilin, / do not know whether he knows them. 


av-0, grandfather. kia, what kind of (112). 

buked-o, bouquet. liagv-o, language. 

ekzamen-o, examination. nep-o, grandson. 

ferm-i, to dose. nu! Well! 

frap-i, to strike, to knock. paper-o, paper. 

geometri-o, geometry. salut-i, to greet. 

german-a, German. sci-i,.to know (117). 

hejm-o, home. stud-i, to study. 


Hierau matene mi vizitis la avinon. Sia hejmo estas 
apud la granda nova bakejo. Mi vidis sin tra lafenestro, 
6ar la kurtenoj kovrantaj ^in estas tre maldikaj. Si estis 
sidanta sur la kanapo, kaj skribanta per plumo sur granda 
5 papero. Antau ol frapi sur la pordo mi voids sin kaj diris 
" Bonan matenon, kara avino!" Tuj si demandis " Kiu 
estas tie? Kies vo6on mi atidas?" Mi respondis " Estas 

*Koni is equivalent to German knnnen, French connaitre, Spanish conocer- 
while scii is equivalent to German wissen, French savoir, Spanish saber. 

§117] LESSON XXV. 85 

via nepo. Cu vi ne konas mian vo6on?" Antaii ol si 
povis veni al la pordo mi es'tis malfermanta gin. Mi iris 
en la salonon kaj donis al la avino bukedon da 
" La patrino donas 6i tiujn al vi, kun siaj plej bonaj sa- 
lutoj," mi diris. La avino respondis " Nu, kia plezuro! 
Multan dankon al si pro la bela bukedo, kaj ankau al vi, 
6ar vi portis gin ci tien por mi!" Dum si estis metanta la 
florojn en glason da akvo la avino diris "Nu, kiajn lecio-is 
nojn vi havis hodiaii en la lernejo?" Mi respondis ke mi 
bone konis la lecionojn, car mi zorge studis ilin. "Niestas 
lernantaj la germanan lingvon," mi diris, " kaj ju pli longe 
ni studas gin, des pli multe mi gin §atas, kvankam gi estas 
tre malfacila." Mi rakontis ankaii pri la lecionoj de ge-3o 
ometrio, kaj aliaj lecionoj, sed diris ke la ekzamenoj estos 
baldaii komencantaj. " Je tiu tempo," mi diris, "mi estos 
skribanta la respondojn al la ekzamenoj, preskaii la tutan 
semajnon." La avino demandis kun intereso "Cu la de- 
mandoj de la ekzamenoj estos malfacilaj?" Mi respondis 25 
"Mi ne scias, sed mi timas ke ni estos tre lacaj post tiom 
da laboro." Post kelke da aliaj demandoj kaj respondoj, 
mi opiniis ke estas la horo por foriri. ' Dum mi estis fori- 
ranta, la avino diris "Multajn salutojn al la tuta familio!" 
Mi dankis sin, diris " Bonan tagon!" kaj tiam foriris. 30 


1. What sort of noise do I hear outside the door? 2. 
Are some of my friends knocking? 3. We were talking 
yesterday about the examinations in our school, and these 
boys came home to study with me. 4. 1 shall go to the door 
to open it and to greet my friends. 5. Good morning! 
Did you come to study geometry, or the German language? 
6. Which of these is usually more difficult, and in which 
will the examination be the longer? 7. Well, we brought 

86 LESSON XXVI. [§§118-119 

our German books, because we prefer to study these. 8. 
We wish to know this language thoroughly. 9. We shall 
go into the writing-room (m), for (83) some friends of 
my grandmother are in the parlor. 10. We can hear their 
voices here, and we can not study very well while they are 
talking. 11. They were carrying many flowers, and gave 
a beautiful bouquet to my grandmother. 12. She said 
" Many thanks for (86) the sweet violets! In whose gar- 
den did they bloom?" 13. Her friend's granddaughter is a 
friend of my youngest sister. 14. Well, shall we begin to 
study? Have you enough paper, and have you a good 
pen? 15. I shall close this other door, because they are 
baking bread in the kitchen, and cooking meat. 16. We 
shall be hearing the voices of so many persons that I know 
that we can not study. 


118. The interrogative adverb of place, related to the 
interrogative pronoun kiu is kie, where, in (at) what place. 
If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the 
place indicated by kie, the ending -n is added, forming 
kien, whither (where): 

Kie li estis kaj kien oni forpelis lin? Where was he and whither did 

they drive him {away)f 
Li miros kie lia nepo estas, he will wonder where his grandson is. 
Mi ne scias kien li kuris, / do not know where (whither) he ran. 


119. The past active participle, (for the characteristics 
of a participle see 108) expressing- what the word modified 

§§120-122] LESSON XXVI. 87 

did or has done, ends in -inta, as vidinta, having seen, irinta, 

gone, having gone: 

La falintaj folioj estas brunaj, the fallen leaves are hrown. 

Kiu estas la viro salutinta nin? who is the man having greeted (who 

greeted) us? 
Oni forgesas la foririntajn personojn, one forgets the departed persons 

{the versons who have gone away). 


120. Adverbs may be derived from prepositions whose 
sense permits, by use of the adverb ending -e : 

Antaue li studis la geometrion, previously he studied geometry. 
Poste li studis la germanan, afterwards he studied German. 
Li marSis antaue, ne malantaue, he walked in front, not behind. 
Duma la viroj staris cirkaue, meanwhile the men stood roundabout. 
Hi venis kune kaj sidis apude, they came together and sat near hy. 


121. An adverb expressing place or direction is given the 
ending -n when used with a verb expressing motion toward 
that place or direction (69, 118, etc.): 

Cu li rajdis norden au suden? Did he ride north or south(ward)? 
Ni kuris antauen, ne malantauen, we ran forward, not back. 
La bukedo falls eksteren kaj suben, the bouquet fell out and under- 
Li estis mar§anta hejmen, he was walking home (homeward).* 


122. The suffix -eg- may be added to a root to augment 

* The adverb may precede the verb and be iinited with it by simple juxtapo- 
sition, if the resulting word is not too long : 

Li hejmeniris, he went home (Jie " home-went ")• 
Ni antaueniros, we shall advance {go forward'). 
La bukedo subenfalis, the bouquet fell underneath- 

88 LESSON XXVI. [§122 

or intensify its meaning, thus forming an augmentative of 
the root: 

barelego, hogshead (from barelo, barrel). 

bonega, excellent (from bona, good). 

malbonege, wickedly, wretchedly (from malbone, badly, poorly). 

domego, mansion (from domo, house). 

ploregi, to sob, to wail (from plori, to weep). 

treege, exceedingly (from tre, very). 


aer-0, air. pez-a, heavy. 

danc-i, to dance. pOlv-o, dust. 

fulm-o, lightning. sekv-i, to follow. 

gut-o, drop (of water, etc.). serc-i, to hunt for, to search. 

kie, where (ii8). silent-a, still, silent. 

okaz-i, to happen, to occur. subit-a, sudden. 

okul-o, eye. tegment-o, roof. 

pec-o, piece. tondr-o, thunder. 


Nu, kia pluvego okazis hieraii vespere! Post kvieta 
varmega mateno, subite multaj nuboj kovris la cielon. 
La aero sajnis peza, kaj estis tute silenta kelkan tempon. 
Tiam forte blovanta vento frapegis la arbojn, kaj komencis 

5 fortege skui la brancojn. Multege da polvo kaj malgrandaj 
pecoj da papero dancis kaj flugis cirkaiien en la aero, kaj 
ankaii cielen. Falls tiam kelkaj grandaj gutoj da pluvo, 
kaj ni sciis ke la pluvego estas venanta. Ni malfermis niaj n 
ombrelojn, kaj kuris antauen, por iri hejmen antati ol 

lofalos multe da pluvo. La fulmo tiel ofte brills ke ni fermis 
la okulojn pro gi, kaj treege gin timis. Preskau tuj la 
tondro sekvis gin. Tondris tiom kaj tiel laiitege ke la 
bruo sajnis frapi kontraii niajn kapojn. Tiam komencis 
subite pluvegi, sed je tiu tempo ni estis preskau sub la 

§122] LESSON SXVI. 89 

tegmento de nia domo. Dume la vento pli kaj pli blovegis, 15 
kaj ju pli forte gi blovis, des pli peze la gutoj da pluvo 
falls teren, kun multege da bruo. Mi opinias ke mi mal- 
ofte antaiie vidis tian pluvegon. La sekvintan tagon mi 
promenis tre frue, kaj vidis ke la pordego al la gardeno de 
mia avo estas kusanta sur la tero. Apude mi vidis vento- 20 
flagon falintan de la tegmento de tiu granda 6evalejo. 
Velkintaj floroj kusis sur la tero 6irkaft mi, kaj inter ill 
estis bran6oj falintaj de la arboj, 6ar la grandega forto de 
la vento forrompis ec ci tiujn. Sur malgranda bran6o 
restis nesto, sed kie estis la birdoj! Mi ser6is la junajnss 
birdojn sed tute ne povis trovi ilin, tial mi opinias ke 
ili forflugis antaii ol la ventoj forrompis de la arbo ilian 
malgrandan hejmon. Mi ne scias kien ili flugis, sed mi 
opinias ke ili flugis suden al la arboj en tiu granda kampo 
trans la rivero. so 


1. While we were walking home (121) from school yes- 
terday, it rained very suddenly. 2. What a storm it was! 

3. We were talking about the lessons in geometry, and 
were looking at these books about the German language. 

4. So we did not see the clouds in (on) the sky. 5. Well, 
we forgot about examinations and began to wonder where 
to go. 6. We did not know whether we bad enough time 
to run even to Grandfather's house before it would rain. 
7. Many papers fell out of our books, and the wind caught 
them. 8. The wind chased them away from us, and they 
seemed to dance around in the air. 9. However, we easily 
caught and gathered them, and then we ran forward. 10. 
Suddenly it thundered very loudly, and we saw the bril- 
liant lightning in the sky. 11. We almost closed our eyes 
for the lightning. 12. Big drops of rain fell heavily and 

90 LESSON sxviL [§§123-124 

struck the dust violently. 13. The air was heavy and 
still then, and the storm immediately followed the few 
drops of rain. 14. We hastened across the street, and ran 
faster and faster. 15. We were exhausted (122) and our 
clothes were exceedingly wet before we were in the house. 
16. The rain was dropping from the roof, but we ran 
through it, and knocked on the door. 17. We rested some 
time here, before going home. 



123. The interrogative temporal adverb, related to the 
interrogative pronoun kiu, is kiam, when, at what time ? 

Kiam li sercos min? When will he look for mef 

Oni miras kiam U venos, they wonder when he is coming (will come). 

Kiam falis tiuj gutoj da piuvo ? When did those drops of rain fall f 


124. The compound tense formed by using the past 
active participle with the present tense of esti is called the 
perfect tense. It differs from the aoristic past tense (35) 
and from the imperfect (113) by expressing an act or con- 
dition as definitely completed or perfected. The conju- 
gation of vidi in the perfect tense is as follows: 

mi estas vidinta, / have seen (I am having-seen) . 

vi estas vidinta, you have seen {you are having-seen). 

U (si, gi) estas vidinta, he {she, it) has seen {is having-seen). 

ni estas vidintaj, we have seen {we are having-seen). 

vi estas vidintaj, you have seen (you are having-seen). 

ili estas vidintaj, they have seen {they are having-seen). 

§§125-127] LESSOR xsvii. 91 


125. The general situation of a person, object or action 
is expressed by the use of the preposition ce, at, at the 
house of, in the region or land of, among, with, etc.: 

Li staris silente ce la pordego, he stood silently at the gate. 
Li logas £e mia avo, he lives (dwells) at my grandfather's. 
Hi estas ce la lernejo, they are at the school. 
Li restos £e amikoj, he will stay with (at the house of) friends. 
Li vizitos ce ni morgau, he will visit at-our-house tomorrow. 


126. Words expressing a collection, group or assemblage 
of similar persons or things, as forest (collection of trees), 
army (assemblage of soldiers), etc., may be formed by the 
use of the suffix -ar-. This suffix may itself be used as a 
root to form arc, group, flock, etc., are, in a group, by 
throngs, etc. Words formed with the suffix -ar- are called 

arbaro, forest (from arbo, tree). 

fievalaro, herd of horses (from cevalo, horse). 

kamparo, country (from kampo, field). 

libraro, collection of books, library (from libro, booh). 

amikaro, circle of friends (from amiko, friend). 


127. The general word for "time" in the sense of dura- 
tion, or suitability (as " the proper time "), is tempo. 
The word fojo, time, occasion, refers to the performance or 
occurrence of an act or event, in repetition or series: 

Mi ne havas multe da tempo, I have not much time. 

Li venis multajn fojojn, kaj la lastan fojon li restis longan tampon, 

he came many times, and the last time he remained a long time. 

92 LESSON XXVII. [§128 

Kelkajn fojojn laute tondris, several times it thundered loudly. 
Multe da fojoj ni fermis la okulojn pro la fulmo, many times we closed 
our eyes on account of the lightning. 


128. Proper nouns, that is, nouns which are names of 
persons, cities, countries, etc., are given Esperanto spelling 
if they are names of continents, countries, large or very 
well-known cities, or if they are first (Christian) names of 
persons, as Azio, Asia, Skotlando, Scotland, Bostono, 
Boston, Johano, John, Mario, Mary. Surnames and names 
of places which are small or not well known are more often 
quoted in the national spelling. The pronunciation may 
be indicated in parentheses, as Mt. Vernon (Maunt Vernon), 
Roberto Bruce (Brus), Martinique (Martinik'), etc. 


arane-o, spider. ramp-i, to crawl. 

Azi-o, Asia. rekt-a, direct, straight. 

fie, ai (125). rimark-i, to notice. 

fin-o, end, ending. send-i, to send. >• 

foj-o, tim£, instance (127). Skotland-o, Scotland. 

Mam, when (123). soldat-o, soldier. 

pacienc-o, patience. sukces-i, to succeed. 

pied-o, foot. supr-e, above. 

plafon-o, ceiling. venk-i, to conquer. 


Oni rakontas la sekvantan interesan rakonton pri 
Roberto Bruce, rego antaii multaj jaroj en Skotlando. 
Okazis ke li estis rigardantala soldataron de siaj malamikoj, 
de la fenestro de granda cevalejo. Por povi rigardi plej 
5 facile, kaj ankau por sin kasi, li forsendis siajn soldatojn 
kaj restis la tutan tagon sub tiu tegmento. Kvankam la 

§128] LESSON" XXVII. 93 

6e vale jo estis granda gi estis malnova, kaj li opiniis ke la 
malamikoj ne ser6os liii tie. Je la fino de la tago li subite 
rimarkis araneon sur la muro apud si. La araneo estis 
rampanta supren, sed baldau gi falls en la polvon 6e liaj lo 
piedoj. Tuj la falinta araneo komencis alian fojon supren 
rampi. Alian fojon gi falls teren, sed post ne longe gi 
komencis rampi alian fojon. " Kia pacienco!" diris la 
rego al si. " Mi ne sciis ke la araneo havas tiel multe da 
pacienco! Sed kien gi nun estas falinta?" Li rigardisis 
cirkaiien kaj fine (finally) li vidis la falintan araneon. 
Kun granda surprizo li rimarkis ke gi estas komencanta 
supren rampi. Multajn fojojn gi supren rampis, kaj tiom 
da fojoj gi falls malsupren. Fine, tamen, gi sukcese ram- 
pis gis la plafono. La rego malfermis la bu§on pro sur- 20 
prizo, kaj diris al si " Kiam antaiie mi vidis tiom da pa- 
cienco! Mi opinias ke la fina sukceso de tiu malgranda 
araneo donas al mi bonegan lecionon. Mi estas ofte mal- 
sukcesinta, sed malpli ofte ol tiu araneo sur la muro. Mi 
estas perdinta multe da soldatoj, kaj la malamikoj estas 35 
venkintaj multajn fojojn, 6ar ili havas multe pli grandan 
nombron da soldatoj . Tamen, mi estos pacienca, 6ar oni 
ne scias kiam 11 fine sukcesos. " La sekvintan tagon, la rego 
Roberto Bruce komencis treege labori kontrati siaj mal- 
amikoj. Post mallonga tempo li bone sukcesis, kaj tuteao 
venkis la malamikoj n en granda venko 6e Bannockburn 


1. Although the enemies of Robert Bruce conquered 
him many times, he finally conquered them in Scotland, 
because he was patient and very courageous. 2. He was 
sitting in a large stable, to hide (himself), and also in order 
to (98) look directly from its roof (at) the soldiery (126) 

94 LESSON XXVIII. [§§129-130 

of the enemy. 3. At the end of the day he noticed a spider 
crawhng up (ward) on the wall. 4. The spider fell suddenly 
into the dust and lay at the king's feet, but soon began to 
crawl up. 5. " Where does it wish to go?" said the king 
to himself. 6. " What patience it shows! It has crawled 
up and fallen down a great many times." 7. Finally how- 
ever the spider succeeded, and crawled up to the ceiling. 
8. The king said that he had learned a lesson from the pa- 
tient spider. 9. He said " Although the enemy have con- 
quered many times, because they have a larger number of 
soldiers, I shall finally succeed against them." 10. Soon 
it happened that the wind blew violently, and a rainstorm 
occurred. 11. The blast shook the foliage (126) on the 
trees, and broke away many small branches. 12. A group 
of soldiers ran right (rekte) toward the stable, and Robert 
Bruce was much afraid that they would find him. 13. 
But they merely stole the horses there, and rode away. 



129. The interrogative adverb of motive or reason re- 
lated to the interrogative pronoun kiu is kial, whij, where- 
fore, for what reason: 

Kial la araneo supren rampis ? why did the spider crawl up ? 
Mi demandos kial li rimarkis gin, I will ask why he noticed it. 


130. The infinitive may be used as the subject of a verb.* 
Any modifier of the infinitive is necessarily adverbial. An 

* Cf. the complementary infinitive (28), equivalent to the object of a verb, 
and the use of the infinitive after the prepositions por, anstataii, antaii ol (98). 

§§131-132] LESSON xxviii. 95 

indefinite personal object (or pronominal complement of a 
preposition) after an infinitive used as subject is expressed 
by the reflexive pronoun si: 

Promeni estas granda plezuro, to go walking is a great pleasure. 

Promeni estas agrable, to go walking is pleasant. 

Cu estas facile rigardi la'plafonon? Is it easy to look at the ceiling ? 

Estas bone sin helpi, it is well to help oneself. 

Paroli al si estas malsage, to talk to oneself is silly. 


131. A present act or state which began in the past is 
expressed by the present tense (instead of by the past as in 

Mi estas £i tie de lundo, / have been (I am) here since Monday. 

De Marto mi studas tiun lingvon, since March I have been (7 am) 
studying that language. 

Ill estas amikoj de tiu tago, they have been {they are) friends from 
that day. 

Ni logas tie de antaii kelkaj monatoj, we have been living {we are liv- 
ing) here since some months ago. 


132. The suffix -ul- is used to form nouns indicating a 
person characterized by or possessing the distinguishing 
trait, character or quality in the root : f 

junulo, a youth, a young man (from juna, young). 
belulino, a beauty, a belle (from bela, beautiful). 
maljunulo, an old man (from maljuna, old). 
safulo, a sage, a wise man (from. sa|;a, wise). 
malrifiulino, a poor woman (from malrica, poor). 

* Cf. German eristschon lange hier, he has already been here a long time, French 
je suis id depuis deux ans, I have been here two years, etc. 

fC/. the Enghsh adjectives quer-ul-ous, cred-ul-ous, garr-ul-ous, etc., and the 
Latin nouns fara~ul-us, a servant, fig-ul-us, a potter, and leg-ul-us, a gatherer. 



133. The verb logi, to reside, to dwell, to lodge, must not 
bs confused with vivi, which means to live in the sense of 
" to be ahve:" 

Li lofas apude, he lives near hy. 
Li vivis longan tempon, he lived a long time. 

Vivi felifie estas pli bone ol lo§;i rice, to live happily is better than to 
live (lodge) richly. 


afabl-a, amiable, affable. Mat, why (129). 

afer-o, thing, matter, affair. mejl-o, mile. 

balanc-i, to balance, to nod. ' okulhar-o, eyelash. 

barb-o, beard. okulvitr-oj, spectacles. 

batal-o, battle. pens-i, to think, to ponder. 

brov-o, eyebrow. vang-o, cheek. 

bukl-o, curl (of hair). verand-o, porch, veranda. 

har-o, hair, viv-i, to live (133). 


Mia avo estas tre afabla persono. Li estas maljunulo 
kun blankaj haroj kaj blanka barbo. Li havas bluajn oku- 
lojn, kaj la brovoj super ili estas e6 pli blankaj ol liaj haroj. 
Kvankam li logas en nia vilago de antati kelkaj jaroj, li 

santatie logis en Skotlando. Antaii multaj jaroj li estis 
soldato, kaj li ofte parolas al mi pri la bataloj kaj venkoj de 
tiu tempo. Sidi kviete sur la verando kaj rakonti tiajn 
rakontojn al la nepo sajne donas al li multe da plezuro. 
Multajn fojojn je la fiho de la tago li sidas tie, kaj parolas 

10 pri tiaj aferoj gis malf rua horo de la vespero. Sidi ce 'liaj 
piedoj kaj aiidi liajn rakontojn estas tre interese al, mi. 
Komence, dum mi estas ce li, mi kutime demandas " Cu oni 
sukcesis en tiu batalo?" Tuj li balancas la kapon kaj 
komencas pacience rakonti pri la venkoj kaj malvenkoj 

IB (defeats). Li malofte respondas " Mi ne scias," al miai 

§133] LESSON XXVIII. 97 

demandoj " Kiam," kaj " Kial." Kelkajn fojojn li diras 
" Mi havas tiun opinion, sed mi ne bone scias pri la tuta 
afero, kaj mi miras cu aliaj personoj scias pli bone." Car 
li estas multe studinta kaj pensinta, liaj opinioj estas 
treege interesaj. Li gojas tial ke mi demandas pri aferoj so 
okazintaj (things that have happened), 6ar tiaj demandoj 
montras ke mi ankatt pensas pri ili. Mia avino estas mal- 
granda, kun belaj bukloj da tute blankaj haroj. Si havas 
belajn brunajn okulojn, kun longaj nigraj okulharoj. 
Oni diras ke antaii multaj jaroj §i estis belulino. E6 nun 25 
estas plezure rigardi sin, kaj vidi §iajn rugajn vangojn. 
De antau kelkaj jaroj si portas okulvitrojn por legi aii 
skribi ati kudri, kaj si bezonas ripozon post malmulte da 
laboro. Promeno de e6 mejlo estas tro longa nun per la 
avino. Oni diras ke si ne vivos tre longan tempon, kaj tia .30 
penso donas malgojon al ni, car ni treege amas la afablan 
paciencan avinon. 


1. Our grandfather is an old man, and they say that he 
will not live much longer. 2. He is not very strong, and 
can not take {fari) long walks. 3. The mile between his 
house and ours now seems long to him. 4. He prefers to 
sit quietly in the house or on the veranda, and think, 
nearly all day long (the whole day). 5. He is very amiable, 
and can tell exceedingly interesting stories, about the vic- 
tories and defeats which happened (119) many years ago. 
6. Such things are wicked I think, and I am very glad that 
(83) such battles do not happen now. 7. Grandfather has 
a long white beard and much white hair. 8. It is very 
interesting to hear his stories, and also to look directly at 
him while he is telling them. 9. He tells such stories with 
great pleasure. 10. Although he has lived with (125) us 

98 LESSON XXIX. [§§134-135 

since February (131), he does not know (117) a great many 
of the neighbors, or of the other persons living (133) near. 
11. Grandmother has blue eyes, red cheelis, and soft white 
curls. 12. She speaks slowly, with a sweet voice, and is 
very patient. 13. Today she said to me " Good morning, 
my dear (132), I have lost my spectacles. Will you look- 
for them for me?" I nodded (the head) and soon found 
the spectacles. 



134. The interrogative adverb of manner or degree, 
related to the interrogative pronoun kiu, is kiel, how, in 
what way, to what degree: 

Kiel oni vivas en tia aero? How do people live in such air? 
Kiel afabla §i estas ! How amiable she is ! 

Mi miras kiel la batalo okazis, / wonder how the battle happened. 
Kiel longe li pensis pri gi ? How long did he think about it? 


135. The compound tense formed by combining the 
past active participle with the past tense of esti represents 
an act or condition as having been completed at some time 
in the past, and is called the ■plwperfect tense. The conju- 
gation of vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estis vidinta, I had seen (I was having-seen). 

vi estis vidinta, you had seen (you were having-seen). 

li (§i, gi) estis vidinta, he (she, it) had seen (was having-seen). 

ni estis vidintaj, we had seen (we were having-seen). 

vi estis vidintaj, you had seen (you were having-seen). 

ili estis vidintaj, they had seen (they were having-seen). 

§§136-139] LESSON XXIX. 99 


136. Cardinals are numeral adjectives which answer the 
question " How many?" The cardinals from one to 
twelve are as follows: 

unu, one. sep, seven. 

du, two. ok, eight. 

tri, three. nau, nine. 

kvar, jour. dek, ten. 

kvin, jive. dek unu, eleven. 

ses, six. dek du, twelve. 

137. With the exception of unu, none of the cardinals 
may receive the plural ending -j or the accusative ending 
-n. That is, they are invariable in form. Unuj may be 
used to mean some in contrast to aliaj, others : 

Unuj marSis, aliaj kuris, some walked, others ran. 

Mi prenis unujn kaj lasis la aliajn, / took some and lejt the others. 

138. The preposition el is used after numeral adjectives 
expressing a number out of some larger number or quan- 

Ses el la knaboj venis, six oj the boys came. 

Ok el tiuj libroj estas la miaj, eight oj those books are mine. 

El tiuj 6apeloj mi latas nur unu, oj those hats I like only one.* 


139. A substantive in the accusative case may be used, 
instead of a prepositional phrase or an adverb, not only to 

* The cardinal unu must not be used in the sense of the English pronominal 
" one," as in / am searching for a book, but not the one on the table, which should be 
translated Mi sercas libron, sed ne tiun sur la tatlo. 

100 LESSON XXIX. [§139 

express measure (duration) of time (91), but also to ex- 
press measure of weight, price, length, etc.: 

Li marlis dek unu mejlojn, he walked eleven miles. 

La parko estas lar|;a tri mejlojn, kaj longa kvar mejlojn, the park is 

three miles wide and four miles long. 
La tablo pezas dek du funtojn, the table weighs (is heavy) twelve 



Mi rakontos al vi kian familion ni havas. Ni estas ses 
personoj kaj ni logas en 6i tiu domo de antau preskau kvar 
jaroj. Antaii ol veni 6i tien al la urbo, ni estis logintaj tri 
jarojn en kvieta vilago en la kamparo. Mia patro estas 
salta, kun grizaj haroj kaj griza barbo. Kvankam li ne 
estas riSulo, li tamen havas sufice da mono por vivi kon- 
tente kaj feli6e. Li satas marsi, kaj ofte li estas marsinta 
kvin aii ses mejlojn por unu promeno. Unu fojon mi de- 
mandis " Kiel vi povas mar§i tiel multe?" Li respondis 

10" Dum mi estis junulo mi estis soldato, kaj tiam mi estis 
tre multe marlanta. Tial mi ne forgesas la plezurojn de 
longaj promenoj." La patrino estas malpli alta ol mi, 
kaj kiel bluajn okulojn si havas, sub nigraj okulharoj kaj 
nigraj brovoj! Siaj haroj estas nigraj kaj buklaj, kaj siaj 

isvangoj estas rugaj. Si havas dolcan vocon, kaj estas 
plezuro atidi siajn kantojn. Por legi ail skribi si kutime 
portas okulvitrojn. Mi havas du fratojn kaj unu fratinon. 
La fratino havas dek unu jarojn.* Unu el la fratoj havas 
ok jarojn, la alia havas dek du jarojn. Hi povas bonege 

aokuri, rajdi, kaj fari aliajn interesajn aferojn. Hi Jernis 
siajn lecionojn en la lernejo tiel bone ke ses fojojn en unu 

* Like French and some other languages, Esperanto commonly uses the verb 
to have rather than the verb to be, in expressing age: 
I/i havas set jaro'n, he i"s seven years old (he has seven years). 
Mi havis dek jarojn tiam, I was ten years old (/ had ten years) then. 

§139] LESSON XXIX. 101 

monato oni laudis ilin. Ni multe gojis pri tiom da latido 
por la f ratoj . La fratino estas malpli f orta, tamen si ofte 
promenas kun ni e6 du aii tri mejlojn. La avino ankaii 
logas 6e ni de antau sep ati ok jaroj. Unu el ni kutimess 
restas 6e la hejmo kun si, dum la aliaj promenas, 6ar si ne 
estas sufice forta por marsi ec unu mejlon. Mi ofte miras 
kial si preferas sidi sur la verando, kaj mi demandas al ai 
" Cu vi estas tro laca por marsi?" Si kutime balancas la 
kapon kaj diras " Jes, mia nepo, mi estas tro laca." 30 


1. Three and four make seven. 2. Two and six make 
eight. Five and six make eleven. 3. Seven and five make 
twelve. 4. I have been studying geometry since five 
months ago, and German since January. 5. I have read 
three German books, but I shall not be able to talk in this 
language until after August. 6. To learn how to speak 
such a language is a difficult matter. 7. Nine of the children 
in our school are now studying German with me, 8. Some 
learn it easily, others do not like it. 9. Three of the boys 
and two of the girls in that school are German. 10. They 
had resided tour years in a large city, but I think (that) 
they live more contentedly in our quiet village. 11. They 
can not talk with us very well, but merely nod their heads 
when we talk to them. 12. I had not seen them before 
they came to school, although they are neighbors of ours. 
13. They are amiable children, with blue eyes, red cheeks, 
and yellow hair. 14. They can ride very well, and often 
ride eight or ten miles in one day. 15. They usually ride 
in a park three miles wide and four miles long, where there 
is but little (nur malmulte da) dust. 

102 LESSON XXX. [§§140-142 



140. The interrogative adverb of quantity related to the 
interrogative pronoun kiu is kiom, how much, how many: 

Kiom da tempo vi ripozis? How much time did you rest? 

Kiom da sukero kaj kiom da fragoj vi acetis ? How much sugar and 

how many strawberries did you buyf 
Ni miras kiom da mono li havos, we wonder how much money he will 

Kiom de la leciono vi lernis? How much of the lesson did you learn? 


141. Any modifier of an impersonal verb (50) or of a 
verb used impersonally, that is, with an infinitive or clause 
for its subject, or without any definitely expressed or per- 
sonal subject (as in " it is cold," " it seems too early "), 
must necessarily be adverbial: 

Estas varme en la domo, it is warm in the house. 

Estos malvarme morgaii, it will he cold tomorrow. 

Estas bone ke li venis, it is well that he came. 

Estas amuze ke ni forgesis lin, it is amusing that we forgot him. 

Ke vi venis estis tre sage, that you came was very wise'. 

Estos pli agrable en la salono, it will be pleasanter in the parlor. 


142. The cardinal numerals for the tens, hundreds and 
thousands are formed by prefixing du, tri, kvar, etc., to 
dek, ten, cent, hundred, and mil, thousand, respectively. 

dudek, twenty. sesdek, sixty. 

tridek, thirty. sepdek, seventy. 

kvardek, forty. okdek, eighty. 

kvindek, fifty. naudek, ninety. 

§§143-145] LESsOiN- XXX 103 

Hundreds. Thousands, 

ducent, two hundred. trimil, three thousand. 

kvincent, five hundred. kvarmil, jour thousand. 

sepcent, seven hundred, etc. sesmil, six thousand, etc. 

143. The cardinals between ten and twenty, twenty and 
thirty, etc., are formed by placing unu, du, tri, etc., after 
dek, dudek, tridek, etc. (C/. dek unu, eleven, dek du, 
twelve, 136): 

dek kvar, fourteen. tridek kvin, thirty-five. 

dek nau, nineteen. sepdek ok, seventy-eight. 

dudek tri, twenty-three, naudek ses, ninety-six, etc. 

144. Cardinals containing more than two figures begin 
with the largest number and descend regularly, as in 

cent tridek kvin, one hundred and thirty-five. 
kvarcent naiidek sep, jour hundred and ninety-seven. 
sescent du, sdx hundred and two. 
mil okdek, one thousand and eighty. 

mil naucent dek du, one thousand nine hundred and twelve (riineteen 
hundred and twelve). 


145. The suffix -an- is used to form words indicating an 
inhabitant or resident of the place denoted by the root, or 
a member or adherent of the'party, organization, etc., de- 
noted by the root : * The suffix -an- may itself be used as 
a" root, forming ano, member, etc. 

bostonano, Bostonian. domano, inmate of a house. 

kamparano, countryman, peasant, vilagano, villager. 

*Cf. English urb-an, siiburh-an, Rom-an, repubUc~an, Mohammed-an, etc. 

104 LESSON XX5. [§145 


aritmetik-0, arithmetic. memor-i, to remember. 

cent, hundred (142). mil, thousand (142). 

erar-o, error, mistake. minut-o, minute. 

grad-o, grade, degree. ricev-i, to receive. 

kalkul-i, to calculate, to reckon. sekund-o, second. 

kiom, how much (140). superjar-o, leap-year. 


Estas malvarme hodiau, kaj tute ne agrable ekster la 
domo. La urbanoj ne eKstas promenantaj en la parko, car 
ill preferas resti en la domoj. Mi ankau restis en la domo, 
kaj parolis al mia juna frato. Mi helpis lin pri la leciono 

sen aritmetiko, tial ke li baldaii havos ekzamenojn, kaj li 
volas esti preta por skribi tre bonajn respondojn. Mi de- 
mandis al li " Kioni faras dek tri kaj dek kvar?" Li 
respondis ke tiuj faras dudek sep. Tiam mi demandis 
kiom faras dudek unu kaj tridek kvar. li Icalkulis kvin 

loaii ses sekundojn, per mallauta vo6o, kaj diris "Hi faras 
kvindek kvin." Mi demandis kiom faras ducent tri kaj 
sepcent ok, kaj li respondis ke ill faras naiicent dek unu. 
Li tute ne faris erarojn al mi, kaj fine mi diris al li ke li 
povas bonege kalkuli. Mi opinias ke li ricevos bonan 

15 gradon en la ekzamenoj. Post kelkaj minutoj ni komencis 
paroli pri aliaj aferoj. Mi demandis " Kiom da tagoj en 
la monato septembro?" La frato respondis " Septembro, 
novembro, aprilo ka,j junio havas tridek tagojn. Kvankam 
tiuj monatoj havas tiom da tagoj, la aliaj monatoj havas 

20 tridek unu tagojn. Sed la monato februaro havas nur 
dudek ok tagojn." Estas interese lerni pri ci tiu monato 
februaro. Dum tri jaroj gi havas dudek ok tagojn, sed 
en la sekvanta jaro gi havas dudek nau tagojn. La 
jaro havanta tian februaron estas la " superjaro." Mi 

§146] LESSON XXXI. 105 

rakontis tiun interesan aferon al la frato, kaj li diris kess 
li bone memoros gin. Li diris ke li ne antaiie sciis pri la 
superjaro. Li ne sciis ke la superjaro havas tricent sesdek 
ses tagojn, kvankam la aliaj jaroj havas nur tricent sesdek 
kvin tagojn. Li diris ke li ankati memoros pri la nombro 
da tagoj en la superjaro, kaj ke li rakontos la aferon al la so 
aliaj knaboj. 


1. (To be written out in full): 14, 18, 42, 86, 79, 236, 
431, 687, 788, 1240, 1885, 9872, 4500, 1912. 2. There are 
twelve months in a j^ear, and in most of the months of the 
year there are thirty-one days. 3. There are only thirty 
days in the months April, June, September and Novem- 
ber. 4. There are seven days in a week, and twenty-four 
hours in a day. 5. Twelve of these hours make the day, 
and the others make the night. 6. There are sixty minutes 
in one hour, and sixty seconds in one minute. 7. There 
are four weeks and also two or three days in one month. 
8. In the year there are fifty-two weeks. 9. How many 
weeks are there in ten years? 10. At least one year in ten 
years is a leap-year. 11. In a leap-year there are three 
hundred and sixty-six days, instead of three hundred and 
sixty-five. 12. Wise men calculated about this matter, 
many years ago. 13. It is well for us that they liked to 
study arithmetic. 15. I have often received good grades 
in this study. 16. I remember it easily, and seldom make 



146. A connecting pronoun referring to something which 
precedes (or follows) is called a relative pronoun. The 

106 LESSON XXXI. [§§147-148 

person or thing to which it refers is called its antecedent. 
The relative pronoun, identical in form with the interrog- 
ative pronoun (io6), as in English, is kiu, which, who* The 
relative pronoun agrees in number with its antecedent. 
Whether it is in the accusative case or not depends upon 
its relation to its own verb or to other words in its own 
clause (called the relative clause) : 

La junuloj, kiuj venis, estas afablaj, the youths who came are amiable. 
La personoj, kiujn U vidos, estas amikoj miaj, the persons (whom) he 

will see are friends of mine. 
Mi kalkulis la gradon, kiun li ricevos, / calculated the grade {which) 

he will receive. 
Mi memoras tiun aferon, pri kiu vi parolas, / remember that matter 

about which you speak. 

147. Like English " whose " the genitive form kies of 
the interrogative pronoun (107) is also used as a relative, 
referring to a substantive (singular or plural) for its 

Li estas la Tiro, kies libron vi trovis, he is the man whose book you 

Mi konas la infanojn, kies patro estas amiko via, / know the children 

whose father is a friend of yours. 


148. The compound tense formed by combining the 
past participle with the future tense of the auxiliary verb 
esti represents an act or condition as having been already 
completed or perfected at a future time, and is called the 
future perfect tense. The conjugation of vidi in this tense 
is as follows: 

♦Sometimes English uses " that" for a relative pronoun, as " I saw the book 
that you have." This must always be translated by kiu. Likewise, English 
sometimes omits the relative pronoun, as " I saw the book you have." The 
relative pronoun is never thus omitted in Esperanto. 

§149] LESSON XXXL 107 

mi estos vidinta, I shall have seen (/ shall he having-seen). 

vi estos vidinta, you will have seen (you will be having-seen). 

li (M, §i) estos vidinta, he {she, it) will have seen {will be having-seen), 

ni estos vidintaj, we shall have seen {shall be having-seen). 

vi estos vidintaj, you will have seen {will be having-seen). 

ili estos vidintaj, they will have seen {will be having-seen). 

149. Ordinal numerals are adjectives which answer the 
question " Which in order?" as " first," " third," etc. 
They are formed by adding the adjectival suffix -a to the 
cardinals. The various parts of an ordinal must be con- 
nected by hyphens, since it is to the entire cardinal, and 
not any part of it, that the adjective ending -a is attached: 

unua, first. dudek-sepa, twenty-seventh. 

dua, second. kvardek-sesa, forty-sixth. 

tria, third. cent-okdek-kvina, hundred and eighty-fifth. 

oka, eighth. mil-okcent-kvara, one thousand and eighty- 

dek-unua, eleventh. fourth. 

dek-naua, nineteenth. sesmil-sepa, six thousand and seventh.* 


angl-a, English. neces-a, necessary. 

dezir-i, to desire. paf-i> to shoot. 

dolar-o, dollar. pafark-o, how (for shooting), 

gajn-i, to win, to gain. part-o, part, share. 

kost-i, to cost. pen-i, to strive, to try. 

last-a, last. traduk-i, to translate. 

latin-a, Latin. sag-o, arrow. 

mar-o, sea. sam-a, same. 


Antati pli multe ol mil jaroj vivis Alfredo Granda, unu 

* Ordinal numerals may be abbreviated'thxis: la, 1st, 2a, Snd, 3a, 3rd, sa, 
5tk, 1912a, 1912th, 233a, 233rd, etc. If the ordinal number is used in an ac- 
cusative construction, the abbreviation is given the accusative ending, as lan, 
2an, 3an, I9i2an, etc. 

108 LESSON XXXL [§149 

el la plej interesaj personoj pri kiuj ni estas aiidintaj . Li 
estis la unua angla rego, kiu deziris legi librojn. Li estis 
ankaii la lasta, kiu povis legi ilin, gis post multaj jaroj. 
5 Unu tagon, dum li estis malgranda knabo kun flavaj buklaj 
haroj, lia patrino, tre saga regino, montris al li kaj al liaj 
fratoj belegan libron. Si diris ke la libro kostis multe da 
mono en lando trans la maro, kaj ke gi nun apartenas al si. 
Si diris " Miaj filoj, mi donos ci tiun libron al tiu el vi, kiu 

lolernos legi gin. Kiu el vi estos la unua, kiu povos legi? 
Tiu ricevos la libron." Nu, Alfredo komencis studi, kaj 
post ne longe li gajnis la belegan libron. Liaj fratoj 
ec ne penis gajni gin. Tiam oni tre malmulte pensis 
pri libroj. La regoj kaj iliaj filoj nur malofte povis 

15 legi, kaj treege malofte povis skribi. Oni laiidis nur per- 
sonojn, kiuj bone rajdis kaj batalis per sagoj kaj pafarkoj. 
Sed oni opiniis ke tute ne estis necese scii pri la aferoj, 
kiujn la libroj rakontas. Tial Alfredo ne ricevis laiidon 
pro sia deziro por legi. La sesan ail sepan jaron post sia 

2oricevo de la libro, Alfredo volis lerni la latinan lingvon, 
6ar tiam oni skribis latine (in Latin) la librojn, kiuj estis 
plej bonaj. Oni sercis gis la finoj de la lando, kaj iris 
multajn mejlojn, sed preskaii ne povis trovi personon, kiu 
et estis audinta pri tia lingvo. Fine oni trovis personon 

25 por helpi Alfredon, kiu tiam lernis la latinan lingvon. 
Tiu sama Alfredo estis rego multajn jarojn, kaj estis unu 
el la plej bonaj regoj, kiujn la angla lando estas havinta. 
Alfredo skribis librojn en la latina lingvo, kaj ankaii tra- 
dukis latinajn librojn en la anglan lingvon. 


1. (To be written out in full): 37th, 59th, 73rd, 92nd, 
846th, 119th, 1274th, 1910th, 14235th. 2. Before my 
friend wiU have finished that mansion (122), it will have 

§150] LESSON XXXII. 109 

cost twenty thousand dollars. 3. Before coming to visit 
you, I shall have ridden twelve miles on my horse. 4. 
The grade which you will have received in arithmetic soon 
after the first of March will be excellent. 5. You do not 
make mistakes very often in the lessons. 6. I shall try 
after a few minutes to translate that Latin book, for 
(car) it seems interesting. 7. It is necessary to study Latin, 
for I desire to read the stories which are in my Latin book. 
8. The one thousand nine hundred and fourth year was a 
leap-year. 9. The fourth year after that year was also a 
leap-year. 10. The 1912th year will be a leap-year. 
There are three hundred and sixty-six days in such a year. 

12. Alfred won the book which his mother had bought. 

13. Such a book now costs four or five hundred dollars. 

14. Alfred the Great was the last king until many years 
afterward (until after many years) who could read or 
write. 15. He was the first king in that land who even 
wished to be able to read books. 16. We often talk about 
this same King Alfred, and say that he was the father of 
the English language. 17. People say so {diras tiel) be- 
cause he translated Latin books into the language of his 
land, and because he also wrote books in that language. 



150. The interrogative adjective kia (112) is also used 
as a relative adjective, referring back to tia, or to some 
equivalent phrase or word indicating quality, such as 
sama, etc. In this use it may often be translated " as," 
or " which": 

Mi havas tian libron, kian mi volas, / have such a {that kind of) book 
as {which kind) I wish. 

110 LESSON XXXII. [§§151-152 

Tiaj amikoj, kiajn vi havas, estas afablaj, such friends as {of which 

kind) you have are amiable. 
Li deziras tian capelon, kia kostas ses dolarojn, he desires that kind 

of hat which (kind) costs six dollars. 
Mi havas la saman deziron, kian vi, / have the same desire as you 

(same kind which you have). 


151. The interrogative adverb kie, kien (118) is also 
used as a relative adverb of place with tie, tien, or some 
other expression of place for its antecedent.* Kien is used 
when the verb in the relative clause expresses motion 
toward the place indicated, whether or not its antecedent 
has this ending. Similarly, kie may refer to tie or to tien : 

Mi iros tien, kie vi estas, / shall go there where you are. 

Mi estis tie, kien vi iros, / was there (at that place) where you will go. 

Mi iros tien, kien vi iris, / shall go to that place to which you went (I 

shall go where you went). 
Mi trovis lin en la urbo, kie li Iog;as, I found him in the city where he 

Cu vi venos 6i tien, kie ni estas? Are you coming here where we 


152. The future active participle (for the characteristics 
of a participle see 108), expressing what the word modified 
will do or is about to do, ends in -onta, as vidonta, about 
to see, ironta, about to go: 

La forironta viro vokis sian serviston, the man going to depart (the 

ahout-to-depart man) called his servant. 
La virino salutonta vin estas tre afabla, the woman about to greet you 

is very affable. 

*Any interrogative adverb may also be used to introduce an indirect ques- 
tion, thus serving as a subordinating conjunction (cf. eft, p. 38, ftn.). 

§§153-154] LESSON XXXII. Ill 

La venonta monato estas marto, the coming month is March. 
La venontan semajnon mi foriros, the coming (next) week I shall 


153. The compound tenses formed by combining the 
future active participle with each of the three aoristic 
tenses of esti represent an act or state as about to occur 
in the present, past, or future, respectively, and are called 
periphrastic future tenses. Except when great accuracy is 
desired, these tenses are not often used. A synopsis of 
vidi in the first person singular and plural of these tenses 
is as follows: 

Present Periphrastic Future. 

mi estas vidonta, ni estas vidontaj, 

/ am about to {going to) see. we are about to {going to) see. 

Past Periphrastic Future. 
mi estis vidonta, ni estis vidontaj, 

/ was about to {going to) see. we were about to {going to) see. 

Future Periphrastic Future. 
mi estos vidonta, ni estos vidontaj, 

/ shall be about to {going to) see. we shall be about to {going to) see. 


154. The suffix -ind- is used to form words expressing 
worthy of, deserving of, that which is indicated in the root. 
It may also be used as a root, to form inda, worthy, ma- 
linda, unworthy, indo, worth, merit, etc.: 

dezirinda, desirable. rimarkinda, noteworthy, remarkable. 

laudinda, praiseworthy. ridinde, ridiculously, laughably. 

mallaudinda, blameworthy. tradukinda, worth translating. 

112 LESSON XXXII. [§154 


ankoraii, still, yet.* flar-i, to smell. 

atak-i, to attack. gast-o, guest. 

bat-i, to beat. ho ! Oh! 

cert-a, sure, certain. kri-i, to exclaim, to cry. 

defend-i, to defend. kruel-a, cruel. 

difekt-i,. to spoil. kuk-o, cake. 

edz-o, husband. lign-o, wood. 

fajr-o, fire. suspekt-i, to suspect. 


Unu fojdn antau pli multe ol mil jaroj, soldatoj venis de 
trans la maro por ataki la anglan re^on Alfredon Grandan. 
Hi nek konis nek malamis lin, sed ili sciis ke 11 estas persono 
kies land on ili deziras gajni. Ci tiuj malamikoj estis venintaj 

5 tiel subite ke Alfredo ne estis preta por defendi sian landon 
kontraii ili. Tial li forkuris kelkajn mejlojn de la urbo, 
kaj sin ka&is en granda arbaro malantau vilago. An- 
statati porti regajn vestojn li a6etis tiajn cifonojn kiajn 
kamparanoj kaj malriculoj portas. Li logis 6e malrica 

losedlaiidinda kamparano, kiu ne konis la regon, kaj tute ne 
suspektis kia persono lia ga.sto estas. Unu memorindan 
tagon Alfredo estis sidanta apud la fajro, kaj estis rigar- 
danta siajn sagojn kaj pafarkon dum li pensis malgoje pri 
sia lando. La edzino de la arbarano demandis "Cu vi 

isankoraii sides tie dekkvin au dudek minutojn?" " Jes," 
respondis la rego. Si diris " Nu, estos necese fari pli var- 

*The adverb ankorau expresses the ideas "until and during the present time," 
" in the future as now and before," " in constant or uniform succession," *' in 
an increasing or additional degree," given sometimes by English yet, sometimes 
by still: 

Mi estas ankoraii sidanta ci tie, 7 am still sittiTig here. 
Li ankoraii ne venis, still he has not come (he has not come yet). 
Li ankorau restos tie, he will still stay there. 
Ankoraii ili venas, still they come. 
Li estos ankorafi pli ruza, he will he still {yet) more crafty. 

§154] LESSON XXXII. 113 

megan fajron por tiaj kukoj kiajn mi nun estas bakonta. 
Cu vi gardos tiujn kukoj n kiuj nun estas super la fajro, 
dum mi kolektos pli multe da liguo?" Alfredo respondis 
"Certe mi gardos ilin kontrati la fajro." La virino ser-20 
fionta lignon foriris en alian parton de la arbaro, kie 
estis multe da ligno, kaj la rego penis zorgi pri la kukoj. 
Sed baldail li forgesis ilin, kaj la fajro ilin difektis. Kiam 
la virino venis kaj flaris la kukojn si kriis " ho, vi ripro- 
6inda viro ! Kvankam vi ankoraii sidas tie, vi ne pensas pri 25 
la kukoj, kaj la fajro estas difektinta ilin!" Si estis kruele 
batonta la regon, kiam li diris al §i kiu li estas, kaj kial li 
forgesis la kukojn. Tiam si tre hontis, kaj anstatau 
mallatidi lin si volis esti ankorau pli bona al li. 


1. Alfred the Great was a praiseworthy king who lived 
more than a thousand years ago. 2. People still talk about 
him becaxise he not only translated many Latin books into 
the English language, but also wrote in English. 3. He 
wished to help the peasants still more. 4. But enemies 
often attacked him, and finally they conquered his sol- 
diers. 5. Then they hastened to where (151) Alfred was. 
6. They were about to attack him, when he rode away se- 
cretly {ka§e) into a large forest. 7. There he dwelt some 
time in the house of a poor forester. 8. He wore such rags 
as a peasant usually wears, and did not tell the forester 
who he was. 9. One day he was sitting near the fire and 
wondering, " Will the enemy have conquered my soldiers 
next week?" 10. The forester's wife said, " Will you sit 
there yet a while and take-care of those cakes? I am 
about to gather more wood." 11. He replied, "Certainly, 
I will try to help you." 12. But when after a few minutes 
the woman smelled the cakes, she knew that the fire had 

114 LESSON XXXIII. [§§155-156 

spoiled them. 13. She exclaimed "Oh, what a blame- 
worthy man!" 14. She commenced to beat the king 
cruelly, but he did not defend himself. 15. Instead (120), 
he told her who he was. 


155- The interrogative temporal adverb kiam (123) is 
also used as a relative temporal adverb, with tiam or an 
equivalent word or phrase for its antecedent. (It may 
not be omitted as in English "at the time he came ") : 

Mi suspektis lin je la tempo kiam li venis, / suspected him at the time 

when he came (the time that he came). 
Li defendis sin tiam, kiam oni atakis lin, he defended himself then, 

when he was attacked. 
Mi ankorau sidos tie gis kiam vi venos, / shall still sit there until when 

you come (until you come). 
Post kiam li tiel lafite kriis, li komencis plori, after he shouted so loudly, 

he began to cry, 


156. The interrogative adverb kiel (134) is also used as 
a relative adverb of manner and degree, with tiel, or same, 
or an equivalent adverb or phrase for its antecedent. It 
may often be translated "as:" 

Mi defendis min tiel, kiel li defendis sin, / defended myself in that way 
in which (way) he defended himself. 

Vi ne estas tiel kruela kiel li, you are not so cruel as he (is). 

lli batis lin same kiel vi, they beat him in the same way as you (did). 

Ili batis lin same kiel vin, they heat him the same as (they did) you. 

Kiel mi diris al li, mi estas feli£a, as I told him, I am happy (ante- 
cedent not expressed). 

Li parolis tiel mallaute kiel antaue, he spoke as softly as before. 

§i estas tiel bona kiel 6i estas bela, she is as good as she is fair. 

§§157-159] LESSON XXXIII. 115 


157. Nouns may be formed from the cardinals by addi- 
tion of the ending -o. After such nouns the preposition 
da orde is used: * 

dekduo, a dozen. milo, a thousand. 

dudeko, a score. unuo, a unit. 

deko, a ten, half a score. kvaro, a jour, a quartette. 

cento, a hundred. trio, a three, a trio. 

158. Adverbs may be formed from the cardinals by 
addition of the ending -e : 

unue, firstly, at first. deke, tenthly. • 

due, secondly, in the second place, sesdeke, sixtiethly. 

kvine, fifthly, in the fifth place. okdek-kvare, eighty- fourthly. 


159. Adjectives, verbs and nouns, as well as adverbs 
(120), may be derived from prepositions by addition of the 
formative endings (116), with sometimes a soecial suffix 

anstataui, to replace, to take the place of, 
anstatauulo, a substitute. 
antaua, previous, preceding. 
apuda, near, contiguous, adjacent. 
fiirkaiil, to surround, to encircle. 
filrkauo, a circuit, a circumference. 
kontraua, adverse, opposite, contrary. 

*The prepositions da and de follow nouns (99, 100) or adverbs (loi), while 
el follows adjectives in the superlative degree (75), cardinal numerals (138), and 
the pronouns tiu, kiu (106), etc.; 
dekduo da ovoj, a dozen {of) eggs. 
dekduo de la ovoj, a dozen of the eggs. 
dek du el tiuj ovoj, twelve of those eggs. 
kiu el la ovoj? which one of the eggs? 
tiu el la ovoj, that one of the eggs, 
la plej fresa el la ovoj, the freshest of the eggs. 

116 LESSON XXXIIL [§159 

kontrauulo, adversary, opponent. 
kunulo, comrade, companion. 
superi, to surpass, to exceed, to he above. 
superege, surpassingly, exceedingly. 


adiaii, farewell, goodbye. kuz-o, cousin. 

akcept-i, to accept, to receive. malgra^, notwithstanding. 

elekt-i, to choose, to select. par-o, pair. 

fest-i, to celebrate, to entertain. pend-i, to hang. 

gant-o, glove. prez-o, price. 

g:entil-a, courteous. renkont-i, to meet. 

invit-i, to invite. su-o, shoe. 

Jus, just, at the moment.* uz-i, to use. 


Hieraii matene mia kuzo vizitis 6e ni, kaj invitis tnin 
al malgranda festo kiu okazos morgati vespere. Tiam li 
festos la lastan tagon de la jaro. Li diris ke la gastoj sidos 
6irkau la fajrejo kaj rakontos rakontojn gis malfrua horo. 

5 Mi akceptis lian gentilan inviton, kaj diris ke mi certe venos. 
Mia kuzo lo^as en la sama urbo kie nia familio logas, sed 
en alia parto. lia hejmo estas preskau du mejlojn de la 
nia. Tamen, ni estas bonaj kunuloj, kaj ofte promenas 
kune. Jus kiam li estis elironta el la pordo hierau, mi uzis 

10 la okazon (opportunity) por proponi mallongan promenon. 
Li respondis ke li goje promenos kun mi, malgraii la nega 
vetero. Tial ni formarsis tien, kie la stratoj estis malplej 
kotaj. Ija kuzo havas dek ok jarojn, sed mi estas preskaii 

* The adverb 3us indicates the elapsing of the least possible time since the 
act or condition indicated, or between the two acts or conditions indicated. 
Ni jus venis, we just came {we came hut a moTnent ago). 
Mi havas la saman opinion kian vi jus diris, / have the same opinion as you just 

gave (said). 
Hi vidis lin jus kiam li estis forironta, 7 saw him just when he was about to depart. 
fus kiam vi venis li foriris, just as you came he went away. 

§159] LESSON xxxni. 117 

tiel alta kiel li. Mi estas certa ke mi estas ankati tiel forta 
kiel li. Ni parolis pri multaj interesaj aferoj, kaj bonegeis 
nin amuzis, gis kiam estis necese hejmen iri. La kuzo 
diris " adiaxi," kaj iris rekte hejmen, sed mi iris al granda 
butiko. Unue, mi volis aceti paron da novaj gantoj, por 
anstataui la malnovajn gantoj n kiujn mi ankorau estis 
portanta, kvankam mi acetis ilin antati tri monatoj. Due, 20 
mi bezonis paron da novaj suoj. Mi iris en la butikon kie 
pendis tiaj gantoj, kiajn mi satas, kaj oni tuj venis por 
renkonti min, kaj demandis "Kiajn vestojn vi volas 
aceti?" Oni montris al mi preskaii dudekon da paroj da 
gantoj. Mi elektis tre bonan paron, kaj estis jus a6e-85 
tonta ilin, malgrati la tro granda prezo, kiam mi vidis 
alian pli belan paron. Tial nii acetis 6i tiun, kaj poste mi 
rigardis la suojn. Mi tro vis rimarkinde bonan paron, 6ar 
estas centoj da suoj en tiu butiko. Mi tuj a6etis tiun 
paron, kaj tiam hejmen iris. 30 


1. My friend likes to live in the city, but his wife prefers 
to live in their little wooden house in the country. 2. 
There she can see and smell the flowers, and can take 
(fari) long walks in the adjacent fields and forest. 3. 
There are often hundreds of persons in a village, but there 
are thousands of persons in a city. 4. The larger a city is, 
the larger and better its stores are. 5. In the second place, 
one can buy better bread, vegetables and cake in the city. 
6. Thirdly, one can also find better gloves, hats and shoes 
there, and the price is often less. 7. Therefore I make use 
of the opportunity when I go to the city, and usually buy 
a pair of new gloves. 8. 1 am still wearing a pair of gloves 
which the rain spoiled. 9. Notwithstanding their ugly 
color, they are still thick and good. 10. But soon I shall 

118 LESSON XXXIV. [§160 

buy such a pair as (150) is hanging in the window of that 
store. 11. The price is low, and I need a new pair now, 
for my cousin has invited me to a small party (festo) at 
his house. 12. I accepted his invitation courteously, and 
said that I would gladly be his guest. 13. We are good 
comrades, although he is younger than I am. 14. My 
(girl) cousin, his sister, is older than he is, but he is as tall 
as she. 15. 1 was just about to send a letter to him at the 
minute that (155) he knocked on our door. 16. His visit 
will take the place of (159) my letter. 17. Just as (just 
when) he was going away, I said goodbye to him, and said 
that I would meet him in the park tomorrow. 18. 1 think 
that we shall have a pleasant walk, althoiigh the weather 
is still remarkably cold, the same as (156) it was two or 
three months ago. 



160. Any preposition ma}^ be used as a prefix to a verb, 
provided the resulting compound is intelligible. A few 
prepositional compounds are given below, only verbs being 
shown, although nouns, adjectives and adverbs may be 
formed from these (116): 

alveni, to arrive. dependi, to hang from, to depend. 

aldoni, to add. demeti, to lay aside. 

antaudiri, to predict. depreni, to subtract. 

fiirkaupreni, to embrace. enhavi, to contain. 

6eesti, to be present. eliri, to go out.* 

* Like English " out " the preposition el often develops in composition a 
secondary sense of " thoroughly "or" completely '* (.cf. " I am tired out "); 
eltrovi, to find out, to discover. 
elpensi. to think oiU, to invent. 
ellabori. to work out, to elaborate. 
ellerni, to learn thoroughly, to master. 
eiuzi, io use completely^ to wear out (transitive). 

§§161-163] LESSON XXXIV. 119 

interparoli, to converse. subteni, to support. 

kontraudiri, to contradict. sunneti, to put on. 

kunlabori, to collaborate. traguti, to percolate. 

kunveni, to assemble. travidi, to see through 

priskribi, to describe. transiri, to cross. 


i6i. The suffix -ebl- is used to form adjectives, adverbs, 
etc., expressing the likehhood or possibihty of that which is 
indicated by the root,* It may be used as a root, to form 
ebla, possible, etc. 

eltrovebla, discoverable. rompebia, breakable. 

legebla, legible. videbla, visible. 

mangebla, edible. travidebla, transparent. 


162. The adverb plej, most (74), modified by kiel eble 
(as possible), is used to express the highest degree possible: 

6-i estas kiel eble plej bona, it is the best possible. 
Ni estos kiel eble plej sagaj, we shall be as wise as possible. 
Li uzis kiel eble plej malmulte, he used the least possible. 
Mi skribis kiel eble plej legeble, / wrote as legibly as possible. 


163. The words sinjoro, gentleman, sinjorino, lady, frafl- 
lino, miss, are used hke English Mr., Mrs., Miss, before 
proper names, and are also used as terms of address, 
without being followed by the name : f 

Adiaii, Sinjoro. Adiau, Sinjorino, Goodbye (Sir). Goodbye, Madam. 

* The suffix -ebl- is often equivalent to the English suffixes -able, -ible, but 
these suffixes have other meanings also, as in " readable," worth reading (leginda), 
" lovable," deserving of love (aminda), etc. 

t Cf. English Doctor, Professor, Madam, as terms of address, and also German 
Mein Ilerr, gnadige Frau, gnlidi^es Frdulein, French Monsieur, Mademoiselle, 
Spanish, Seftor, Se/Iora, Italian Signore, etc. 

120 LESSON XXXIV. [§163 

Fraulino B — , 6u vi konas tiun sinjoron kun Sinjorino C — ? Miss 

B — , do you know that gentleman with Mrs. C — f 
Mi ne konas tiun fraulinon, / do not know that young lady. 
Kien vi volas iri, Fraulino ? Where do you wish to go (Miss) 1 
Sinjoro A — estas tre afabla, Mr. A — is very amiable. 


atent-a, attentive. onkl-o, uncle. 

auskult-i, to listen. san-a, in good health. 

babil-i, to chatter. sent-i, to feel. 

doktor-o, doctor. sinjor-o, gentleman. 

fraul-o, bachelor. gtup-o, step (of stairs). 

gaj-a, merry, gay. tas-o, cup. 

grup-o, group. vojag-o, voyage, journey. 

Ce la festo. 

Hierau vespere mi iris al la hejmo de mia kuzo, kiu estis 
invitinta min al malgranda festo ce li. Car mi deziris al- 
veni kiel eble plej frue, mi foriris de mia logejo kiel eble 
plej baldaii, malgrati la nega vetero. Mi estis surmetinta 

5paron da dikaj gantoj, kaj mi portis dikajn suojn. Mi 
ankaii havis mian ombrelon, kvankam pro la vento mi ne 
povis uzi tiun. Tuj kiam mi supreniris la stuparon ce la 
hejmo de la kuzo, li aiidis min, kaj venis por malfermi la 
pordon kaj akcepti min. " Bonan vesperon, kia estas via 

losano?" li diris. Mi respondis " Mi sanas bonege, dankon," 
kaj eniris la domon kun li. Ni supren iris per granda 
stuparo al 6ambro kie mi lasis la capelon, gantojn kaj om- 
brelon, tiam ni malsupren venis kaj eniris la salonon. Mi 
salutis la onklinon, kiu afable parolis al mi, kaj ankaii la du 

iskuzinojn. Unu kuzino estis jus priskribonta interesan 
libron, kiun si antail ne longe tralegis, kiam la aliaj gastoj 
komencis alveni. Sinjoro B — fieestis, kaj Doktoro C — , 
kun sia filino Fraiilino Mario, kaj multe da aliaj sinjoroj kaj 

§163] LESSON XXXIV. 121 

sinjorinoj. La gastoj sidis au staris en malgrandaj grupoj, 
kaj interparolis kun videbla plezuro. Unu rakontis priso 
vojago, kaj tiam oiii "komencis priparoli la prezojn de 
aferoj en aliaj landoj. Mi atente auskultis kelkajn minu- 
tojn, kaj tiam foriris al alia grupo, kie oni gaje babilis pri 
estontaj (future) promenoj kaj festoj. Post unu au du 
horoj, la servistinoj alportis al ni bonan malgrandan 25 
mangon, kune kun tasoj da bonega kafo. Fine, je malfrua 
horo ni gentile dankis la familion de mia kuzo, kaj diris 
adiaii. Tiam ni foriris liejmen, kun sentoj da granda 
plezuro pro la agrabla festo. 


1. There are dozens of edible fruits, but the fruits of 
hundreds of trees are not at all (tiite ne estas) edible. 2. 
The transparent cup and plate upon the table are very 
breakable. 3. I predict that you will break them as soon 
as you seize them. 4. That letter is worth reading. 5. 
But it is difScult to read it, for it is not very legible. 6. 
It is from my uncle, who wishes to arrive at-our-house as 
early as possible. 7. He is still in the city, but soon he 
will be -here, and will go up the steps (ituparon) of our 
porch and knock on the door. 8. There are very few per- 
sons who contradict his opinions. 9. His opinions, how- 
ever, are worthy ofcattention (154) and usually I listen 
courteously while he is talking. 10. Now, however, I 
prefer to listen to the group of ladies in the adjacent room. 
11. They are chattering gaily, and listening to the young 
lady who is about to sing. 12. Madam, do you feel the 
wind? I notice that it is blowing the curtains which hang 
before that window. 13. I will close the window, because 
I am not very well (sana) today. 14. Is that gentleman 

122 LESSON XXXV. [§§164-166 

across the room a bachelor? 15. Yes. He is describing a 
voyage and the people whom he met. 


164. The interrogative adverb kiom (140) is used as a 
relative adverb of quantity, with tiom or some equivalent 
word or phrase for its antecedent. In this use it is com- 
monly translated " as": 

La taso enhavis tiom da kafo, kiom mi povis trinki, the cup contained 

as muck coffee as I could drink. 
Mi havos tiom da tempo, kiom mi bezonos, I shall have as much time 

as I shall need. 
Li sendis tiom, kiom vi volis, he sent as much as you wished. 


165. The present passive participle (for the present 
active participle see 108), expressing that which is undergone 
by the person or thing indicated by the word modified, 
ends in -ata, as vidata, being seen : * 

La laudata knabo estas felifia, the boy being praised is happy. 
Mi sercos la deziratan libron, / shall look for the desired book. 
La vestoj farataj por vi estas belaj, the clothes being made for you are 


166. Fractions are formed from the cardinals by the use 
of the suffix -on- followed by the ending -o. Adjectives 
and adverbs may be derived from these by use of the 
endings -a or -e : 

* The verb iii, to go, used to illustrate the active participles (io8, 119, 152), 
cannot be used to illustrate a passive participle, since passive participles can be 
made from transitive verbs (22) only. 

§167] LESSON XXXV. 123 

La duono de ses estas tri, the half of six is three. 

Li estis nur duone atenta, he was only half attentive. 

La triona parto de ses estas du, the third part of six is two. 

Dek unu dekduonoj, eleven twelfths. 

Mi dudekone finis la laboron, I one-twentieth finished the work. 


167. A compound word whose first element m.odifies 
the second in an adjectival or adverbial relation is called a 
descriptive compound. The final -a or -e of the first ele- 
ment may be omitted, unless the resulting combination 
would be ambiguous or harsh-sounding. 

a. When the first element is adverbial (an adverb or 
preposition), the second element may be either an adverb 
or adjective: 

multekosta, expensive. rugflava (rug;eflava), reddish yellow. 

duonkolere, half angrily. survoje, on the way, en route. 

nevidebia, invisible. antauhieraii, day before yesterday. 

nevole, involuntarily. postmorgau, day after tomorrow. 

b. An adjective may be used for the first element, if the 
second is an adverb or adjective derived from a noun-root: 

samtempa, contemporaneous. unutaga, one day's, of one day. 
unufoje, once, one time. unuataga, the first day's. 

trifoje, thrice, three times. frutempe, at an early time. 

c. A noun may be used for the second element, if the 
resulting word has not merely unity of form, but also unity 
of meaning with a slightly different sense from that ex- 
pressed by the noun and adjective uncombined: * 

* In national languages a change of accent often accompanies such change in 
meaning, as blackberry (not black berry), bluebird (not blue bird), sweetheart (not 
sweet heart), German jiingfrau, virgin (not jung frau, young woman), etc. 

124 LESSON XXXV. [§167 

bonveno, a welcome (not bona veno, a good coming). 

libertempo, a vacation, leisure (not libera tempo, free time). 

super jaro, leap-year (not super jaro, above a year). 

bondeziroj, good wishes, felicitations (not bonaj deziroj, good desires). 

plimulto, a majority (adverb and noun combined). 


fiin-0, Chinaman. naci-o, nation. 

jam, already.* pag-o, page. 

kler-a, enlightened, learned. pres-i, to print. 

komerc-o, trade, commerce. pulv-o, gunpowder. 

lanc-o, spear, lance. sang-i, to change. 

liber-a, free. te-o, tea. 

metod-o, method, way. ted-a, tiresome, tedious. 

LA filNOJ. 

Antau miloj da jaroj la hinoj estis la plej klera nacio en 
la mondo. Dum aliaj nacioj ankorati ne konis metodojn 
por presi librojn, kaj ankorau faris ilin skribe, la samtem- 
paj hinoj jam estis forlasintaj tiun multekostan kaj tedan 

smetodon. Hi jam estis presantaj la pagojn de miloj da 
libroj. Aliaj nacioj tiam estis batalantaj kiel eble plej 
kruele, per sago kaj pafarko, kaj per lanco. Sed ili an- 
korau ne havis pafilojn, car pulvo estis tutenekonataal ili. 
Tamen lahinoj jam bone konis metodojn por fari kaj por uzi 

lopulvon, kaj faris tiajn amuzajn flavrugajn fajrojn, kiajn 
ni ankorau hodiaxi acetas de ili, por uzi je festaj tagoj. 

* The adverb jam indicates a cliange from some preceding action or state to 
the different one expressed in the sentence, clause or phrase containing jam. 
It may often be translated " yet," " now," etc. 

Mi jam vidis lio, I already saw (have already seen) him. 

6u vi jam trovis gin? Ne, mi ankorau ne trovis |in. Have you yet (have you 

already) found it f No, I have not yet (still not) found it. 
Li jam ne vivas, he no longer lives (he already is-not-alive). 
Jam ne negas, it is not snowing now (.already not snowing). 

§167] LESSON XXXV. 125 

Sed la Ginoj ne multe satis la komercon, kaj ne deziris 
a6eti aii lerni de aliaj nacioj. Hi aiikorau nun havas la 
samajn metodojn por presi librojn kaj por fari pulvon, 
kiajn ili ha vis antati mil jaroj. Hi malofte sangas siajnis 
kutimojn. Tial la aliaj nacioj, kiuj antaiie ne estis tiel 
kleraj, antaueniras pli rapide ol la fiinoj. La lando de la 
iiinoj enhavas tiom da personoj, kiom tri au kvar aliaj 
nacioj . Granda parto de tiu lando estas ankoraii nekonata 
al okcidentaj nacioj, kvankam plej multe da nia teo el- so 
venas el la nina lando. Oni diras ke la parolata lingvo kaj 
la skribata lingvo de la ninoj estas du tre malsamaj aferoj. 
I;a lingvo estas almenau treege malfacila, kaj post kiam 
oni estas longe studinta gin, oni tamen estas nur duone 
lerninta gin. Mi gojas tial ke la lingvo j studataj en lass 
lernejoj de nia lando ne estas tiel malfacilaj kiel la hina 
lingvo. La latina kaj germana lingvoj estas sufifie mal- 
facilaj, kvankam ili estas tre interesaj kaj ankaii konataj 
de la kleruloj en multaj landoj. La latina lingvo jam ne 
estas parolata lingvo. so 


1. Why are the persons in that merry group laughing 
and chattering instead of listening to Mr. B — ? 2. I 
think that the doctor is telling stories about a bachelor 
who was once a good friend of his. 3. The gentleman being 
talked about (i6o, 165) will visit us this evening, possibly. 
4. My aunt and cousin will come down stairs and converse 
with him. 5. We shall drink as man)' cups of tea or of 
coffee as we wish. 6. He will say " How is your health, 
Madam?" My aunt will reply half-angrily that she is 
seldom ill. 7. We shall sit on the veranda, for the sun is 
still shining, although it is al'/eady setting. 8. That young 
lady who came with Mrs. C — relates the best possible 

126 LESSON XXXVI. [§§168-169 

stories. 9. She says that the Chinese were already an 
enhghtened nation hundreds of years ago, while other 
nations were still cruelly fighting. 10. A method for 
printing the pages of books, instead of writing them, was 
a discovery of the Chinese. They printed books in their 
printing-shops, a thousand years ago. 12. They also 
were-acquainted-with gunpowder, which they made and 
used for such fires as we use on national days of-cele- 
bration, when we have leisure and wish to enjoy (to 
amuse) ourselves. 13. But the Chinese have not changed 
these methods. 14. Their ways of commerce, work and 
pleasure are the same as they were long ago. 15. Such a 
nation does not progress rapidly, even though its life is 
very long. 


i68. The compound tense formed by combining the 
present passive participle with the present tense of the 
auxiliary verb esti expresses an act or condition as being 
undergone by the subject of the verb, and is called the 
present passive tense. The conjugation of vidi in this tense 
is as follows: 

mi estas vidata, I am (being) seen. 

vi estas vidata, you are (being) seen. 

li (si, |i) estas vidata, he (she, it) is (being) seen. 

ni estas vidataj, we are (being) seen. 

vi estas vidataj, you are (being) seen. 

ili estas vidataj, they are (being) seen. 


169. The person by whom (or the thing by which) an 
act, indicated by a passive verb or participle, is performed 

§§170-171] LESSON XXXVI. 127 

is called the agent of the passive voice, and is expressed by 
a substantive preceded by de : 

La lanco estas portata de mi, the spear is carried by me. 

La libroj estas jam presataj de li, the books are already being printed 

by him. 
La vojoj estas kovrataj de nego, the roads are being covered by snow. 
§i estas laudata de la sinjoro, she is being praised by the gentleman. 


170. The preposition de conveys the general idea of 
separation from a source or starting point, in space (literal 
or figurative), or in time (89, 131). This meaning de- 
velops into that of the source from which connection or 
ownership arises (49), and also into that of the agency 
from which an act is done or a condition caused (169). 
The prepositional phrase containing de must be so placed 
as to avoid ambiguity in its meaning, or must be reinforced 
by an adverb or other word: 

La arbo estas malproksima de la domo, the tree is far from the house, 
6i estas proksima de la fardeno, it is near to (from) the garden. 
Mi prenas la libron for de la knabo, I take the book away from the boy. 
Mi prenas la libron de la knabo, I take the book of the boy. 
La afero dependas de vi, the matter depends upon (from) you. 


171. Adjectives, verbs, and nouns may be derived from 
primary adverbs (66), as well as from prepositions (120, 

La nunaj metodoj, the present methods (methods of-novS). 

Mi adiauis lin per adiafla saluto, I bade farewell to him, by a farewell 

salute (see also 273). 
Ni faris tujan interSanf on, we made an immediate exchange. 

128 LESSON XXXVL [§172 

Cu li skribis jesan au nean respondon? Did he write an affirmative 
or a negative answer? 

Anstatau nei, li respondis jese, instead of denying, he answered affirm- 

La morgaiia festo estos pli agrabia ol la hieraua, tomorrow's {the mor- 
row's) celebration will be more pleasant than that of yesterday. 

La tiamaj personoj estis liaj samtempuloj, the persons of-that-time 
were his contemporaries. 

172. The suffix -ist- is added to roots to express the 
profession, trade or occupation connected with the idea 
in the root: 

floristo, florist. okulisto, oculist. 

komercisto, trader, merchant. presisto, printer. 

servisto, servant. Stelisto, thief. 


administr-i, to manage. mont-o, mountain. 

antikv-a, ancient.* nom-o, name. 

Europ-o, Europe. proksim-a, near. 

grav-a, important, serious. reprezent-i, to represent. 

ital-a, Italian. respublik-o, republic. 

kvadrat-a, square. tiran-o, tyrant. 


La plej antikva respubliko en Eiiropo kusas en la norda 
parto de la be! a itala lando, inter la maro kaj la rivero, 

* The words antikva, maljuna, malnova, all of which may at times be trans- 
lated " old," must not be confused in use: 

Mi havas malnovan capelon, / have an old hat (a hat which is not new). 
Li estas maljuna sinjoro, he is an old {aged) gentleman^ 

Li estas malnova amiko mia, he is an old friend of mine (a friend of long standing) . 
La hinoj estis kleraj ec en la antikva tempo, the Chinese were learned even in the 

olden time {in ancient time). 
La antikvaj kleruloj jam soils tre multe, the ancient learned {enlightened) men 

already knew a great deal. 
La maljuna sinjoro en la malnovaj vestoj estas antikvisto, the old gentleman with 

the old clothes is an antiqiiary. 

§172] LESSON XXXVI. 129 

proksime de la montoj. Gia nomo estas San Marino, kaj 
gi estas respubliko de antati mil kvarcent jaroj . Kvankam 
la fiirkauaj landoj kaj nacioj apartenis en antikva 5 
tempo al la tiamaj regoj, San Marino jam estis libera. 
Giaj aferoj estas ankorau administrataj tiel, kiel la anoj 
(145) volas, ne kiel unu aii alia rego ail tirano deziras. 
Dufoje en la jaro la anoj elektas personojn, kiuj adminis- 
tros la gravajn aferojn de la respubliko dum la sekvontaj 10 
ses monatoj. Kvardek ses el tiuj personoj reprezentas la 
anojn, kaj unu alia estas rego tiun duonon da jaro. Per 
tia metodo, la anoj estas bone reprezentataj, kaj la aferoj 
estas administrataj kiel eble plej sage. La tuta respu- 
bliko enhavas nur dudek du kvadratajn mejlojn da tero. is 
En la respubliko kaj la tiea (171) uxbo kiu havas la saman 
nomon, ne estas tiom da personoj kiom en multaj italaj 
urboj. Tamen ci tiu respubliko estas pli granda ol multaj 
antikvaj grekaj respublikoj. La grekaj respublikoj estis 
bonekonataj, kaj enhavis multe da kleruloj inter siaj anoj. 20 
Sed en la nuna tempo la grekoj havas regon. Oni ne 
trovas tre klerajn personojn en San Marino, tamen la 
laboristoj estas energiaj, kaj laboras kiel eble plej multe. 
La rikoltistoj plej ofte havas bonajn rikoltojn, kaj la 
plimulto da personoj estas treege kontenta kaj felica. Oni 25 
ne pensas pri komerco aii eksterlandaj (167, a) aferoj 
kaj ne volas vojagi malproksimen de la bone amata hejmo. 
Oni preferas gaje amuzi sin cehejme (167, a), en la liber- 
tempo inter la rikoltoj, kaj la vivo tute ne sajnas malfaeila 
aii teda. 


1. The serious affairs of a republic are managed by 
persons representing the persons who live there. 2. The 
inhabitants are well represented, and as free as possible. 
3. Enlightened persons often prefer to live in a republic. 

130 LESSON XXXVII. [§173 

4. Persons who have a good king are very happy, but those 
who have a bad king are as unhappy as possible. 5. 
Nowadays (nuntempe) there are very few tyrants. 6. 
The majority of the kings of Europe are praiseworthy. 
7. That nation which was most enlightened a thousand 
years ago was the Chinese nation. 8. The Chinese of-that- 
time already had good printers among them. 9. It is said 
(54) that the Chinese drink as much tea as two or three 
contemporary nations. 10. The oldest republic in Europe 
is named San Marino. 11. It is near the mountains, in 
the northern part of the much praised Italian land. 12. 
It contains onty twenty-two square miles, and is therefore 
one of the smallest republics in the world. 13. Fourteen 
hundred years ago it was already a republic, and it is still 
that same republic. 14. The inhabitants are energetic 
and patient, and have as much to eat as they need. 15. 
There are bakers and shopkeepers (172) and many la- 
borers among them. 16. They do not think about com- 
merce, or greatly (multe) change their customs. 17. 
They seldom take (faras) tiresome journeys, but remain 
peacefully (pace) at home. 



173. The distributive pronoun (and pronominal ad- 
jective) is ciii, each{one), every{one). Sometimes it is 
equivalent to English any, as in " Any one who studies 
can learn," etc. The plural is ciuj, every, all* The arti- 

* The use of ciu and ciuj must be distinguished from that of the adjective 
tuta, which means " all " in the sense of " entire": 
Ciuj viroj laboras la tutan tagon, all men work all (the whole) day. 
Mi vidis £iun vizagon, sed mi ne vidis la tutan vizagoa de ciu viro, I saw every 
face, bui I did not see all the face of each Tnan, 

§§174-176] LESSON XXXVII. 131 

cle is never interposed between ciuj and tlie noun modified 
(as in English " all the men "), and is .used only if £iuj is 
pronominal and followed by el: 

Ciu, kiu studos, lernos, every one who studies will learn. 

Mi vidis £iun el ili, kaj parolis al ciu knabo, / saw each of them, and 

talked to every boy. 
Mi dankas vin ciujn, / thank you all (I thank all of you). 
Ni ciuj estas reprezentataj, we are all (all of us are) represented, 
Ciuj el la maristoj alvenis, all {every one) of the sailors arrived. 

174. The distributive pronoun has a possessive or geni- 
tive form £ies, every-one's, every-body's: 

Li konas files nomon, he knows every-one's name. 

Cies opinio estis diversa, every-body's opinion was different. 

Kies vofiojn mi audas? Cies, whose voices do I hear"! Everybody's. 


175. The preposition po, at the rate of, at, is used chiefly 
before cardinals and has a distributive sense: 

Li niar§as po kvar mejloj fiiutage, he walks at the rate of four miles 

daily {every-day). 
Mi acetis kafon po malalta prezo, / bought coffee at a lovj price. 
Mi aSetis viandon po kvarono da dolaro per fuuto, / bought meat at a 

quarter of a dollar for {per) pound. 
La capelisto acetas fiapelojn pogrande, the hatter buys hats wholesale. 


176. A compoimd word whose first element is a sub- 
stantive, dependent upon the second element in some 
prepositional relation, is called a dependent compound. 
(If the two words were not united into one, the first ele- 
ment would be preceded by a preposition, or would be in 

132 LESSON XXXVII. [§176 

the accusative case.) The ending -o may be omitted 
from the first element of a dependent compound: * 

jarcento, century (cento da jaroj). 
mangocambro, dining-room (cambro por mangoj), 
noktomezo, midnight (mezo de la nokto). 
paperfaristo, papermaker (faristo de papero). 
sunbrilo, sunshine (brilo de la suno). 
tagmezo, noon (mezo de la tago) . 
vespermango, supper (mango je la vespero). 
ventoflago, weathercock (flago por la vento). 


cies, every body's (174). lag-o, lake. 

6iu, every-body (173). po, at the rate of (175). 

decid-i, to decide. sever-a, severe. 

dev-o, duty. stang-o, pole. 

fleks-i, to bend. svis-o, Swiss. 

genu-o, knee. vend-i, to sell. 

intenc-i, to intend. Vilhelm-o, William, 

ju|-i, to judge. vort-o, word. 


'Antaii ol Svislando estis tiel libera kiel la nuna svisa 
respubliko, giaj aferoj estis administrataj de personoj kiuj 
reprezentis aliajn natiojn. Ofte tiuj personoj estis kiel 
eble plej severaj jugistoj al la svisoj. Unufoje plej kruela 

stirano estis administranta aferojn svisajn. Li elpensis 
rimarkindan metodon por montri sian povon (power), kaj 
por esti malagrabla al la svisoj. Li decidis meti sian 
fiapelon sur altan stangon en la vendejo (market-place), en 
malgranda vilago apud bela lago inter la altaj montoj. 

10 Li diris ke de nun tiu capelo reprezentas lin, kaj portos lian 

* A personal pronoun serving as the first element of a dependent compound 
may keep the accusative ending, to indicate its construction: 
sinlaudo, self-praise. sinekzameno, self-examination. 

sindefendo, self-defence. sinkontraudira, self -contradictory. 

§176] LESSON XXXVII. 133 

nomon. Saluti la capelon estos la grava devo de ciu per- 
sono en la vilago. Estos cies devo ne nur saluti la capelon, 
sed ankau genufleksi (kneel) antau la stango. La tirano 
diris ke li forprenos la domon, la kampojn kaj tiom da 
mono, kiom li povos, de 6iu vilagano au kamparano kiu ib 
forgesos genufleksi. " Mi intencas sendi gardistojn," li 
diris, " kiuj rimarkos cu vi ciuj genufleksos kiam vi estas 
proksimaj de la stango.'' Je tagmezo alvenis gardistoj, 
por rimarki 6u la necesaj salutoj estos farataj de 6iuj, kaj 
por kapti 6iujn svisojn kiuj ne genufleksis. Baldau la so 
kamparanoj komencis eniri la vendejon, por vendi lego- 
mojn po kiel eble altaj prezoj, kaj por aceti vestojn kaj 
aliajn aferojn po treege plej malaltaj prezoj. Ciu, kiu iris 
proksimen de la stango, zorge genufleksis antati la 6apelo 
de la malamata tirano, pro timo pri la hejmoj kaj la fa- 25 
milioj. Fine, kamparano, kies nomo estis Vilhelmo Tell, 
eniris la vendejon, kaj staris du aii tri minutojn proksime 
de la stango, dum li diris kelkajn vortojn al amiko. Sed 
anstatati fari tujan saluton, aii genufleksi, li tute ne ri- 
gardis la stangon. 30 


1. The day before yesterday my youngest cousin was 
sitting on my Icnee, and I told him that a rainbow [cielarko) 
is made by the sunshine and the rain. 2. My cousin goes 
to school every day, after he has breakfast in the dining- 
room. 3. A new school is being built, not far from the 
home of the judge. 4. It is my cousin's duty to study 
those books at the rate of ten pages a day. 5. My cousin 
and I decided last night (93) to buy new hats for ourselves. 

6. We intend to go to the hatter's early tomorrow morning. 

7. I think that all clothes are being sold at a low price 
at-the-present-time. 8. During a visit at a friend's, I 

134 LESSON XXXVIII. [§§177-178 

read an interesting book about ancient Europe. 9. It 
relates that several centuries ago a severe and cruel tyrant 
was managing affairs in Switzerland. 10. Once he put his 
hat on a pole in the market-place, and said that it was the 
duty of-every-one to kneel before it. 11. This serious affair 
happened in a village one or two miles square, on(ce) the 
lake not far from the mountains through which one goes 
on the wajr (167, a) to the Italian land. 12. William 
Tell did not kneel or even look at the hat representing the 



177. The distributive adjective related to the distribu- 
tive pronoun ciu, giving a comprehensive idea of the quality 
of some person or thing, is 6ia, every kind of, every sort of: 

Oni vendas 6iajn fruktojn tie, they sell every sort of fruit there. 
Estas £iaj personoj en la mondo, there are all sorts of persons in the 


178. The compound tense formed by combining the 
present passive participle with the past tense of the auxil- 
iary verb est! expresses an act or condition as being under- 
gone by the subject of the verb at some time in the past. 
It is called the imperfect passive tense. The conjugation 
of vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estis vidata, I was' (being) seen. 

vi estis vidata, you were (being) seen. 

li (§i, gi) estis vidata, he (she, it) was (being) seen, 

ni estis vidataj, we were (being) seen. 

vi estis vidataj, you were (being) seen. 

ili estis vidataj, they were (being) seen. 

§§179-181] LESSON xxxvin. 135 


179. When impersonal verbs, or other verbs used im- 
personalljr, are in compound tenses, the participial element 
is given the ending -e, like other modifiers of impersonally 
used verbs (141) • 

Estis pluvante antaii unu miauto, it was raining a minute ago. 

Estis multe neginte, it had snowed a great deal. 

Estis vidate ke ciu ploras, it was seen that every one wept. 


180. To give a reciprocal sense, when there are two or 
more subjects and the action goes from one to the other 
(expressed in English by " each other," " one another," 
" mutually," " reciprocally "), the phrases unu la alian, 
unu al la alia, etc., or the adverb reciproke, is used: 

Estas nia devo helpi unu la alian, it is our duty to help one another. 
Ili parolas unu al la alia, they are talking to each other. 
La viroj reciproke uzis siajn pafilojn, the men used each other's guns, 
Ili falls unu sur la alian, they fell upon each other. 


181. The suffix -uj- may be used to form words indi- 
cating that which contains, hears, or is a receptacle for , some 
number or quantity of that which is expressed by the root. 
It may be used instead of -lando to form the name of a 
region containing any one race or tribe, and instead of 
-arbo to form the names of fruit trees: 

ujo, a receptacle. patrujo (patrolando), fatherland. 

monujo, purse. sukerujo, sugar-bowl. 

supujo, soup-tureen. pomujo (pomarbo), apple-tree. 

leterujo, letter-case. sagujo, quiver. 

136 LESSON xxxvni. [§181 


ag-i, to ad. ^ mort-i, to die. 
ceter-a, remaining. pet-i, to plead, to request. 

cia, of every kind (177). prepar-i, to prepare. 

fier-a, proud. • pun-i, to punish. 

imag-i, to imagine. reciprok-a, reciprocal, mutual. 

-•' konduk-i, to lead. simil-a, like, similar. 

kor-o, heart. tu§-i, to touch. 


Tuj kiam la gardistoj rimarkis ke la capelo sur la stango 
ne estis salutata de Vilhelmo Tell^ ill kaptis lin, kaj kon- 
dukis lin al la tirano, por esti jugata. La tirano demandis 
de Tell kial li ne genufleksis antau la 6apelo, simile al la 
saliaj vilaganoj. Tell respondis fiere ke li ne sciis pri la 
ciutagaj genufleksoj de la aliaj personoj. Li diris ke li 
tute ne intends agi kontrau la deziroi de la jugistoj. Sed 
la tirano malamis la altan fortan svison, tial li decidis puni 
lin per severa puno, kaj demandis " Kiun el viaj infanoj vi 

loplej amas? " Vilhelmo Tell ne povis imagi kial la demando 
estas farata al li, kaj respondis " Mi amas ciujn el ili, sin- 
joro." La tirano diris " Nu, estas rakontate inter la 
vilaganoj ke vi estas rimarkinda arkpafisto (archer). Ni 
eltrovos kia arkpafisto vi estas. Ni vidos cu vi povos 

IS forpafi pomon de sur la kapo de via plej juna filo. Aldone 
(in addition), estos via devo forpafi la pomon per la unua 
sago, alie {otherwise) mi punos vin kaj vian filon per 
tuja morto." Tell diris ke li estas preta por ricevi cian 
alian punon, anstataii tia puno, sed malgraii 6ies petoj la 

sotirano estis jam elektanta pomon de apuda pomarbo. 
Li kondukis la knabon malproksimen de la ceteraj per- 
sonoj, kaj metis la pomon sur lian kapon. Tell kaj la filo 
reciproke rigardis sin, dum la patro diris ke li ne tusos 

§181] LESSON XXXVIII. 137 

haron de lia kapo. Tiam li elprenis sagon el la sagujo, 
faris la necesajn preparojn, kaj rapide pafis. Tuj la pomo85 
forfalis de la kapo de la infano, kaj 6iu havis felican 
koron. Dum Tell 6irkauprenis la filon, la tirano deman- 
dis " Kial vi havas tiun ceteran sagon, en la mano." 
Tell lafite respondis " Por mortpafi vin, tuj post la infano, 
6ar mi treege timis pro la vivo de mia kara filo." so 


1. William Tell had a strong flexible (i6i) bow. 2. 
He could shoot-with-a-bow (arkpafi) excellently, therefore 
he was a well-known archer. 3. He put six or eight ar- 
rows into his quiver, and went with his sons to the village. 
4. Possibly he saw the hat upon the pole, but he did not 
kneel before it. 5. It was being noticed already in the 
village that Tell hated the tyrant very much. 6. When 
the guards seized him for that act, and led him before the 
tyrant, who was also the judge, Tell said " I did not 
know about this new duty, and could not imagine why the 
hat was on the pole there." 7. The tyrant replied with 
(per) angry words, for he hated the proud Swiss whom 
every one else loved. 8. He said severely " Ifis said that 
you are a praiseworthy archer. 9. Therefore I was won- 
dering whether you could shoot an apple from your son's 
head. 10. Now we shall see whether you can shoot off the 
apple, or whether you will touch the child's head." 11. 
Amid the pleadings of all. Tell successfully shot off the 
apple. 12. A similar second arrow was ready in his hand. 
13. The tyrant saw the remaining arrow, and prepared to 
punish Tell by death. 14. But he escaped, and the Swiss 
congratulated each other heartily (kore). 15. After some 
time they followed him, at the rate of six miles an hour. 

138 LESSON XXXIX. [§§182-184 



182. The distributive adverb of place, related to the dis- 
tributive pronoun ciu, is cie, everywhere. The ending -n 
may be added to cie to show direction of motion (121) : 

Oni trovas tiajn virojn cie, such men are found everywhere. 

Li iris £ien, kie mi estis estinta, he went everywhere where I had been. 

Mi vidas lin £ie, kien mi iras, / see him everywhere I go. 


183. The compound tense formed by combining the 
present passive participle with the future tense of esti 
indicates that an act or condition will be undergone by the 
subject of the verb. It is called the future passive tense. 
The conjugation of vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estos vidata, I shall be seen. 
vi estos vidata, you will be seen. 
li (§i, gi) estos vidata, he {she, it) will be seen. 
ni estos vidataj, we shall be seen. 
vi estos vidataj, you will be seen. 
ili estos vidataj, they will be seen. 


184. Compound adjectives may be formed with an ad- 
jectival root for the first element, and a noun-root for 
the second element. Such adjectives have the meaning 
" possessed of " that which is indicated in the compound. 
(Similar adjectives are formed in English, with -ed as 
the final syllable): 

belbrova, beautiful-browed. longnaza, long-nosed. 

bonintenca, good-inlenlioned. kvarpieda, four-footed. 

dumana, two-handed. rughara, red-haired. 

§§185-186] LESSON XXXIX. 139 


185. The ordinals are used in expressing the hour of the 
day, with hero expressed or understood. The minutes are 
expressed by the cardinals. In qxiestions the adjective 
kiotna (from kiom, how much) is used: 

Kioma horo estas? What hour {what o'clock, what time) is it? 
Je kioma horo vi venos? At what time {what o'clock) will you come? 
Estas la dua horo, it is two o'clock {it is the second hour). 
Estas la tria kaj kvin minutoj, it is five minutes past three. 
Ni iris je la sesa kaj duono, we went at half past six. 
Estas la oka kaj kvardek kvin (or: estas unu kvarono antau la naua), 
it is eight forty- five {a quarter of nine), 


186. The suffix -obi- is used to form multiples indicating 
how many fold, as " two fold," " double," " triple," etc.: 

duoblo, a double. duobla, double. duoble, doubly. 

kvarobla, quadruple. kvindekobla, fifty- fold. multohla, manifold, 
Trioble du estas ses, three times two is six. 


bilet-o, ticket. pag-i, to pay. 

cend-o, cent. preter, beyond, past.* 

tie, everywhere (182). staci-o, station. 

esprim-o, expression. telefon-i, to telephone 

gi£et-o, wicket, ticket-window. vagon-o, car. 

horlog-o, clock. valiz-o, valise. 


Du bonkoraj (184) amikoj miaj logas en la urbo B — . 
Ni reciproke konas nin de antaii ses jaroj. Mi estis duoble 

* The preposition preter indicates the movement of something alongside of 
and passing beyond something else. Since it does not express motion tovxird 
its complement, it cannot be followed by the accusative. 

140 LESSON XXXIX. [§186 

goja hierau kiam mi ricevis leteron de ili, car en fciu ili petis 
de mi baldauan viziton. Tial mi telefonis hierau post- 

stagmeze* ai la stacidomo, por demandi je kioma horo 
foriros la vagonaro (train) al B — . Oni respondis per la 
telefono ke la vagonaro foriros je la tria kaj tridek kvin. 
Tuj poste mi enmetis kelkajn vestojn en mian jam preskati 
eluzitan valizon, kaj faris ciujn preparojn por la mallonga 

lovojago. Je la dua horo, tuj post la tagmango (midday 
meal), mi mar sis stacidomon. Survoje mi eniris butikon 
kaj afietis paron da novaj gantoj. Kiam mi eniris la 
stacidomon, mi kuris preter la aliaj personoj al la gifieto 
kie biletoj estas vendataj. Mi diris al la sinjoro 6e la 

15 giceto " Mi deziras bileton al B — . Kiom estos necese 
pagi?" La brunokula sinjoro respondis " Tia bileto 
kostos dolaron dudek cendojn." Mi pusis tiom da mono 
tra la giceto, kaj tuj ricevis la bileton, kiun la sinjoro jam 
havis en la mano. Tiam mi iris proksimen de la pordego 

80 tra kiu oni estos enlasata al la vagonaro. " Kiom da 
tempo antaii la foriro de la vagonaro al B — ?" mi demandis 
al la gardisto. Li lautvo6e respondis " Nur sep minutojn. 
Cu vi ne vidas tiun horlogon?" Mi ne estis rimarkinta la 
horlogon, tial mi almetis la montrilojn de mia poshorlo^o 

25 (watch) por montri la saman horon. Mi estis multe tusata 
de 6iaj bonintencaj personoj kurantaj 6ien preter mi, kaj 
puSantaj unu la alian. Fine oni malfermis la pordegon. 
Mi kaj la ceteraj personoj rapidis al la vagonaro kaj Idel 
able plej baldau eniris gin. 


1. Because of the request of my friend whose brother 
died recently, I went last (la antauan) week to visit him. 

* Posttagmezo, afternoon^ is a descriptive compound (167, a) whose second 
element tagmezo is a dependent compound (176). 

§§187-188] LESSON XL. 141 

2. The remaining persons of his family were not at home. 

3. I telephoned to find out at what time the train would 
depart. 4. I was told (54) that it would leave at four 
twenty-seven. 5. I put enough money into my purse, and 
carried along (kunportis) a valise into which I had put some 
clothes. 6. When I entered the stati&n, I hurried past the 
other people to the wicket, and asked for (petis) a ticket to 
B — . 7. The ticket seller said "Two dollars and forty 
cents." 8. I could not imagine why it was necessary to 
pay so much, but I at once pushed that much money 
through the window, and received the ticket. 9. Then I 
looked at my watch and went near the gate, but the 
yellowhaired guard who conducts persons to the trains 
said " Persons who go through that gate before the train 
arrives will be severely punished." 10. So all of us stood 
near the double gate. 11. The trains are much like each 
other, and it is better to act as the guards request, and not 
express impatience. 



187. The distributive adverb of time, related to the 
distributive pronoun ciu, is ciam, always, at all times: 

Vi ciam pagas tro multe, you always pay too much. 

Mi estas ciam preta por helpi vin, I am always ready to help you. 


188. The distributive adverb of motive or reason, re- 
lated to the pronoun ciu, is cial, for every reason, for all 

Cial li estas felica hodiau, for every reason he is happy today. 
La mia cial estas la plej bona, mine is for all reasons the best. 

142 LESSON XL. [§§189-191 


189. The past passive participle expresses an act or 
condition as having been undergone by the person or thing 
indicated by the word modified. This participle ends in 
-ita, as vidita, having been seen: 

La prezo pagita de vi estis tro granda, the price paid by you was too 

La punita infano ploras, the (having-been) punished child is crying. 
Mi acetos bonefaritajn gantojn, / shall buy well-made gloves. 
Li sercis ia forgesitan bileton, he looked for the forgotten ticket. 


190. The compound tense formed by combining the past 
passive participle with the present tense of the verb esti 
expresses an act or condition which has been undergone by 
the subject of the verb. It is called the perfect passive 
tense. The conjugation of the verb vidi in this tense is as 

.mi estas vidita, / have been seen (/ am having-been^seen). 

vi estas vidita, you have been seen. 

li (§i, |i) estas vidita, he {she, it) has been seen. 

ni estas viditaj, we have been seen. 

vi estas viditaj, you have been seen. 

ili estas viditaj, they have been seen. 


191. In expressing that in accordance with which some- 
thing is done, takes place, moves, etc., the preposition 

Li agis lafl sia opinio, he acted in accordance with his own opinion. 
Mi faros gin laii bona metodo, I shall do it according to a good method. 
Laii kia maniero li agis? In what manner did he actf 
Mi marSis lau la strato, / walked down {or up) the street. 

§192] LESSON XL. 143 

Li iris lau la rivero per tiu vojo, he went along the river by that road. 
Nuboj nigraj kuris lau la cielo, black clouds raced along the sky. 
6i kusas laulonge de la domo, it lies lengthwise of the house. 


192. The suffix -em- indicates a tendency or inclination 

toward that which is expressed in the root: 

agema, active. pacema, peaceful, pacific. 

mallaborema, lazy. pensema, pensive, thoughtful. 


atend-i, to wait (for), to expect. lau, according to (191). 

cial, for every reason (188). manier-o, manner, way. 

ciam, always (187). mov-i, to move (transitive) 

gazet-o, magazine, gazette. okup-i, to occupy. 

3urnal-o, journal, paper pal-a, pale. 

kompat-i, to pity. polic-o, police. 

larm-o, tear. trankvil-a, calm, tranquil. 


Dum mi estis atendanta hieraii posttagmeze en la sta- 
cidomo, mi subite rimarkis palan sinjorinon kun larmoj 
en siaj okuloj. Si rigardis 6ien kun esprimo de nekasebla 
timo, kaj estis videble maltrankvila. Si sercis du ati 
tri minutojn inter la personoj fiirkau si, kaj fine §i vidis s 
bluevestitan policanon, kiu estis parolanta al unu el la 
gardistoj. Si rapide diris kelkajn vortojn al li, kaj tuj li 
ankati komencis serci 6ie. Mi tre kompatis la ploreman sin- 
jorinon, kaj kiam la policano preteriris, mi demandis 6u mi 
ne povas helpi. Mi diris ke mi ne estos okupata (busy) 10 
|is la alveno de la vagonaro. Li respondis ke la filo de tiu 
virino estas perdita, kaj li donis al mi la sekvantan pri- 
skribon de la infano, lau la vortoj de. la patrino: la knabo 

144 LESSON XL. [§192 

estas agema brunhara sesjarulo, kun bluaj okuloj, kaj li 

isestas ruge vestita {dressed in red). Lia patrino estis jus 
a6etinta sian bileton ce la gi6eto, kaj post kiam si pagis la 
natidek cendojn por gi, subite si rimarkis ke la infano ne 
estis kun si. Kvankam si jam sercis 6ie, la filo sajnas 
ankorati netrovebla. Si multe timas pro li, kvankam 11 

20 ciam estas bona knabo. Mi tuj komencis marsi cien inter 
la personoj fiirkaii mi, kaj fine eniris malgrandan 6ambron 
apud la horlogo ce la fino de la stacidomo, kie estas ven- 
dataj tagjurnaloj (newspapers), gazetoj kaj libroj. Tie 
antaii nemovebla tablo kovrita de brile koloritaj jurnaloj 

25staris malgranda ruge vestita knabo. Mi diris al li " Mia 
studema juna amiko, oni ne vojagas laii tiu metodo. Via 
patrino jam de longe atendas vin. Mi montros al vi kie 
si estas." Li venis kun mi, kaj proksime de la pordo kie 
mi estis lasinta mian valizon staris la sinjorino. Si estis 

30 6ial ^oja kiam si vidis nin, kaj dankeme 6irkaiiprenis la 


1. The poor (to-be-pitied) lady whose little boy (son) was 
lost i'l the station yesterday afternoon was very uneasy 
about him for every reason. 2. She was pale and tearful 
(plorema) when I saw her, and looked in every direction 
in a most impatient manner. 3. There was an expres- 
sion of fear upon her face and she went as quickly as pos- 
sible to a nearby policeman, and said a few (IceTkajn) words 
to him. 4. T heard the last words, and at once said to my- 
self " It is now only ten minutes past two. 5. My train 
will leave (foriros) at half-past two, so I have time to help." 
6. I said to the blue-garbed policeman " During the next 
(sekvontajn) twenty minutes I shall not be busy. Do you 
desire my help?" 7. He answered " Yes, you are very 

§§193-195] LESSON xLi. 145 

kind (gentila). The son of that lady has been lost. S. 
According to her description, he is a yellow-haired blue- 
eyed five-year-old, and apparently (Sapie) too restless 
(movema). 9. I shall find him as soon as possible, never- 
theless I shall gladly accept your help. 10. The child is 
dressed in white and wears a red hat." 11. As (car) I am 
not at all lazy {mallahorema) , I went along the stationary 
(nemoveblaj) tables as-far-as the end of the station, and 
there I saw that-sort-of child, looking at the magazines and 
newspapers. 12. I led him to the lady, who with tears in 
her eyes was just going to telephone to her husband. 



193. The distributive adverb of manner, related to the 
distributive pronoun ciu, is ciel, in every way, in every 

Li povas £iel prepari gin, he can prepare it in every manner. 
Li estos ciel helpata, he will he helped in every way. 


194. The distributive adverb of quantity, related to the 
distributive pronoun ciu, is ciom, every quantity, the whole, 

Li prenis multe da sukero, sed ne ciom da gi, he look a great deal of 

sugar, but not all of it. 
Li elprenis ciom de la teo el la teujo, he took all of the tea out of the tea 



195. The compound tense made by combining the past 
passive participle with the past tense of the verb esti 

146 LESSON XLi. [§§196-197 

expresses an act or condition which had been undergone by 
the subject of the verb at some point in past time. It is 
called the pluperfect passive tense. The conjugation of 
vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estis vidita, / had been seen (I was having-been-seen). 

vi estis vidita, you had been seen. 

li (§i, ^i) estis vidita, he (she, it) had been seen. 

ni estis viditaj, we had been seen. 

vi estis viditaj, you had been seen. 

ili estis viditaj, they had been seen. 


196. The compound tense made by combining the past 
passive participle with the future tense of the. verb esti 
expresses an act or condition which will have been under- 
gone by the subject of the verb at some point in future 
time. It is called the future perfect passive tense. The 
conjugation of vidi in this tense is as follows: 

mi estos vidita, / shall have been seen {shall be having-been-seen). 

vi estos vidita, you will have been seen. 

li (si, gi) estos vidita, he (she, it) will have been seen. 

ni estos viditaj, we shall have been seen. 

vi estos viditaj, you will have been seen. 

ili estos viditaj, they will have been seen. 


197. The material out of which something is made or 
constructed is expressed by use of the preposition el. 
As in English, an adjective may be used instead of the 
prepositional phrase unless a verb or participle lays stress 
upon the fact of construction: 

La tablo estas farita el ligno, the table is made out of wood. 
La tablo estas ligna (el ligno), the table is wooden (of wood). 

§198] LESSON XLI. 147 

La infanoj konstruis domon el ne§;o, the children built a house of {out 

of) snow. 
Oni faras supon el asparago, they make soup out of asparagus. 


198. The suffix -et- indicates diminution of degree in 
that which is expressed by the root. It is thus in contrast 
to the augmentative suffix -eg- (122). Sometimes an 
affectionate significance is given: 

beleta, pretty. libreto, booklet. 

dormeti, to doze. monteto, hill. 

floreto, floweret, floret. rideti, to smile. 

lageto, pond, small lake. vojeto, path. 


best-o, animal. leon-o, lion. 

tiel, in every way (193). lud-i, to play. 

ciom, the whole, all (194). material-o, material. 

donac-o, gift, present. posed-i, to own, to possess. 

drap-o, cloth. pup-o, doll. 
hund-o, dog. • rost-i, to roast. 
konsist-i, to consist. • ver§-i, to pour. 


Mi volas doni beletan donacon al mia plej juna fratino 
morgati, sed ju ph mi pensas pri gi, des ph malfacile estas 
decidi pri la afero. Estas duoble malfacile, 6ar si jam 
posedas ciun ludilon (toy) kiun oni povas imagi. Ciu el 
siaj amikoj goje donacas {make presents) al tiel afabla 5 
knabino. Tamen mi iris hierati matene al ludilobutiko, 
kaj rigardis la ludilojn tie. Multaj konsistis el diversaj 
pupoj, grandaj kaj malgrandaj, kaj belege vestitaj. Sed 
mi estas certa ke la fratineto ja,m posedas sufifie da pupoj- 
tial mi ne aSetis tian ludilon, kvankam ili estas fiiamio 

148 LESSON XLI. [§198 

interesaj al knabinetoj. Sur unu tablo kusis ciaj malgran- 
daj bestoj, faritaj el ligno, drapo, kaj diversaj materialoj. 
Estis fievaletoj, hundetoj, katetoj, kaj flavaj leonetoj. 
Proksime de tiuj staris malgrandaj brile koloritaj vago- 

15 naroj, kiujn oni povis rapide movi, lau la maniero de grandaj 
vagonaroj. Etaj policanoj staris apude, kaj estis 6ial 
malfacile elekti la plej interesan el tiom da interesaj 
hidiloj. Baldaii mi rimarkis knabineton apud mi. Ciel 
si tre similis al mia fratino, kaj tial mi decidis elekti tian 

20 ludilon, kia estos elektita plej frue de la nekonata knabi- 
neto. Mi atendis trankvile, kaj ec legis unu aii du pagojn 
de miaj jus afietitaj gazetoj kaj tagjurnaloj. Fine la 
beleta infano estis rigardinta preskaii fiiom de la ludiloj 
kiuj okupis la tablojn, dum la kompatinda servistino lace 

25 sin sekvis. Tiam la knabineto kriis " Ho, kiel beleta pupo- 
domo! Estas litoj en la dormofiambroj ; legomoj kaj ros- 
tita viando, faritaj el papero, ku§as sur la tablo en la 
man^o-6ambro ; kaj mi vidas tie pupon, kiu certe |us 
faris la teon, kaj estas elversonta gin en tiujn tasetojn!" 

3oTuj mi faris decidon lau la plezuro de la knabineto, kaj 
baldati la pupodomo estis a6etita por mia fratineto. 


1. My pale delicate (malsanema) little sister is always 
happy when she has a new toy. 2. Her dolls were made 
out of cloth when she was a very little girl, because other- 
wise she could too easily break them. 3. But yesterday 
my grandmother made a present of a doll (presented a 
doll) to her, and since that moment she has been as happy 
as possible. 4. I have not seen tears in her eyes, or heard 
a cross (koleretan) word. 5. This new doll is made out of 
cloth, and its dress consists of very pretty material. 6. 
My sister decided that she likes it better than her other 

§199] LESSON XLII. 149 

playthings, and I think that those poor (kompatindaj) 
other dolls will soon have been forgotten. 7. The doll 
seems in every way more interesting than the little animals 
made out of cloth or wood, which are on the table with her 
dolls. 8. She possesses a little dog and a little cat, and a 
little lion, and until yesterday she had a wooden pony. 
9. The pony is already broken, and has been given away 
to a poor {malrica) child, the daughter of our laundress 
(lavistino). 10. My sister possesses a small train of cars 
which she can move everywhere, and she is very fond of 
(ametas) this toy. 11. There are small sacks of sand in the 
cars, and usually she is happy when she is pouring the sand 
out of one of these into another, or putting all of the sand 
into a box, by means of a small spoon. 12. For every 
reason I am doubly glad today that she is busied in this 
manner (tiamaniere) . 13. 1 wish to take a walk along that 
pleasant path toward the hill, instead of waiting for my 
little sister. 14. 1 must buy the meat to roast for supper, 
before I come home from my walk. 



199. The future passive participle, expressing that 
which will be or is about to be undergone by the person or 
thing indicated by the word modified, ends in -ota, as 
vidota, about to be seen: 

La punota infano mallaiite ploretas, the child about to be punished 

whimpers softly. 
La formovota tablo estas peza, the table about to he moved away is 

La domo konstruota de li estos bela, the house going to be built by him 

will he beautiful. 

150 LESSON XLii. [§§200-202 


200. The compound tenses formed by combining the 
future passive participle with each of the three aoristic 
tenses of esti represent an act or condition as about to he 
undergone in the present, past, or future, respectively. 
These are called passive periphrastic future tenses. Except 
when great accuracy is desired, these tenses, like those of 
the active voice (153) are not often used. A synopsis of 
vidi in the first person singular of these tenses is as follows : 

Present Periphrastic Future. 
mi estas vidota, / am about to be (going to be) seen. 

Past Periphrastic Future. 
mi estis vidota, / was about to be (going to be) seen. 

Future Periphrastic Future. 
mi estos vidota, / shall be about to be (going to be) seen. 


201. The article is placed before nouns used in a com- 
prehensive or universal sense, indicating a whole class, 
kind, substance, or abstract quality. In such use it is 
called the generic article:* 

La pacienco estas laudinda, patience is praiseworthy . 

La vivo surtera estas nur parto de la vivo £iama, life on earth is merely 

a part of the life eternal. 
La viro estas pli forta ol la virino, man is stronger than woman. 


202. The suffix -ec- is used to form words indicating the 

* Cf. French La patience est amhre, mais son fruit est doux, patience is bitter, 
but its fruit is sweet, German Das Leben ist hurtz, life is short, Italian La 
speranza e il pan de miseri, hope is the poor man's bread, Spanish Las riquezas son 
bagajes de In fortuna, riches are the baggage of fortune, etc. In English the generic 
article (as in " the life eternal " above) may often be replaced by omission of 
both " a " and " the." 

§202] LESSON XLII. 151 

abstract quality of that which is expressed in the root, or 
formation, to which it is attached: 

amikeco, friendship. fleksebleco, flexibility. 

ofteco, frequency. patreco, fatherhood. 

indeco, worthiness. patrineco, motherhood. 

dankemeco, thankfulness. maltrankvileco, uneasiness. 


bord-o, hank, shore. pont-o, bridge. 

brak-o, arm. sonor-i, to ring (intrans.). 

fabrik-i, to manufacture. surtut-o, overcoat. 

krut-a, steep. sving-i, to swing, to brandish. 

lan-o, wool. §ip-o, ship. 

mebl-o, piece of furniture. §ton-o, stone. 

pas-i, to pass (intrans.)- vapor-o, steam. 

pitoresk-a, picturesque. vetur-i, to travel (in a vehicle). 


Unu el la plezuroj de la kampara ^'ivo konsistas el la 
multenombraj (numerous) okazoj por veturi 6ien, kien oni 
volas iri, per kvietaj pitoreskaj vojoj. Ni havas ankorafl 
unu (still one, yet another) okazon por plezuro en nia vi- 
la^o, 6ar ni povas veturi per vaporsipo sur la bela lago te s 
kies bordo kusas la vila^o. Hierati du kuzinoj venis por 
viziti te ni, kaj tuj post la tagmango ni decidis promeni 
laii tiu pitoreska vojeto al la lago. Kiam ni al venis al la 
lago, ni rimarkis ke beleta vapor^ipeto estis jus forironta. 
Tial mi afietis tri biletojn, kaj kiel eble plej rapide niio 
suriris la sipeton. La sonoriloj (bells) estis jam sonorintaj, 
kaj tuj post kiam ni transmarsis la ponteton, de la tero al 
la planko de la sipeto, oni forprenis la ponteton. Kelkaj 
personoj kiuj estis ankorati sur la tero kuris kun granda 
rapideco al la ponteto. Hi svingis la brakojn kaj la om- 15 
brelojn tre energie, sed la lipeto ne atendis et unu minuton. 

152 LESSON XLII. [§202 

La personoj sajnis tre koleraj pro sia malfrueco, kaj 
ankoraii pli koleraj pro la trankvila foriro de la sipeto. 
Ciu sur la sipeto ridetis, car la koleremo (irascibility) estas 

aociam amuza. Tiam 6iu komencis sin amuzi tiel, kiel li 
deziris. Mi estis kunportinta dikan lanan surtuton, sed 
jjro la varmeco de la vetero mi ne bezonis gin, kaj lasis gin 
sur apuda sego. Ni atendis kun plezuro por vidi la krutajn 
montetojn kiuj estos videblaj tuj kiam la sipeto estos 

sspasinta preter malgranda arbaro. La pitoreskeco de la 
belaj montetoj estas difektota, 6ar grandaj fabrikejoj estas 
jam konstruataj 6e la montpiedoj. La stonoj por la muroj 
jam kusas pretaj apude, ktme kun grandaj stangoj kaj 
aliaj pecoj da ligno. Tie oni fabrikos tablojn, segojn, 

30 kaj aliajn meblojn el zorge elektita ligno. 


1. It is difficult in every way to select a present for 
a child who already possesses enough toys. 2. In a toy- 
shop yesterday I examined the dolls made out of woolen 
cloth and other material, and also looked at the various 
little animals. 3. There were ponies, little dogs and little 
lions and camels. 4. There were also little sets of furniture 
(126), which consisted of tables, sofas and chairs. 5. On 
the tables were small plates containing vegetables, fruits 
and roast (189) meat, entirely made out of colored paper. 
6. There were also little cups and tumblers of thin glass, 
into which one could pour water or milk. 7. As (car) one 
dollar was all (194) of the money which I had in my purse, 
I left the shop. 8. I walked along a stony picturesque 
path toward the lake, swinging my overcoat on my arm, 
while I thought over (pripensis) the difficulty, and tried to 
decide what sort of present to choose. 9. The steamboat 
to B — was just leaving, so I went across the footbridge 

§§203-205] LESSON XLiii. 153 

(ponteto) on to the pretty little ship, while its bells were 
ringing, and rode an hour in the open (libera) air. 10. 
The shore which we passed is very picturesque, but its 
beauty is about to be spoiled, for a large furniture factory 
is going to be built between that steep hill and the lake. 
11. Its proximity to the water is necessary, for water- 
power (akvoforto) will be used. 


203. The indefinite pronoun (and pronominal adjective) 
ill, any one, a certain one, presents the idea of some person 
or thing, without definitely characterizing it: 

Mi parolas pri iu, kiun vi konas, I am talking about a certain one 
whom you know. 

Mi vizitis iujn el viaj amikoj, I visited some of your friends. 

Mi havas kelkajn pomojn, sed iuj ne estas bonaj, / have several ap- 
ples, but certain ones are not good. 

Iuj pontoj estas bone faritaj, some bridges are well made. 

204. The indefinite pronoun iu has a possessive or geni- 
tive form ies, somebody's, someone's, a certain one's: 

Mi tusis ies brakon, / touctied someone's arm. 

Cu ies surtuto ku§as sur la tablo? 7s anybody's overcoat lying on the 

Ies ludiloj estas rompitaj, someone's playthings are broken. 


205. Nouns may be formed from participles, by substi- 
tuting the noun ending -o for the adjectival ending -a. 
Such participial nouns indicate persons temporarily or 

154 LESSON XLiii. [§§206-207 

non-professionally performing or undergoing tliat which is 

expressed by the root : * 

helpanto, one who is helping, an assistant. 

elpensinto, one who has thought out something, an inventor. 

legonto, one who is about to read. 

vidato, one {being) seen. 

sendito, one {having been) sent, an envoy. 

la jugioto, the one about to be judged, the accused. 


206. Sudden or momentary action, or the beginning of 
an action or state, is indicated by the prefix ek-: 

ekdormi, to jail asleep. 
ekkanti, to burst into song. 
ekiri, to set out, to start. 
ekridi, to burst into a laugh 
ekrigardi, to glance at. 


207. Words indicating the young of, the child of, the 
descendant of, are formed by use of the suffix -id- : 

fievalido, coU (from cevalo, horse). 

hundido, puppy (from hundo, dog). 

katido, kitten (from kato, cat). 

leonido, a lion's whelp (from leono, lion). 

re^dino, a king's daughter, a princess (from refo, king). 


amas-0, heap, throng. hirund-o, swallow (bird). 

dafir-i, to continue. hom-o, human being. "f 

* Participial nouns must not be confused with nouns formed by the suffix 
-ist- (172) expressing professional or permanent occupation: 
rajdanto, a rider. rajdisto, jockey, horseman. 

juganto, a judge (of something). jugisto, judge (professional). 

laboranto, a person working. laboristo, laborer. 

t C'f. the difference between viro, man (in contrast to virino, woman), and 
homo, nmn in the generic sense, including both men and women. 

§207] LESSON XLIII. 155 

humor-0, temper, humov. ost-o, hone. 

ies, some one's (204). renvers-i, to upset, to overturn. 

iu, some one (203). sign-o, sign, mark. 

kugl-o, hullet. tend-o, tent. 

milit-i, to fight, to make war. tru-o, hole. 


Unufoje iu rego estis farinta militon kontrati la homo] de 
lando ce la bordo de pitoreska rivero. La soldatoj ne 
venis tien per vaporsipoj, sed estis konstruintaj ponton 
trans la rivero, por la veturiloj {vehicles). Estis necese 
resti kelkan tempon apud urho kiun la re^o volis ekataki, s 
kaj li havis grandan tendaron (encampment) antati tin 
urbo. Unu tagon en la daiiro (course) de la milito, iuj 
el la soldatoj pasis preter la tendo de la rego, lau la stona 
vojeto laii kiu ill ciutage marsis por gardi la tendaron. 
Unu el 6i tiuj ekrimarkis ke hirundo estas konstruinta sian 10 
neston sur la re^a tendo. Sur la nesto, kiu estis bone 
konstruita el koto, sidis trankvile la hirundo. Dum la 
soldatoj svingis la brakojn kaj ekridis unu post la alia, pri 
la kuraga birdo, la rego aiidis ies vo6on. Li elvenis el sia 
tendo por eltrovi kial la parolantoj faras tiom da bruo, kaj 15 
kial ili tiel ekkriis kaj ekridis. Kiam la viroj montris al li 
la birdon, li diris kun bonhumora rideto, " Tiu hirundo 
estos mia gasto. Ciuj el la militistoj certe zorgos de nun 
pri la hirundo kaj la hirundidoj." Tial la nesto restis 
netusata en la dauro de 6iu batalo. Kelkaj kugloj pasis 20 
preter gi, sed la trankvileco de la birdo dauris same kiel 
antaue. Fine la re^o venkis, per kruelega batalo. Tuj la 
venkintoj forportis la tendojn, kune kun multaj militkap- 
titoj (prisoners of war). Nur la tendon de la re^o oni 
lasis tie, car la rego diris ke gi nnn apartenas al la hirundo. 25 
Cri jam estis malnova kaj eluzita, tra kiu la pluvo eniris per 

156 LESSON XLIII. [§207 

multe da truoj. Sed gi ankorati staris, gis iu tago somera 
kiam la hirundidoj povis jam bone flugi. Tiam la vento 
subite renversis gin, kaj gi ekfalis, kaj kusis, amaso da 
)6ifonoj, inter multe da kugloj, homaj ostoj, kaj la ceteraj 
malgajaj postsignoj (traces) de ies venko sur la batalejo. 


1. There is a pretty story about a svvallowwhich built its 
nest for its young (idoj) on the king's tent. 2. The soldiers 
who were walking along the steep path past the tent 
glanced at it, and caught sight of (206) the bird. 3. Some 
of them burst into a laugh, and gestured (svingis la brakon) 
toward the bird, to point it out to their comrades. 
4. The good-humored king put on a thick woolen overcoat, 
and came out of his tent, to inquire why his soldiers were 
conversing so noisily there. 5. The tent was an expensive 
one, and contained handsome furniture, as well as (kaj 
ankau) a bell which always rang as soon as (tuj kiam) one 
touched it. 6. The king immediately noticed the swal- 
low's nest, and said with an amiable smile "Surely such a 
courageous bird is a worthy (154) guest for a king." 7. The 
warriors (172) cared for the swallow as much as possible 
during the course of the war. 8. When the victors de- 
parted, they left that tent there. 9. Finally the wind up- 
set it, and it fell to the ground. 10. The young swallows 
already could fly, by (je) that time. 1 1 . The battleground is 
covered with bullets, piles of human bones, and similar mel- 
ancholy signs of war. 12. War (201) is wicked and shameful 
(154). 13. Why do kings and princes wish to make war 
upon each other (180)? 14. When their sons have gone 
away to (make) war, the mothers of the soldiers are very 
uneasy. 15. Perhaps those sons will be prisoners of war. 

§§208-210] LESSON XLiv. 157 



208. The indefinite adjective, related to the indefinite 
pronoun iu, is ia, of any kind, some kind of, a certain kind 
of, expressing indefinitely the quality of a person or 

Estas ia birdo sur tiu arbo, there is a bird of some sort on that tree. 
Mi vidis iajn ostojn sur la tero, I saw some kind of bones on the ground. 
Estas ia homo en tiu tendo, there is some sort of human being in that 


209. The indefinite adverb of place, related to the in- 
definite pronoun iu, is ie, anywhere, somewhere, in (at) 
a certain place. If the verb in the sentence expresses 
motion toward the place indicated by ie, the ending -n is 
added (121): 

Ie en tiu arbaro estas leono, somewhere in that forest is a lion. 

Ie malantau la soldatoj vi troves amason da kugloj, somewhere behind 

the soldiers you will find a heap of bullets. 
La hirundo flugis ien, the swallow flew somewhere (in some direction). 
Mi iros ien, sed mi ankorafl ne scias kien, / am going somewhere, but 

I do not yet know where. 


210. An adjective may stand in predicate relation to the 
direct object of a transitive verb, as well as to the subject 
of an intransitive verb (19). Such a predicate adjective, 
agreeing in number (21) with the object of the verb, but 
remaining in the nominative case, indicates the result pro- 

158 LESSON XLIV. [§211 

duced by the verb upon the object, or the condition, 
quality or temporary state in which this object is found: * 

Li faris la mondon feli£a, he made the world happy {made-happy the 

Mi lasis la knabon trankvila, 1 left the hoy calm {undisturbed). 
Mi trovis la truon jam farita, / found the hole already made. 
Mi lasis ilin bone punitaj, / left them well punished. 

211. A noun may be used similarly in predicate relation 
after a transitive verb, as well as after an intransitive 
vrerb (20) : f 

§i nomis sian filinon Mario, she named her daughter Mary. 
Oni elektis tiun reprezentanto, they elected that one representative. 
Mi vidos lin venkinto, / shall see him a conqueror. 
Mi trovis lin Stelisto, I found him a thief. 


anonc-i, to announce. past-i, to feed (flocks, etc.). 

ia, some kind of (208). plend-i, to complain. 

ie, somewhere (209). proces-o, legal process. 

just-a, upright, just. rajt-o, right, privilege. 

klar-a, distinct, clear. ripar-i, to mend, to repair. 

kresk-i, to grow. sufer-i, to suffer. 

oportun-a, convenient. §nur-o, string. 


TJnufoje en malgranda urbeto (town) en Italujo, la rego, 
kiun oni estis nominta Johano, metis grandan sonorilon 

* Cf. the difference between the examples given and sentences with the same 
words in an attributive (13) use: 

Dio faris la mondon felican, God Tnade the happy world. 

Mi lasis la knabon trankvilan, / left the calm hoy. 

Mi trovis la jam faritan truon, I found the already made hole. 

Mi lasis ilin bone punitajn, / left those who had been well punished. 

t Cf. the examples given and the following sentences using the same words in 
apposition (48) or attributive relation (13) : 

§i nomis sian filinon Marion, she named {mentioned) her daughter Mary. 
Oni elektis tiun reprezentanton, they Reeled that representative. 

§211] LESSON XLIV. 159 

en la vendejon. Li anoncis ke ciu plendanto pri maljusteco 
havos la rajton alvoki (to summon) ju^iston per tiu sono- 
rilo. Tiam la jugisto faros proceson en la jugejo pro tiaj 5 
plendantoj. Oni multe uzis la sonorilon, lau la anonco de 
la rego, kaj multe da plendantoj ricevis justecon. Sam- 
maniere, granda nombro da maljustuloj estis punata per 
^ia helpo. Kiam okazis ke iu homo montris sin maljusta 
al alia, ci tiu anoncis la aferon per la oportuna sonorilo. lo 
Kiam iu faris la edzinon malfelica, la sonorilo tuj sonoris 
por anonci siajn suferojn, kaj por alvoki la jugiston. 
Fine, oni tiom uzis la sonorilon justecan, ke la snurego 
(rope) estis tute eluzita, kaj gia lasta uzinto okaze for- 
rompis gin. Sed iu preterpasinto vidis la duonon de la is 
snurego kusanta sur la tero, kaj riparis gin per kelkaj 
brandetoj de apuda arbo. Li pensis en si " Iu plendonto 
nun trovos gin preta por esti uzata." Rimarkinde, la bran- 
fietoj ne velkis, sed restis verdaj, kaj kreskis kiel antaiie. 

En la sama urbo logis riculo kiu estis forvendinta pres- so 
kaii 6iom de siaj domoj, 6evaloj, cevaletoj, fievalidoj, 
hundoj kaj multekostaj vestoj, 6ar en sia maljuneco li 
amis nur la monon, kaj tiun li amegis. Li ankoraii posedis 
nur unu maljunan fievalon, kaj fine li forsendis e6 tiun, por 
sin pasti lau la vojo. En la dauro de la tago, la 6evalo25 
ekrimarkis la brancetojn kreskantajn sur la snurego de la 
sonorilo. Tuj gi kaptis la bran6etojn, pormangi ilin, kaj 
tuj la jugisto avidis la sonorilon Idare sonoranta. Li 
rapidis al la vendejo, kaj latite ekridis kiam li vidis ies 
Sevalon tie. Li decidis puni la riculon fiar tiu ti ne donis30 
sufi6e por mangi al la maljuna militfievalo. 


1. The horse caught sight of the twigs with which a 
passer-by had mended the bellrope. 2. Because it wished 

160 LESSON XLV. [§212 

to eat the green leaves, it seized the rope, and the bell im- 
mediately rang loudly and clearly. 3. The horse almost 
upset the poles which supported (i6o) the roof over the 
bell of-justice. 4. Any one (173) had the right to use 
this bell, to announce any kind of injustice. 5. The 
judge burst into a laugh as soon as he saw that sort of 
plaintiff standing there. 6. More often he saw human 
beings as plaintiffs, instead of animals. 7. When a la- 
borer showed himself unkind to his wife and children, they 
could announce their sufferings by means of the conven- 
ient bell. 8. People called it the bell of justice. 9. Ac- 
cording to everyone's opinion, it is the duty of a just judge 
to punish evildoers and unjust persons. 10. He decided 
that he would institute proceedings (faros proceson) against 
the owner (205) of the horse. 11. The man had driven 
awaj' the horse, and it was grazing (sin pastanta) along the 
road. 12, It was some one's duty to give some sort of 
home to his horse. 13. The judge said, " I will find out 
whose horse that poor beast is, and will put a mark oppo- 
site the name of that man. I will not leave him alone 
(trankvila), but will show myself very severe." 



212. The indefinite temporal adverb, related to the in- 
definite pronoun iu, is iam, sometime, any time, ever, once 
upon a time: 

lam mi rakontos la aferon al vi, sometime I will tell you the affair. 
Rego iam lo|;is tie, a king once {upon a time) dwelt there. 
Cu vi iam faris proceson kontrau li? Did you ever go to law against 

§§213-214] LESSON XLv. 161 


213. The indefinite adverb of motive or reason, related 
to the indefinite pronoun iu, is ial, for any reason, for some 
reason, for certain reaso,ns: 

Ial li ne riparis la tendon, for some reason he did not repair the tent. 
Cu vi opinias ke ial li maljuste suferas? Do you think that for any 
reason he is suffering unjustly? 


214. The suffix -ig- is used to form verbs indicating the 
causing, rendering or bringing about of that which is ex- 
pressed in the root or formation to which it is attached. 
Verbs containing the suffix -ig- are called causative verbs 
and are always transitive (22). 

a. Causative verbs from adjectival roots indicate that 
the quality or condition expressed in the root is produced 
in the object of the verb: * 

dolfiigi, to sweeten, to assuage (from dolca, sweet). 

moligi, to soften (from mola, soft). 

plilongigi, to lengthen, to make longer (from pli longa, longer). 

faciligi, to facilitate (from facila, easy). 

beligi, to beautify (from bela, beautiful). 

b. Causative verbs from verbal roots indicate that the 
action expressed in the root is made to take place : 

dormigi, to put to sleep (dormi, to sleep). 

konigi, to make acquainted with (from, koni, to know). 

mirigi, to astonish (from miri, to wonder). 

mortigi, to kill (from, morti, to die). 

c. Causative verbs may be formed from noun-roots, 

* The meaning often resembles that of the predicate nominative (210), as: 
Li faris la mondon goja, he ynade the world glad. 
Li gojigis la mondon, he gladdened the world. 

162 LESSON XLV. [§215 

prepositions, adverbs, prefixes and suffixes whose meaning 

permits : 

amasigi, to amass, to heap up (from amaso, pile). 
kunigi, to unite, to bring together (from kun, with). 
forigi, to do away with (from for, away). 
ebligi, to render possible (from -ebl-, i6i). 


215. Tiie emphatic form of the verb, expressed in En- 
glish by " do, " did," as in " I do study," " I did find it," 
" Do tell me," and by adverbs such as " certainly," " in- 
deed," etc., is expressed in Esperanto by placing the ad- 
verb ja, indeed, before the verb: 

Vi ja mirigas min ! You do astonish me! 

Li ja estas justa jugisto, he is indeed an upright judge. 

Li ja havis tiun rajton, he did have that right. 


akompan-i, to accompany. indiferent-a, indifferent.* 

danger-o, danger. ja, indeed (215). 

gvid-i, to guide. kred-i, to believe. 

ial, for some reason (213). salt-i, to leap, to jump. 

iam, sometimes (212). tir-i, to draw, to pull. 

Ce la malnova ponto. 

Iam logis en nia urbeto junulo kiu havis afablan pli 
junan fratinon. Unu tagon en la dauro de la bela prin- 
tempa vetero la junulo invitis la fratinon veturi ien 
en veturilo tirata de du 6evaloj. La invito gojigis 

* Cf. the difference in meaning and use between esti indiferenta, to be indif- 
ferent, and ne esti zorga, not to be careful, botli of whicli may be translated " not 
to care for": 

Li estas indiferenta al la libro, he does not care about (is indifferent to) the book. 
Li ne zorgas pri la libro, he does not care for (take care of) the hook. 
Estas indiferente al mi £u li venos, au ne, / do not care whether he is coining or not. 

§215] LESSON XLV. 163 

la knabinon, kaj si respondis ke §i kun plezuro akompanos 5 
la fraton. Tuj si pretigis sin por iri, kaj ili ekveturis. 
Hi pasis preter pitoreskaj kampoj kaj arbaretoj, kaj fine 
alvenis al ponto trans la rivero. Ili kredis gin malnova 
kaj ne tre forta, kaj ial la junulino estis treege timigita 
(frightened). " Ho, kara frato," si ekkriis, kun eksaltetoio 
pro timo, " tiu ponto ja estas dangera! Mi deziras marsi 
trans gin, fiar iam la pezeco de unu persono estos tiom tro 
multe por veturilo sur malforta ponto!" Sed la timemaj 
petoj de lia fratino §ajne kolerigis la junulon, kaj li re- 
spondis malafable, " Nu, vi ja mirigas min! Vi montras vin 15 
tre malsaga, fiar la konstruintoj de tiu ponto certs faris gin 
sufi6e forta por tia veturilo kia la nia. Ne estos necese 
eksalti de gi, kaj piede transiri la ponton." Tiamaniere li 
penis trankviligi la kompatindan knabinon, sed tiaj vortoj 
nur silentigis sin, kaj si komencis mallattte ploreti. Ta-2o 
men la frato montris sin indiferenta al siaj timemaj sentoj, 
kaj tute malatentis siajn larmojn. Li gvidis la 6evalojn 
rekte trans la ponton, dum la fratino atendis la bruegon de 
rompigita ligno, kaj imagis ke si estas tuj mortigota. 
Tamen, la ponto estis tiel forta kiel la junulo estis klari-ss 
ginta, kaj tute ne estis dangera. Sed pro la malafableco 
de la frato al la fratino, ili tute ne agrable pasigis la 
ceterajn horojn de la posttagmezo, malgrati la beleco de la 
vetero kaj de la kamparo. 


1. Somewhere in that same town, there lived another 
youth, who also had an amiable sister. 2. One conven- 
ient day, she accompanied him for a ride in a vehicle 
drawn by a fast horse. 3. When they reached (alvenis al) 
the bridge, this girl also was frightened for some reason, 
the same as the girl in the other story. 4. She said " I do 

164: LESSON XLVI. [§§216-217 

not intend to complain, but the carriage will certainly be 
too heavy while we are in it. I am-afraid that that bridge 
is dangerous, so I will j ump out and walk. I will also pick 
(kolektos) some sort of flowers, among the flowers growing 
there, near where someone's horses are grazing. I will 
not delay (atendigi) you long." He replied, "That bridge 
is entirely safe (nedangera) but instead of explaining 
(making-clear) to you about it, I will lead the horse across 
the bridge, while you walk across, for I am not indifferent 
to your fear." Then he helped his sister get out (eliri) 
of the carriage, and guided the horse across. Then he 
said with a pleasant smile, " It was not necessary to cross 
on foot." She replied, " No, but you showed yourself a 
courteous brother, and were very patient." Then they 
rode on (antauen), and talked to each other very amiably. 


2i6. The indefinite adverb of manner, related to the in- 
definite pronoun iu, is iel, somehow, in any way, in some 
(any) 7nanner: 

Mi penis vin iel gvidi tien, / tried somehow to guide you thither. 

Iel ni anoncos la decidon, we shall announce the decision in some way. 


217. The indefinite adverb of quantity, related to the 
indefinite pronoun iu, is iom, some, any quantity, a certain 

Cu vi havas iom da tempo? Have you some timef 

§i varmigos iom da akvo, she will heat some water. 

Tiu metodo estas iomete dan^era, that way is a little dangerous (198). 

La snuro estas iom tro longa, the string is somewhat too long. 

§§218-219] LESSON XLvi. 165 


2i8. The suffix -ad- is used to form words indicating 
that the action expressed in the root is continuous, habit- 
ual or repeated. 

a. Verbs formed with the suffix -ad- are called frequenta- 
tive verbs, and may often be translated by the root mean- 
ing, preceded by " keep (on)," " used to," etc.: 

frapadi, to keep knocking, to knock repeatedly. 
rigardadi, to keep on looking, to gaze. 
vizitadi, to keep visiting, visit repeatedly, frequent, haunt. 
Antau du jaroj si tre dolce kantadis, two years ago she used to sing 
very sweetly. 

b. Nouns formed with the suffix -ad- are often equiva- 
lent to English verbal nouns ending in -ing, and (with the 
generic article, 201) may replace the infinitive as subject 
(130) and sometimes as object (2Q) : 

kriado, crying, shouting (krio, cry, shout). 
movado, motion, movement in general (movo, a inovemenf). 
pafado, shooting, fusillade (pafo, a shot). 
parolado, a speech, address (parolo, a word spoken). 
pensado, thought, contemplation (penso, a thought). 
La promenado donas plezuron, the taking of walks gives pleasure. 
Mi preferas la legadon de tiaj libroj, / prefer the reading of (to read) 
such books. 


219. The invariable pronoun mem, self, selves, is in- 
tensive, and lays stress upon the substantive which im- 
mediately precedes it, or which it obviously modifies. 
(The combination of mem with personal pronouns must 
not be confused with reflexive pronouns, 39, 40) : 

Mi mem akompanos vin, I myself shall accompany you. 

La gvidisto mem perdis la vojon, the guide himself lost the way. 

166 LESSON XLVI. [§219 

Mi kredos al la viro mem, I shall give credence to the man himself. 
La viroj mem defeadis sin, the men themselves defended themselves. 
6i pendas sur la muro mem, it hangs on the very wall (the wall itself). 
§i venis mem por vidi vin, she came herself to see you. 
Mi ekvidis la Steliston mem, I caught a glimpse of the thief himself. 


Arfiimed-o, Archimedes. ]et-i, to throw, to cast. 

ban-i, to bathe (trans.). kompren-i, to understand. 

fals-i, to debase, to forge. kron-o, crown. 

Hieron-o, Hiero. lev-i, to lift, to raise. 

honest-a, honest. lok-o, place. 

ide-o, idea. mem, self, selves (219). 

iel, somehow (216). or-o, gold. 

iom, some (217). Sikeli-o, Sicily. 


lam bonekonata rego, nomita Hierono, vivadis en 
granda urbo en Sikelio, kiu estas sudokcidenta de Italujo. 
Li suspektis ke iam la kronfaristoj , kiuj fabrikadis kronojn 
por li, ne uzis ciom de la oro donita al ill de la rego, sad 

sfalsadis gin per la uzado de iu alia materialo. Tamen, Hie- 
rono ne povis per si mem eltrovi cu oni falsadas la oron. 
Tial li venigis grekan klerulon, kies nomo estis Arfiimedo, 
kaj rakontis al li sian timon pri la falsita oro. Arfiimedo 
certigis lin ke iel li ja eltrovos pri la falsado, kaj helpos la 

loregon kontraii la falsintoj, kiuj estis tiel indiferentaj al la 
honesteco. Ciutage li multe pensadis pri la afero, sed ju pli 
longe li pensadis, des malpli sukcesaj estis liaj penoj, gis iu 
tago, kiam li okaze faris interesan eltrovon. Li estis jus 
baninta sin, kaj subite ekrimarkis ke dum li mem restis en 

15 la akvo, ial §ajnis esti iomete pli multe da akvo en la 
banujo ol antaiie. Tuj li komprenis ke lia korpo estas 
forpusinta iom de la akvo el gia loko. Li komprenis ke 

§219] LESSON XLVI. 167 

tiom da akvo estas elpusita, kiom antaiie estis en tiu loko 
kie li mem estas. Tia levado de la akvo per lia korpo 
donis al li sagan ideon, kaj li prenis en la mano du aii tri 20 
orajn kronojn. Li jetis ilin unu post la alia en la banujon, 
kaj zorge rimarkis al kiu alteco 6iu el ili levis la akvon. 
Tiam li eltiris ilin, kaj enmetis la kronen pri kiu Hierono 
estis plej suspektema. Li rimarkis ke ci tiu ne tiel alten 
levis la akvon, tial li estis certa ke la oro en gi estas multe 25 
falsita. Oni diras ke kiam li eltrovis 6i tiun metodon por 
montri la falsadon de la malhonestaj kronfaristoj, li ek- 
saltetis pro gojo kaj ekkriis "eureka," kiu estas la greka 
vorto por " mi estas trovinta." Tiun saman vorton oni 
ankoraii nun uzadas en la angla lingvo. 30 


L Several centuries ago, a rich and powerful (mzdtepova) 
king, named Hiero, lived in Sicily. 2. Sometimes he was 
suspicious about the crown-makers who wrought (faris) 
crowns for him, out of the gold which he himself gave them. 
3. He wondered whether these men were honest. 4. He 
suspected that perhaps (eble) they did not use all of the 
gold which was given them, but kept some of it for them- 
selves. 5. He could not of himself (per si mem) discover 
whether they were debasing the gold in his crowns, so he 
summoned a wise man from (el) Greece. 6. To this well- 
informed man, whose name was Archimedes, he made 
clear his fears. 7. Archimedes assured the king that he 
would find out somehow about the matter. 8. He medi- 
tated several hours every da}^, and tried to discover a 
satisfactory (kontentiga) method, but for some reason he 
did not succeed. 9. One day, however, when he was 
bathing (himself), he noticed that there seemed to be a 
little more- water in the bathtub when he himself was in it. 

168 LESSON XLvii. [§§220-222 

than before. 10. The rising of the water gave him an idea. 
11. He threw the crowns one after another into the water, 
and noticed how much water each displaced. 12. In this 
manner (tiamaniere) he understood how much each had 
been alloyed by the local (lokaj) crown-makers, whom 
Hiero soon threw into prison (la malUherejon). 



220. The negative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) 
is neniu, no one, nobody, no (formed of ne and iu, with a 
medial n inserted for the sake of euphony) : 

Neniu el vi komprenas min, no one of you understands me. 
Mi trovis neniun preta por iri, / found nobody ready to go. 
Li havis neniun honestaa serviston, he had no honest servant. 

221. The negative pronoun neniu has a possessive or 
genitive form, nenies, nobody's, no one's: 

Cies afero estas nenies afero, everybody's affair is nobody's affair. 
Li laiidos nenies ideojn, he will praise no one's ideas. 


222. A participle may be equivalent not only to a clause 
describing or determining the substantive modified, as in 
la parolanta viro, the man who-is-talking , la sendota knabo, 
the boy who-will-be-sent, but also to an adverbial clause.* 
Such a participle has for its subject the subject of the verb 
in the sentence (though not in attributive or predicate 
relation with it), and indicates some relation of time, 
cause, manner, situation, etc., between the action of the 

* An adverbial clause modifies a verb, as in dum vi atendis, li foriris, whiU you 
v^aited, he went away; car mi gojis, mi ridis. because I was happy, I laughed. 

§223] LESSON XLVII. 169 

participle and that of the main verb in the sentence. An 
adverbial participle is given the ending -e : * 

6ojante, mi ridis, rejoicing, I laughed. 

Forironte, ni adiauis lin, being about to depart, we bade him farewell. 

Baninte la infaneton, si dormigis gin, after bathing {having bathed) the 

baby, she put it to sleep. 
Estante ruzaj, ili falsis la oron, being sly, they debased the gold. 
Tiel helpate de vi, mi sukcesos, thus helped by you, I shall succeed. 
Silentigite de li, ili ne plendis, (having been) silenced by him, they did 

not complain. 
Punote, li ekkriis, being about to be punished, he gave a cry. 
Ne parolinte, li foriris, without speaking {not having spoken), he left. 
I/i venis, ne vokite, he came without being (came not-having-been) called. 


223. The prefix re- indicates the repetition of an action 
or state, or the return of a person or thing to its original 
place or state. (C/. Enghsh prefix re-, meaning either 
" again " or " back.") 

rekapti, to recapture. rebrili, to shine back, to reflect. 

renovigi, to renew. reteni, to hold back, to retain. 

rekoni, to recognize. reveni, to come back, to return. 

gis la revido, au revoir. reiri, to go back, to return. 

ree, again, anew. rejeti, to throw back, to reject. 


brul-i, to be in flames, to hum. flzik-o, physics. 

cilindr-o, cylinder. insul-o, island. 

detru-i, to destroy. masin-o, machine. 

fam-a, famous. nenies, nobody's (221). 

filozof-o, philosopher. neniu, no one (220). 

* The adverbial participle must not be used in rendering the English '* nom- 
inative absolute " construction of a participial clause referring to something elsb 
than the subject. In such a sentence a clause must be used: The youth being 
young, everyone watched him, car la junulo estis juna, ciu rigardadis lin; the work 
being finished, he went away, kiam la laboro estis finita, li foriris. 

170 LESSON XLVII. [§223 

problem-o, problem. spegul-o, mirror. 

Sirakuz-o, Syracuse. §raub-o, screw. 


Eble neniu greka klerulo estis pli fama ol la filozofo 
Arhimedo. Longe studadinte la problemojn de la geo- 
metrio kaj de la fiziko, li faris multe da eltrovoj. Li tiel 
multe komprenis pri la uzado de la levilo (lever) ke oni 
srakontas la sekvantan rakonteton pri li: Li diris al la 
rego Hierono " Kiam oni donos al mi lokon sur kiu mi 
povos stari, mi mem ekmovos la mondon per mia levilo!" 
Zorge ekzameninte la ecojn (202) de la Sraiibo kaj de 
la cilindro, li elpensis di versa] n malinojn en kiuj srati- 

loboj kaj cilindroj estas iamaniere kunigitaj. Uzante unu 
el tiuj maMnoj, oni povis facile pusi al la akvo la sipojn 
(necese konstruitajn sur la tero), kiujn antaiie la viroj 
mem enpusis en la akvon, kun multe da laboro, aii tiris 
tien per fievaloj. Uzante alian maMnon elpensitan de tiu 

15 greko, oni povis levi akvon de unu loko al alia. Ankoraii 
nun oni nomas tian masinon la " §raiibo de Arhimedo." 
En la datiro de granda militado kontraQ la urbo Sirakuzo, 
sur la insulo Sikelio, Arfiimedo elpensis diversajn masinojn 
por helpi la Sirakuzanojn. Vidinte ke la sunlumo re- 

sobrilas de spegulo, li faris el speguloj maMnon per kiu li 
ekbruligis (set on fire) la sipojn de la malamikoj. Ci tiuj, 
ne komprenante kiamaniere * la sipoj ekbrulis, estis multe 
timigitaj. Sed ec helpite de Arfiimedo la Sirakuzanoj ne 
venkis. Post iom da tempo, la malamikoj kaptis kaj tute 

25 detruis la urbon Sirakuzon. Nenies domo restis netuMta, 
kaj centoj da personoj estis mortigataj. Oni ne scias per 

* The use of kiamaniere, in what Tnanner, how, is preferable to that of kiel 
in indirect questions (p. 38, ftn.), as tlie latter might be confused with the use of 
Mel, meaning " as " (156). 

§223] LESSON XLVII. 171 

kia morto Arfiimedo mortis, sed eble la malamikoj, iel 
rekoninte la elpensinton de la spegulmasino, jetis lin en la 
maron au alimaniere lin mortigis. 


1. The Greek philosopher Archimedes was not only 
famous long ago, among his contemporaries (167, b, 132), 
but even today his name is well known everywhere. 
2. No one's knowledge about the problems of geometry 
and physics was greater. 3. No one understood better 
the properties of the cylinder and the screw. 4. Having 
studied these properties a long time, and having meditated 
a great deal about them, he understood them a little (217) 
better than any one else {iu alia). 5. The story about the 
debasing of the gold crowns has already been told. 6. 
There is another anecdote, namely (nome), that he re- 
marked to Hiero, king of Syracuse, that with a lever he 
would move the world, as soon as he had a place on which 
he himself could stand. 7. Having discovered how (kia- 
maniere) the sunlight is reflected by a mirror, and heats 
the wood upon which it shines, he invented a machine 
made out of mirrors. 8. Aided by this machine, .the 
Syracusans Avere able to set on fire the wooden ships of the 
enemy. 9. The enemy, however, were not repulsed from 
the island, but at once rebuilt and repaired their ships, 
and sent them back to attack the city again. 10. Finally, 
having captured the city, they destroyed it, and killed a 
large number of the inhabitants (logantoj), also Archi- 
medes himself. 

172 LESSON XLViii. [§§224-227 



224. Th3 negative adjective, related to the negative 
pronoun neniu, is nenia, no kind of, no sort of, expressing a 
negative idea concerning the quality of a person or thing: 

Mi havas nenian spegulou, I have no sort of mirror. 
Nenia problemo estas tro malfacila por li, no sort of problem is too 
difficult for him. 


225. The negative adverb of place is nenie, nowhere. 
The ending -n may be added, as to other adverbs (121), 
to indicate direction: 

Nenie estas pli bona masino, nowhere is there a better machine. 
Mi iros nenien morgau, / shall go nowhere tomorrow. 


226. The negative adverb of time is neniam, never, at no 

Neniam vivis pli fama filozofo, there never lived a more famous philos- 

Vi neniam trovos tiajn sraiibojn au cilindrojn, you will never find that 
kind of screws or cylinders. 


227. The suffix -aj- is used to form concrete words. It is 
thus in contrast to the abstract-forming suffix -ec- (202). 

a. A word formed from a verbal root by means of the 
suffix -aJ- expresses a concrete example of a thing which 

§228] LESSON XLVIII. 173 

undergoes (or, in the case of intransitives, results from) the 
action indicated in the root: 

konstruajo, a building. kreskajo, a plant, a growth. 

sendajo, consignment, thing sent. rebrilajo, a reflection. 
mangajo, food. restajo, remainder. 

b. A word formed from an adjectival root or formation 
by means of the suffix -aj- indicates a thing characterized 
by or possessing the quality expressed in tlie root or forma- 
tion to which it is attached : 

belajo, a thing of beauty. mirindajo, a marvel. 

maljustajo, an injustice. okazintajo, an occurrence. 

c. A word formed from a noun-root by means of the 
suffix -a J- indicates a thing made or derived from tliat which 
is expressed in the root: 

sukerajo, a sweet, confection. orajo, a gold ob]ect. 

ovajo, an omelet. araneajo, a spider-web. 


228. The adverb jen, behold, here, there, is used to point 
out or call attention to something: 

Jen estas la problemo ! There is the problem ! 

Jen la filozof o ! Behold the philosopher ! 

Jen si ludas, jen si studas, now she plays, now she studies. 

Mi faris gin jene, / did it as follows. 

Mi agis lau la jena metodo, / acted in the following way. 

Li diris la jenaju vortojn, he spoke the following words. 


arang-i, to arrange. jen, there, behold (228). 

art-o, art. konkurs-o, competition. 

ber-o, berry. lert-a, skilled, clever. 

jaluz-a, jealous. nenia, no kind of (224). 

174 LESSON XLVIII. [§228 

neniam, never (226). precip-a, principal, chief, 

nenie, nowhere (225). regul-o, rule. 

pentr-i, to paint. tromp-i, to deceive. 

postul-i, to demand. vin-o, wine. 


Vivadis en Grekujo antau multaj jarcentoj du lertaj 
famaj pentristoj. Hi estis reciproke jaluzaj, kaj neniam 
povis interparoli paceme. Ne povinte decidi la problemon, 
kaj eltrovi kiu el ili estas la plej lerta, ili fine arangis kon- 
5 kurson pri la pentrado. Laii giaj reguloj, 6iu el ili pentris 
pentrajon, por montri sian lertecon. Unu pentris teleron 
da vinberoj (grapes). Gi estis tiel mirinde kolorigita ke 
e6 la birdoj venis kaj penis gin mangi, pensinte gin ne nur 
pentrajo, sed la vinberoj mem. " Nenia pentrajo povos 

losuperi la mian," gojege ekkriis la pentristo, " jen, la 
birdoj mem rekonas mian lertecon!" Tiam li diris al la 
alia artiste, "Nu, kial vi ne fortiras tiun kurtenon? Mi 
volas rigardi vian pentrajon." I^a dua pentristo respondis 
kun rideto, "Jen estas mia pentrajo. Nenie apud vi estas 

15 kurteno, sed vi vidas nur pentrajon de kurteno antau tiu 
konstruajo." Tre mirigite, la pentrinto de la vinberoj 
diris " Vi ja superas min en la pentrado. Mi trompis la 
birdojn per mia pentrajo, sed vi trompas ec aliajn artis- 
tojn! Tia lerteco estas ja mirindajo!" 

20 Oni rakontas similan okazintajon pri fama artisto kiu 
pentris multe da pentrajoj por Aleksandro Granda. Mal- 
gajninte en konkurso kontraii iuj aliaj artisto j, li opiniis 
ke la jugintoj estas maljustaj al li, precipe pro la jaluzeco. 
Li ekkriis " Car niaj pentrajoj estas bildoj de cevaloj, ili 

25certe postulas 6evalajn jugantojn!" Tial oni enkondukis 
du au tri cevalojn. La cevaloj, tute ne rigardinte la pen- 
trajojn de la .aliaj artistoj, kuris rekte al tiu de la plen- 

§228] LESSON XLVIII. 175 

dinta artisto, kaj klare montris sian rekonadon de la tie 
pentritaj cevaloj. Surprizite, oni diris " Jen estas justaj 
ju^antoj!" Tuj oni laMis la pentriston kaj severe puniss 
la malhonestajn homajn jugintojn. 


1. Syracuse was the largest city on the island of Sicily. 

2. The famous philosopher and physicist Archimedes lost 
his life when that city was destroyed and entirely burned. 

3. At least, no sort of trace of him seems to have been 
found after that occurrence. 4. Never, perhaps, was there 
a more learned man in Sj^racuse. 5. Greece was also fa- 
mous for its skilled painters, and there are many anecdotes 
about them. 6. A painter who failed in a certain compe- 
tition believed that none of the judges had been just to 
him. 7. He exclaimed " Behold this iniquity (injustice) ! 
Nowhere can I find a human being who is not jealous. 
8. Since the paintings are chiefly of horses, do they not 
require horses for judges?" 9. His proposal was accepted 
(54), and some horses were led in. 10. Without noticing 
(222) the other paintings, the horses walked at once to the ' 
picture of the unsuccessful artist, and showed immediate 
recognition of the horses painted there. 11. This act 
showed which competitor (konkursinto) was the most 
sldlful. 12. The painter, having deceived the horses, as 
another artist had once deceived birds by a picture of 
grapes, said " Animals decide not by rules, but by feel- 

176 LESSON XLix. [§§229-232 



229. The negative adverb of motive or reason, related to 
the negative pronoun neniu, is nenial, for no reason: 

Li estas nenial jaluza, he is jealous for no reason. 
Nenial li trompis vin, for no reason he deceived you. 

230. The negative adverb of manner is neniel, in no way. 

Mi povos neniel arangi konkurson, / can in no way arrange a compe- 
Tiu ago estas neniel laflregula, That ad is in no way regular. 

231. The negative adverb of quantity is neniom, no 
amount of, not any, none, no: 

Tiu pentrajo postulas neniom da lerteco, such a painting requires no 

Estas neniom da vino en lia glaso, there is no wine in his glass. 


232. The suffix -ig;- is used to form intransitive verbs of 
an inchoative nature. 

a. Inchoative verbs from the roots of intransitive verbs 
indicate the beginning or coming into existence of the act Or 
condition expressed in the root : 

sidi|;i, to become sitting, to sit down, to take a seat. 
starigi, to become standing, to stand up. 

b. Intransitive verbs may be similarly formed from the 
roots of transitive verbs, and indicate an action of the verb 
not immediately due to the subject's acting upon itself (as 

§232] LESSON XLIX. 177 

in the case of reflexive verbs, 41) and not caused by any 
direct agency (as in the case of the passive voice, 169) :•* 

La pordo fermigas, the door closes (goes shut). 

La veturilo movigas, the vehicle moves. 

La branco rompif as, the branch hreahs. 

Grupo da personoj kolektigis, a group of persons gathered. 

c. Intransitive verbs may similarly be formed from 
adjectival roots, and indicate the acquiring of the charac- 
teristic or quality expressed in the root: 

laci^i, to become tired, to get tired. 
varmigi, to become warm, to get warm,. 
maljunigi, to become old, to age. 

d. Verbs may similarly be formed from noun-roots, 
adverbs, prepositions, prefixes and suffixes whose meaning 

amikigi, to become a friend. kunigi, to become joined. 

forig;i, to go away, to disappear. ebligi, to become possible. 


apenaii, hardly, scarcely. nenial, for no reason (229). 

atmosfer-o, atmosphere. neniel, in no way (230). 

dub-i, to doubt. neniom, none, no (231). 

efektiv-a, effective, real. ombr-o, shadow. 

hel-a, char, bright. pejzag;-o, landscape. 

horizont-o, horizon. radi-o, ray. 

krepusk-o, twilight. tropik-a, tropical. 

* Cf. the examples given and the following sentences in which the same verbal 
roots are used in the simple form and in the passive voice: 

( Ni fermas la rordon, we close the door. 

t La T-ordo estas fermita, the door is (has been) closed. 

i Oni movas la veturilon, /hey move the vehicle. 

\ La veturilo estas movata, the vehicle is being moved. 

( Mi rom-as la brancon, / brexitc the branch. 

1 La branco estas rom^ita, the branch is (has been) broken. 

j Li kolektis florojn, he gathered flowers. 

1 Floroj estas kolektitaj, flowers have been gathered. 

178 LESSON XLix. [§232 


Estas tre agrable sidigi sur la herbon, kaj rigardi la 
plilongigantajn ombrojn, en la daiiro de bela somera ves- 
pero. La suno grade mallevigas post la montetoj, la 
nuboj farigas (become) bele kolorigitaj, kaj la tuta pejzago 
spli kaj pli beligas. Malrapide la krepusko anstatauas la 
helan sunlumon, kaj fine cie noktigas. La krepusko estas 
la rebrilado de la sunlumo tra la atmosfero, post la mal- 
levigo de la suno mem, lau la jena maniero: la radioj 
suprenbriladas, en la aeron super niaj kapoj, en la okci- 
10 denta parto de la cielo. De tie ill rebriladas tiamaniere ke 
la 6ielo lumigas. Kiam estas iom da nuboj sur la cielo 
okcidenta, la sunradioj briladas rekte kontratt ilin, belege 
kolorigante tiujn nubojn. En tropikaj landoj la krepus- 
kigo okazas tre rapide. Gi ne nur komencigas subite, sed 
15 ankau dauras tre mallongan tempon. La nokti^o preskau 
tuj sekvas la taglumon, kun rimarkinda subiteco. Apenaii 
komencigas la krepusko, kiam la subiranta suno sajnas 
fall preter la horizonto. Tute male (quite on the contrary), 
en landoj treege nordaj, krepuski^as tre frue en la tago, 
20 kaj la krepusko dauras longan tempon antati. ol la nokto 
venas. Efektive (really), en tiuj landoj la krepusko tute 
anstatauas la nokton, dum ses monatoj de la jaro. Tie oni 
havas krepuskon dum la unua duonjaro, kaj la taglumon 
dum la sekvinta duonjaro. Krepusko daiiranta tiom da 
25 tempo estas tiel rimarkinda kiel tago de tia sama lon- 
geco. Mi dubas 6u tia dividado de la tempo inter tago 
kaj malhela nokto estas agrabla, sed oni povas neniel 
malhelpi ^in. Ciu tre norda lando havas la saman tra- 
vivajon (experience), fiiujare, kaj efektive oni apenaii ri- 
se markas gin. Pri 6iu plendanto oni nur diras " Li estas 
nenial malkontenta." 

§232] LESSON XLIX. 179 


1. Nowhere have I read a more amusing story than that 
of (pri) the two painters who, being mutually (i8o) jealous, 
arranged a competition. 2. One painted a cluster (126) 
of grapes, so excellently that the birds flew to it. 3. The 
other deceived his rival (competitor) himself, by a painting 
' of a curtain. 4. The most famous artists, however, often 
show their skill by painting (222) pictures of the sunset, 
chiefly, I think, because of the brilliant colors. 5. In fact 
(efektive), I doubt whether there is a more beautiful sight 
(227, b) than the sunset. 6. It is made by the bright rays 
of the sun, which shine back through the atmosphere, long 
after the sun itself has passed below the horizon. 7. The 
more moisture (malsekap) there is in the air, the more 
brilliant the colors are, and the more beautiful the entire 
landscape becomes. 8. In tropical lands, night falls very 
suddenly, and there is almost no sort of twilight. 9. In 
fact, a twilight scarcely occurs there. 10. In the lands far 
north, on the contrary, the twilight lasts six months, and 
the remainder of the year is the day. .11. To dwell in such 
a land is surely a remarkable experience. 12. It can in no 
way be understood by persons who have never lived there. 
13. Such things increase (make greater) my desire to visit 
those northern lands. 14. For no reason, however, do I 
wish to reside in the tropical countries. 

180 LESSON L. [§§233-235 



233. In contrast to the pronouns ending in -u (tiu, kiu, 
ciu, iu, neniu), a similar series ending in -0 refers to an 
object, fact or action not definitely specified (but never 
to a person), like English what, anything, something, 
nothing, etc. Because of their somewhat vague meaning, 
these pronouns do not occur in the plural, nor are they ever 
used as pronominal adjectives: 

Demonstrative: tio, that {thing, fact or action). 

ci tio, this {thing, fact or action). 
Interrogative and Relative: kio, what. 
Distributive: £io, everything. 
cio £i, all this. 
Indefinite: io, anything, something. 
Negative: nenio, nothing. 

234. A pronoun (not personal) in predicate or relative 
relation to a pronoun ending in -o must itself be of the same 

Kio estas 6i tio, kion vi diras? What is this, which you sayf 
§i vidis tion, kio Jus okazis, slie saw that which just occurred. 
Cio ti, kion vi vidas, estas farita de ili, everything here {all this), which 

you see, was done hy them. 
Li Iiavas ion por vi, sed nenion por mi, he has something for you, but 

nothing for me. 


235. Pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, which are re- 
lated to each other as corresponding demonstratives, inter- 
rogatives, relatives, etc., are called correlatives. In Es- 




peranto the correlative system is more complete than in 
any other language, and may be summarized as fol- 


tive and 




tic (233) 
that (thing) 

kio (233) 
what, which 

Mo (233) 

io (233) 

aenio (233) 

tiu (56) 
that (one) 

kiu (146) 
who, which 

ciu (173) 
every, each 

iu (203) 
any (one) 

neniu (220) 
no (one) 

ties (62) 
that one's 

ries (147) 

cies (174) 
every one's 

ies (204) 
any one's 

ia (208) 
any kind 

nenies (221) 
no one's 

tia (65) 
that kind of 

kia (150) 
what kind of 

cia (177) 
every kind 

nenia (224) 
nxi kind of 

tie (68) 

kie (151) 

tie (182) 

ie (209) 


nenie (22s) 

tiam (73) 

kiam (155) 

ciam (187) 

iam (212) 
any time 

neniam (226) 

tial (78) 

kial (129) 

cial (188) 
for every 

iai (213) 
for any 

nenial (229) 
for no 

thus, so 

kiel (156) 
how, as 

eiel (193) 

every way 

iel (216) 
any way 

neniel (230) 
in no way 

tiom (104) 
that much, 
so much 

kiom (164) 
how much, 

ciom (194) 
the whole of 

iom (217) 
any amount 

neniom (231) 
no quantity 


236. The word ajn maj^ be placed after any interroga- 
tive-relative or indefinite correlative word, to give a gener- 
alizing sense. In order to avoid confusion with the accu- 




sative plural ending, ajn is never attached to the correlative 
which it follows: 

kio ajn, whatever. 
kies ajn, whosesoever, 
kie ajn, wherever. 

kiam ajn, whenever, 
kiom ajn, however much. 
ia ajn, any kind whatever. 


237. The suffix -ing- is used to form words indicating 
that which holds one specimen of what is expressed in the 

glavingo, scabbard. 
lumingo, torch-holder. 

plumingo, pen-holder. 
ingo, sheath, case, socket. 


£io, everything (233). 

Gordio, Gordius. 

io, anything (233). 

jug-o, yoke. 

klin-i, to bend, to incline (trans.). 

kio, what (233). 

lig-i, to tie, to bind. 

nenio, nothing (233). 

ofer-o, offering. 

reg-i, to rule, to govern, 

sankt-a, sacred, holy. 

templ-o, temple. 

tio, that (thing) (233). 

util-a, useful. 


Unufoje en antikva tempo la regatoj de iu regolando en 
Azio ne havis regon. Ne sciante kion fari, ili demandis de 
la dioj. La dioj respondis, " Kiu ajn venos unue en nian 
sanktan templon hodiau, por fari oferojn, estos via rego." 

BOkaze kamparano nomita Gordio venis al la templo, jus 
post la tagigo. La regatoj tuj rekonis la estontan region, 
kvankam li veturis sur peza malbela veturilo. Salutinte 
la surprizitan kamparanon, oni nomis lin rego. Decidinte 
fari dankoferon al la dioj, Gordio metis en la templon la 

loveturilon mem sur kiu li tien veturis, antafi ol li komencis 

§237] LESSON L. 183 

regi kiel la nova rego. La jugo estis alligita (tied fast) per 
granda ligajo el snurego. Post la morto de Gordio oni 
grade komencis kredi ion tre interesan pri tio. Oni diris 
ke tin, kiu povos iel ajn malligi tiun ligajon, farigos re- 
ganto super 6iuj regoj de Azio. 15 

Post kelkaj jaroj Aleksandro Granda decidis fari 
grandan militadon kontraii Azio, kaj alproksimigis al la 
lando kie estis reginta Gordio. Kiam li demandis, " Kio 
estas ci tie la plej interesa vidindajo?" oni rakontis al li 
tion, kion oni diras pri la snurega ligajo sur la veturilo de 20 
Gordio. Kompreneble (of course) Aleksandro deziris fari 
ion ajn utilan por venki Azion, tial li tuj venigis gvidiston 
por konduki lin al la templo. Alveninte tien, li zorge 
rigardadis la ligajon, kaj ekzamenis la snuregon el kiu gi 
estis farita. Tiam, elpreninte sian glavon el la glavingo, S5 
subite klinigante li rekte tratrancis la tutan , ligajon. 
" Nenio estas pli faeila ol tio," li diris, " kaj nun mi ne 
dubas cu mi certe regos super ciuj regoj de Azio." Pro 
tio, kion faris Aleksandro Granda, oni ankoraii nuntempe 
diras, kiam iu ajn superas malfacilajon per kia ajn subitaao 
metodo, "Li tran&s la gordian ligajon." 

1. One often hears the remark "I will cut the Gordian 
knot." 2. There is an interesting story about this. 3. 
A wagon whose yoke was tied to the pole by a large knot 
had been put in the middle of the temple. 4. It was a 
thank-offering to the sacred gods, by whose help Gordius 
had in olden time become king. 5. It was said that who- 
ever would be able to untie that rope would no doubt be- 
come ruler over the whole of Asia. 6. Alexander the Great, 
having begun a campaign against Asia, approached the 
city where this temple was. 7. Having heard the story. 

18i LESSON LI. [§238 

he at once had a guide come, and went thither, guided by 
him. 8. He desired to do everything which was useful to 
the conquering of Asia. 9. Having examined the knot 
carefully, he bent over and tried for a few minutes to untie 
it. 10. Then he chose another method. 11. He seized his 
sword, and suddenly cut through the whole knot. 12. 
Having done this, he put the sword back into the scabbard. 
13. This he did, instead of continuing (daurigi) his efforts 
to untie the knot. 14. In fact, having no patience, he had 
become tired. 15. Perhaps the conquering of Asia did not 
in any way become possible on account of this, but at least 
the story is interesting, whatever actually (efektive) hap- 
pened. 16. Nothing is impossible, whenever one tries 
enough. 17. In a tropical country, such as part of Asia 
is, the landscapes are beautiful. 18. A tropical twilight is 
very short, however, and the shadows have scarcely be- 
come long when the sun seems to sink suddenly below the 
horizon, although the last bright rays continue to shine 
back through the atmosphere for a few minutes. 



238. The pronoun (and pronominal adjective) ambaii, 
both, indicates two persons or things considered together. 
It is invariable in form: * 

Hi ambau venis al la templo, they both came to the temple. 
Ambau faris oferojn al la dioj, both made offerings to the gods. 
Vidante kaj la plumon kaj la plumingon, mi prenis la ambau, seeing 
both the pen and the penholder, I took both. 

* This pronoun must not be confused with the use of kaj, translated both in 
the combination kaj . . . kaj . . , b th . . . and . . (26). 

§§239-240] LESSON li. 185 


239. Some verbs may be used in the simple form, and 
also with both the suffix -ig- and the suffix -ig-. Thus 
from one verb-root three verbs of distinct meaning may be 
made, and the formation with -ig-, being transitive, may 
also be used in the passive: 

sidi, to sit, to be sitting. 

sidigi, to become sitting, to take a seat. 

sidigi, to cause to sit, to seat. 

esti sidigata, to be caused to sit. 
silenti, to he silent. 

silentigi, to become silent. 

silpntigi, to cause to be silent, to silence. 

esti silentigita, to be silenced. 
kusi, to lie, to be lying. 

kuSigi, to lie down, to go to bed. 

kusigi, to cause to lie, to lay. 

esti kusigita, to be laid. 
stari, to stand, to be standing. 

starigi, to rise, to stand up, to become erect. 

starigi, to raise, to cause to stand up, to erect. 

esti starigita, to be raised, to be erected. 


240. A conditional sentence consists of two parts, an 
assumption and a conclusion. The assumption is a clause 
(introduced usually by the conjunction se, if) which as- 
sumes something as true or realized. The conclusion is a 
statement whose truth or realization depends upon the 
truth or realization of the assumption. Factual conditions 
(conditions of fact) may deal with the present, past or 
future time: 

Se li vidas tion, li ploras, if he sees that, he weeps (is weeping). 
Se li vidis tion, li ploris, if he saw that, he wept. 

186 LESSON LI. ' [§240 

Li ploros, se li vidos tion, he will weep, if he sees that. 

Se li venis hieraii, li foriros morgau, if he came yesterday, he will go 
away tomorrow. 

Se li estas vidinta tion, li nun ploras, if he has seen that, he now is 

Se tio estas vidota, li estas punota, if that is going to be seen, he is go- 
ing to be punished. 

Se li estas kaptita, li estos jam punita, if he has been captured, he will 
already have been punished. 


ambau, both (238). mut-a, dumb, mute. 

azen-o, ass, donkey. orel-o, ear. 

ben-i, to bless. petol-a, mischievous. 

dors-o, back. propr-a, own, one's own. 

form-o, form. se, if. 

halt-i, to stop (intrans.). spir-i, to breathe. 

monafi-o, monk. turment-i, to torment. 


lam du monafioj reiris tra la arbaro al la monanejo, dum 
grade krepuskigis. Ambau portis pezajn sakojn da ter- 
pomoj, kaj baldau lacigis, sed ne sciis kion fan. Okaze 
ill ekvidis azenon ligitan al arbo, kaj unu monaho, haltinte, 

5 diris petole al la alia " Se vi anstatauos la beston, mi havos 
portanton por miaj propraj sakoj, kaj ankaix por la viaj." 
Lia kunulo respondis " Nu, se la azeiio portos miajn 
sakojn, mi mem goje restos en gia loko." Jus dirite, tuj 
farite (no sooner said than done). Malliginte la ligajojn 

10 kiuj tenis la azenon, ili jetis la sakojn trans la dorson de la 
utila besto. Unu monafio tuj forkondukis la azenon, dum 
ambati viroj laute ridis. Post tio, la dua monafio sin ligis 
per la sama snurego kiu antatie tenis la azenon. Kiam 
revenis la kamparano, kies azeno estis jus stelita, li ekhal- 

istis, multe mirigite, vidante homon tie ligita. La monaho 

^240] LESSON LI. 187 

anoncis al li, " Car mi estis tro mangema, Dio faris azenon 
el mi, antaii du jaroj. Mi jus rericevis mian propran for- 
mon." Tuj la kredema kamparano invitis la petolan 
monahon al sia hejmo. La monafio restis tiun nokton ce 
la kamparano, kaj la sekvintan tagon li f oriris, beninte la 20 
kamparanon, sed kase ridante pri la afero. Tiam la kam- 
parano iris vendejon, por aceti alian azenon. Li ekvidis 
sian propran azenon, kiun la unua monaho estis sendinta 
tien, post sia reveno al la monahejo. La malsaga kam- 
parano, kliniginte al la besto, diris " Ho, bona monalio, 25 
mi vidas ke duan fojon vi jam estis tro mangema!" La 
muta besto forte svingis la orelojn kaj skuis la kapon, pro 
la varma elspirajo apud sia orelo. Tio Sajne estis re- 
spondo al la jus diritaj vortoj, tial la malsaga kamparano 
ree acetis sian propran azenon. Ciam poste li nek tur-30 
mentis nek ec laborigis gin, kredante la azenon la sankta 
monaho mem. 


1. If the subjects of any kingdom whatever did not 
have a king, in ancient times, they usually asked the sacred 
gods about it. 2. If the gods informed (sciigis) them that 
whatever man would come to the temple first would be- 
come their king, they immediately chose the first comer 
(la unuan veninton) king. 3. Whoever was chosen king 
made the blessed gods a thank-offering, which consisted of 
something out of his own possessions (227, a). 4. Gordius 
did not offer to the gods merely the yoke of his wagon, but 
the whole wagon. 5. A knot of rope was tied between the 
yoke and the pole. 6. People soon began to say, " If any 
one soever can untie that knot, he will b'ecome ruler of 
Asia." 7. If any other men tried to untie that rope, they 
failed. 8 Alexander,- though (tamen), had scarcely ar- 

188 LESSON LII. [§241 

rived when he drew (out) his sword from the scabbard, and 
cut the knot. 9. If you will take-a-seat, I will tell you 
about the two mischievous monks, returning to the monas- 
tery. 10. Both were breathing with difficulty, and stopped 
to rest. 11. Having noticed a donkey near by, they untied 
it. 12. One led the long-eared dumb animal away, while 
the other tied himself in its own place. 13. The credulous 
(192) peasant believed everything which was told (54) 
him, even that the monk had formerly had the form of an 



241. Tiiat indication of the speaker's frame of mind 
which is given by the form of the verb is called the mood 
of the verb. All verbs given so far have been in the indica- 
tive mood, which represents an act or state as a reality or 
fact, or in the infinitive mood, which expresses the verbal 
idea in a general way, resembling that of a substantive. 
The conditional mood does not indicate whether or not the 
act or state mentioned is a fact, but merely expresses the 
speaker's idea of its likelihood or certainty, or is used in an 
assumption or conclusion dealing with suppositions, not 
with actual facts. The ending of the conditional mood is 
-us. The conjugation of vidi in the aoristic tense of the 
conditional mood is as follows: 

mi vidus, I should see. 

vi vidus, you would see. 

!i (§i, gi) vidus, hfi (she, it) would see. 

ni vidus, we should see. 

vi vidus, you would see. 

ill vidus, they would see. 

§§242-244] LESSON lii. 189 


242. In addition to the aoristic tense, the conditional 
mood has three active and three passive compound tenses, 
formed by combining the participles with the aoristic tense 
of esti in the conditional mood. A synopsis of vidi in 
these compound tenses is as follows: 

Active Voice. 
Present: mi estus vidanta, / should be seeing. 
Past : mi estus vidinta, / should have seen. 
Future: mi estus vidonta, / should be about to see. 

Passive Voice. 
Present: mi estus vidata, I should be seen. 
"Past: mi estus vidita, / should have been seen. 
Future: mi estus vidota, / should be about to be seen. 


243. A conditional sentence dealing with suppositions 
concerning events in present or future time is called a less 
vivid condition* and the conditional mood is used in both 
the assumption and the conclusion : 

Se li vidus tion, li plorus, if he should see that, he would weep. 

Mi goje helpus vin, se mi povus, / would gladly help you, if I could. 

Se vi metus ilin sur la dorson de la azeno, ^i portus ilin, if you should 
put them on the donkey's back, it would carry them. 

La petola junulo turmentus la mona&on, se li revenus, the mischie- 
vous youth would torment the monk, if he should return. 

Se li estus kaptata, li estus punata, if he should be caught, he would be 

244. The conditional mood may be used in a conclusion 
whose assumption is merely implied, serving thus to soften 

* In contrast to factual conditions (240), which are vivid, because they deal 
with facts. 

190 LESSON LII. [§245 

or make vague the statement or question in which it is 

Mi toje helpus vin, / would gladly help you. 

Cu vi bonvole dirus al mi? Would you kindly tell me? 

Kiu volus enspiri tian aeron? Who would wish to inhale such air? 

Estus bone reteni vian propran, it would he well to keep your own. 

La cielo vin benus pro tio, Heaven would bless you for that. 


245. The prefix dis- indicates separation or movement in 
several different directions at once: * 

disdoni, to distribute. disigi, to separate (intrans.). 

dispeli, to dispel. disigo, .reparation, schism. 

disigi, to separate (trans.). dissendi, to send around. 


ces-i, to cease, to leave off. kauz-i, to cause. 

dens-a, dense. leg-o, law. 

difin-i, to define. natur-o, nature. 

ekzist-i, to exist. objekt-o, object. 

flu-i, to flow. plu, further, more.\ 

gravit-i, to gravitate. turn-i, to turn (trans.). 


1. Ofte oni parolas pri la pezeco de diversaj objektoj. 
Tia pezeco estas kaiizata de la forto kiun oni nomas la 
gravitado. Pro tiu forto ne nur objektoj sur la tero, sed 
ankau la tero mem, havas konatan pezecon, kiun la kleru- 

* Cf. the English prefix dis- in disperse, disseminate, distribute, etc. 

t The adverb plu gives an idea of continuance to the word which it modifies. 
When used with ne, the two together give an idea of cessation concerning a 
previous continuous act or state: 

Ambaii paroles plu morgau, hoih will talk further to-morrow. 
Mi ne plu haltos, / shall not stop (any) more. 
Li ne plu sajnis muta, he no longer seerned mute. 

§245] LESSON LII. 191 

loj jam antau longe kalkulis. La suno kaj la luno simile 5 
havas pezecon, 6ar ili ambaii, same kiel la tero, movi^as 
lau tiu sama gravitado kiu efektive regas 6iujii el la fiielaj 
korpoj. Se la gravitado 6esus ekzisti, la riveroj ne plu 
fluus antauen en siaj fluejoj (beds). Ne fluante de altaj 
^is malaltaj lokoj, la akvo disfluus, aii restus tie, kie ajn gi lo 
okaze estus. Neniom da pluvo falus; kontraue, la mal- 
sekajo en la aero ankoraii restus tie, en la forme de densaj 
mallumaj 6iamaj nuboj. Ciuj vivaj estajoj (beings), 6iuj 
konstruajoj, efektive 6io, baldatt disflugus de la rapide 
turniganta mondo. Ciuj ci (all these) nun devas resti suns 
la tero, tial ke la gravitado restigas ilin 6i tie. Se la gra- 
vitado ne plu ekzistus, nenio restus plu sur la tero. La 
aero mem ne plu 6irkauus nin, sed gi ankatt forlasus la 
mondon, tuj maldensiginte (having become rarefied). La 
fama angla filozof o Newton estis la unua, kiu studadis la so 
kialon (reason) de la falado de objektoj. Li komencis, 
lati la rakonto, per okaza ekrigardo al falantaj pomoj en sia 
propra pomarbejo. Antati tri jarcentoj, li eltrovis ke 
estas tia forto kia la gravitado, kaj difinis la naturajn 
le^ojn lati kiuj la gravitado sin montras. Ci tiu forto, kiu 25 
restigas 6ion sur la tero, estas tamen la katizo de nia 
lacigado, kiam ni marsas ati kuras, 6ar gi faras nin pezaj, 
kaj tial ni ofte deziras halti kaj ripozi. Estas ankatt la 
malfacileco en la superado de tiu sama forto, kiu faras tiel 
malfacila la konstruadon de utilaj aer§ipoj. 30 


1. Newton was an Englishman who lived three centuries 
ago. 2. One day he was walking in his orchard, and, notic- 
ing the falling apples, he stood still (ekhaltis) and began 
to wonder why they fall. 3. He studied the cause of their 
falling, wishing to discover whatever laws of nature he 

192 LESSON LIII. [§246 

could. 4. He watched various falling objects, and tried to 
calculate their velocity (rapideco). 5. Finally he recog- 
nized that force which is called gravitation. 6. Of course 
(kompreneble) gravitation had always existed, but its laws 
were not noticed or clearly defined until Newton studied 
the matter. 7. If gravitation should not exist any more, 
no rain would fall, but instead of condensing, the moisture 
would remain above our heads in eternal clouds. 8. But 
gradually the moisture and the air itself, becoming rarefied, 
would fly away from the earth, being held no longer by the 
force of gravitation. 9. The water in the rivers would leave 
off flowing (cease to flow) on toward the sea, because now 
the water flows from high to low places only on account of 
gravitation. 10. Instead of gravitating toward the sea, in 
fact, the water would flow in every direction (245) out of 
the riverbeds, or would remain there, without moving at all 
(tute ne movante). 11. Nothing on earth would remain here 
very long, but everything would fly off the quickly moving 
world, and leave it entirely bare. Soon, also, the earth 
itself would break-into-pieces (245) . 


246. A condition contrary to fact indicates that the oppo- 
site of what is mentioned has really taken place or is taking 
place. It expresses the speaker's certainty that an act or 
state would have been realized, if some other act or state 
were also realized. Such conditions cannot refer to the 
future, but only to present or past time. The conditional 
mood is used: 

Se vi estus turninta vin, vi estus vidinta tion, if you had turned, you 
would have seen that. 

§§247-248] LESSON liii. 193 

Se la malsekajo ne estus densiginta, ne estus pluvinte, if the moisture 

had not condensed, it would not have rained. 
Se li estus kaptita, li estus punita, if he had been caught, he would have 

been punished. 
Se li estus sidanta tie, mi vidus lin, if he were {if he should be) sitting 

there, I should see him. 
Se la gravitado ne ekzistus, tiu pluvo ne estus falanta, if gravitation 

did not (should not) exist, that rain would not be falling. 


247. The verb devi (c/. devo, duty) is equivalent to the 
verb must (which in English has no future, past, infini- 
tive, etc.), and to to have to, to be obliged to, etc., carrying 
the idea of must into all tenses and moods. In the con- 
ditional mood its meaning is softened into a vaguer sense 
(of moral obligation), and carries the idea of ought: 

Objektoj en la aero devas fali, objects in the air have to fall. 

Ni devis agi lau la legoj, we had to act according to the laws. 

Vi devos iri, you must {will have to) go. 

§i ne volas devi fari tion, she does not wish to have to do that. 

Hi devigis min iri, they compelled me to go. 

Vi devus iri, you should go {you ought to go). 

Oni devus pensi antaii ol paroli, one ought to think before speaking. 

Li estus devinta veni, he ought to have come. 

Tio devus esti farita, that ought to have been done. 


248. The preposition sen, without, indicates'the omission, 
absence or exclusion of that which is expressed by its 
complement.* It may be used as a prefix (160), giving a 

* English phrases containing " without " as in " without reading," must be 
changed to phrases clearly containing verbal nouns, as "without the reading of," 
before translating into an Esperanto phrase with sen. Othen\'ise a participle 
with ne should replace the phrase (222) : 
Sen la legado de tio, mi ne komprenus, without {the) reading (of) that, 1 should not 

und&r stand. 
Ne leginte tion, mi ne komprenus, without reading {not having read) that, 1 should 

not understand. 

194 LESSON LIII. [§248 

sense of deprivation or exclusion (like that given by the 
English suffix -less): 

Li difiiais la vorton sen eraro, he defined the word without an error. 

La rivero sen£ese fluas, the river flows without ceasing. 

Tio estas ne nur senutila sed et malutila, that is not only useless but 

even harmful. 
Li ne plu estas senmona, he is no longer penniless. 
Li sentime alproksimigis al gi, he fearlessly approached it. 


akuz-i, to accuse. nobl-a, noble. 

instru-i, to teach. pardon-i, to pardon. 

kondamn-i, to condemn. pek-i, to sin. 

konfes-i, to confess, to admit, prav-a, right, correct. 

konscienc-o, conscience. sen, without (248). 

kulp-o, guilt. So-krato, Socrates. 

merit-i, to deserve. venen-o, poison. 


Unu el la plej famaj grekaj filozofoj estis nomita Sok- 
rato. Li estis malbela malalta persono, kun senhara kapo 
kaj dika korpo, sed malgrau tio li estis treege bona, nobla 
kaj saga. Li instruadis per interparolado kun la lernantoj . 

5 Kutime li komencis per demando pri io ajn, pri kio la atis- 
kultanto respondos. Fine, la lernanto grade komprenis cu 
liaj propraj opinio] pri la afero estas pravaj . Ankoraii nun 
oni nomas tiun metodon de instruado per la interparolado 
" la Sokrata metodo." Sokrato diradis tute sen timo 6ion, 

10 kion li pensis, e6 pri la dioj kaj pri la nekredeblaj rakontoj 
pri la dioj . Se li ne estus tiel multe klariginta, eble li estus 
vivinta pli longan tempon. Sed multaj personoj malamis 
lin, precipe 6ar li donis novajn ideojn al la junuloj, kiuj 
sekve komencis pensi por si mem, anstatau fari tion kion 

isfaras ciu alia. Tial oni akuzis Sokraton en la ju^ejo, 

§248] LESSON LIII. 195 

nomante lin pekanto kaj malbonfaranto, unue, car li ne 
disdonas oferojn al la dioj, due, car li enkondukas novajn 
diojn (6ar li diris ke supernatura vo6o, kiu sendube estis lia 
nomo por la konscienco, parolis malloilte 6e lia orelo), 
trie, 6ar li malbonigas la junularon de la urbo. Se li estus 20 
konfesinte la kiilpon kaj petinte pardonon, tiam la jugistoj 
eble estus punintaj lin per nura (mere) monpago (fine). 
Sed li fiere respondis ke efektive li multe plibonigas la 
junularon, kaj anstatau esti malutila, aii e6 neutila, li 
treege utilas al la urbo. Li diris ke oni havas nenianss 
rajton puni lin, sed ke, katize de sia bonfarado al la urbo, 
li efelrtive meritas ciutagan mangon senpagan. Tamen, 
tute ne kompreninte kiel prava Sokrato estas, la jugistoj 
mortkondamnis lin. Oni devigis lin trinki la venenon. 
lom poste, en la malliberejo, li trankvile adiatiis siajn3C 
plorantajn amikojn, kaj akceptinte la venenan trinka|on, 
sentime ^in trinkis. 


1. Socrates believed that if one knows about good and 
evil (201) he will do good, but will not do evil. 2. There- 
fore he wished to help mankind (la homaron) ,' teaching 
them what the good is. 3. He also wished to discover for 
himself what is right and what is wrong. 4. So he asked 
every one whom he met (about) his opinions, and the one- 
talking-with [him] would also notice whether his own 
ideas were right or not. 5. But the fellow-citizens of Soc- 
rates were jealous, and hated him, because they did not 
understand him. 6. Therefore they accused him, called 
him a sinner, and sent around (245) false reports (falsajn 
sciigojn) about him. 7. Because he said that conscience 
guided him (in the form of a soft voice at his ear), they 
accused him of (pri) introducing (218, b) new gods. 8. 




They also said that he was corrupting the youth of the city. 
9. If Socrates had pleaded guilty, and begged for a fine 
instead of the death-punishment, without doubt he would 
have been pardoned and fined (monpunita). 10. But he 
said " I have never in my life sinned in any way, and I do 
not deserve any sort of punishment." So the judges con- 
demned him to death by the drinking of poison. 



249. The three kinds of conditional sentences, together 
with the moods and tenses used in them, may be tabulated 
as follows: 



Less Vivid 

Contrary to Fact 

Subject Matter 



opposite of facts 



(usually) future 

present or past 



(usually) aoristio 




(usually) compound 


250. Clauses of imaginative comparison are introduced 
by the conjunction kvazaii, as though, as if. Sometimes 
the verb in the comparison may be left unexpressed or 
merely implied: 

Li trinkas la venenon kvazau gi estus vino, he drinks the poison as 

though it were wine. 
La kondamnito inar§is kvazafi kun malfacileco, the condemned man 

walked as if with difficulty. 
Li konfesis kvazau kulpulo, he confessed like a culprit. 

§§251-253] LESSON Liv. 197 


251. Personal pronouns, and less frequently nouns, may 
be used with the preposition al to express concern or in- 
terest on the part of the person indicated by the comple- 
ment of this preposition: * 

Li bruligis al si la manon, he burned his hand. 
Ill trancis al li la barbon, they cut his beard (the beard for him). 
§i preparas al ni bonan mangon, she is preparing us a good meal. 
Cu vi faros servon al mi? Will you do me a service? 

252. By an extension of its use in expressing reference, 
al may often be used in the place of de expressing separa- 
tion (170), when the use of de might seem to indicate 
agency (169) or possession (49) : f 

La luno estas kasata al ni de la nuboj, the moon is hidden from us (to 

us) by the clouds. 
6i estas Stelita al mi de li, it has been stolen from me by him. 


253. The suffix -esti:- is used to indicate the chief, head, 
or one in control of that which is expressed in the root: 

lernejestro, (school) principal. urbestro, mayor. 

monafiestro, abbot. estraro, governing body. 

policestro, chief of police. sipestro, ship-captain. 

* The use of al in this sense, approaching that of per but less purposeful and 
definite, resembles the " dative of reference " and " ethical dative " of other 
languages, as in French je 7ne suis hrule la langue, I have burned my tongue, German 
ich wasche mir die Hlinde, I wash my hands, Latin sese Caesari ad pedes proi- 
cerunt, they threw themselves at the feet of Ccesar, Greek ri <roi iiaer^troiiat; what am 
I to learn for you f etc. 

t This use resembles the " dative of separation " of other languages, as in 
German es stahl mir das Leben, it stole the life from me, French il me prend la vie, 
it takes my life, Latin hunc mihi timorem eripe, remove this fear from me, Greek 
Se^aro oi (TKTjTTTpov, he took his sceptre from him, etc. 

198 LESSON LIV. [§253 


Aristejd-0, Aristeides. popol-o, a people. 

ekzil-i, to exile. pot-o, pot. 

enu-i, to be wearied, bored. senc-o, meaning, sense. 

gust-a, exact.* signif-i, to signify. 

kvazau, as though, as if (250). son-i, to sound. 

ostr-o, oyster. strang-a, strange. 

ostracism-o, ostracism. sel-o, shell, bark, peel. 


La vorto ostracismo havas interesan devenon (origin). 
En ^ia komenco oni rekonas la grekan vorton kiu sig- 
nifas " selon de la ostro." En gia fino oni vidas la 
saman "-ismon " kiu, deveninte de la greka, ankoraii estas 

suzata kiel vortfino en multaj diversaj lingvoj. La nuna 
senco de la vorto, facile trovebla en anglaj vortaroj (dic- 
tionaries), devenas de la jena greka kutimo: 

Sepdek jarojn antaii ol vivadis Sokrato, oni faris stran- 
gan legon en lia urbo. Laii tin, oni povis ekzili iun ajn 

loestron kies ideoj pri la administrado de la urbo ne sajnis 
pravaj. Ci tion oni povis fari, tute sen jugado aii ec aku- 
zado, car oni havis la jenan metodon: se ce popola kun- 
veno ses mil urbanoj vo6donis (vote) kontratt iun ajn, tiu 
estis devigata foriri de la urbo, kaj forresti dek jarojn. Li 

15 povis neniel havigi (get) al si pardonon, sed devis tuj 
foriri kvazau konfesinta kulpulo. Por vofidonoj, oni 
skribis la nomon de la kondamnoto sur peco da potajo 
(pottery), att =pli ofte sur ostroselo. Guste tial oni nomas 
la kutimon ostracismo. Unufoje, kelkaj malamikoj pro- 

2oponis vofidonadon pri la ostracismo de tre bona kaj nobla 
viro, nomita Aristejdo, kiu tute ne meritis tian punadon. 

* Care must be taken to distinguish gusta, exact, guste, exactly, just, from 
justa, upright, just, juste, justly, and also from the adverb ]us, just (ftn., p. 116). 




Antati ol la kunveno disigis, kamparano alproksimigis al 
Aristejdo (kiu mem ceestis), petante lian helpon, 6ar la 
neinstmita kamparano ne povis skribi. La sagulo diris 
" Kion vi volas skribi sur la selo?" La kamparano, ne25 
sciante ke li parolas al la viro mem, respondis " Aristej- 
don." Skribinte gin, Aristejdo demandis kun trankvila 
konscienco " Pro guste kiaj pekoj vi malamas Aristej- 
don?" La kamparano respondis, " Ho, mi ne kasos al vi 
ke mi ec ne konas lin! Sed mi deziras ekzili lin nur car so 
min enuigas la sono de lia nomo. Mi tre enuas ciam aii- 
dante lin nomata Aristejdo la justa!" 


L Aristeides had just arrived at the popular assembly 
when a peasant approached him. 2. If Aristeides had not 
had a pleasant countenance and musical (belsonan) voice, 
doubtless the peasant would not have asked his help. 
3. Ought Aristeides to have written his own name on the 
oyster-shell or piece of pottery which was going to be used 
as a vote against him? 4. Without just (exactly) this help, 
the peasant could not have voted. 5. Doing him the serv- 
ice requested, Aristeides said, as if (250) he himself were 
not the man under-discussion (205), " Why do you hate 
Aristeides? 6. Could you tell me how he has sinned 
against the city?" 7. The silly-creature (132) replied, 
" Oh, I know nothing about him, but I am weary [of] 
always hearing him called the just." 8. Ought such per- 
sons as that ignorant peasant have-the-right to vote 
about important affairs? 9. The ancient law about 
ostracism was a strange [one]. 10. The name of the per- 
son to-be-exiled (199) was usually written upon an oyster- 
shell, and the meaning of the word signifying the custom 
comes from that. IL Through (per) ostracism, any 

200 LESSON Lv. [§§254-255 

leader could be banished, justly or unjustly, without trial 
of any kind, or explanation of the reasons. 



254, For expressions of command, exhortation, en- 
treaty, etc., there is an imperative mood, as in English. 
The ending of the imperative mood is -u. Besidfe the 
aoristic tense, six compound tenses are formed by com- 
bining the participles with the imperative mood estu of 
the auxiliary verb, but these tenses are seldom used. The 
conjugation of vidi in the aoristic tense of this mood, to- 
gether with a synopsis in the compound tenses, is as follows: 

Aoristic Tense. 
mi vidu ! let me see! ni vidu ! let us see! 

(vi) vidu! (you) see! (vi) vidu! (you) see! 

li (Si, gi) vidu ! let him (her, it) see! ili vidu ! let them see! 

Compound Tenses. 
Active. Passive. 

Present: mi estu vidanta, Present: mi estu vidata, 

Past: mi estu vidinta, Past: mi estu vidita, 

Future: mi estu vidonta. Future: mi estu vidota. 


255. The first person singular of the imperative mood 
is used to express the speaker's resolve concerning his own 
action, or an exhortation to himself concerning such action. 
The first person plural is used to express resolve or ex- 
hortation concerning the joint action of the speaker and 
the person or persons addressed: * 

Mi pensu pri tio ! Let me think about that ! 

* This force is usually expressed in English by " let " with an accusative and 
infinitive construction. 

§§256-257] LESSON Lv. 201 

Mi ne forgesu tion! / must not {do not let me) forget that! 

Ni ekzilu lin ! Let us exile him! 

Ni ne sidifu tie! Let us not sit down there! 

Ni estu grize vestitaj ! Let us be dressed in gray ! 


256. The second and third persons of the imperative are 
used to express peremptory commands and prohibitions. 

a. In the second person the pronoun is usually omitted, 
as in English, unless special emphasis is placed upon it: 

Estu trankvila ! Becalm! (One person is addressed.) 

Estu pretaj por akompani min! Be ready to accompany me! (Two or 

more persons are addressed.) 
Parolu kvazaii vi komprenus ! Talk as though you understood ! 
Ne fermu tiun pordon! Do not shut that door! 
Ne estu vidata tie ! Do not he seen there ! 

b. In the third person a circumlocution in English is 
necessary in translation (as let, must, are to, is to, etc.): 

Li estu zorga! Let him he careful {he must he careful)! 

§i ne faru tion ! Do not let her do that {she is not to do that) ! 

Cio estu pardonata! Let everything be forgiven! 

Oni lasu min trankvila ! People are to let me alone ! 

Hi neniam revenu! Let them never {do not let them ever) return! 

La kulpuloj estu punataj ! Let the culprits be punished ! 


257- By an extension of its use in resolve, exhortation, 
command and prohibition, the imperative mood may be 
employed for less peremptory expressions, such as re- 
quest, wish, advice, etc., and in questions of deliberation or 
perplexity, or requests for instruction: 

Request: Cesu tiun bruon, mi petas! Stop that noise, I beg! 
Bonvolu fari tion! Please do that! 
Pardonu al ni niajn pekojn! Forgive us our sins! 




Wish: 111 estu felicaj ! May they be happy ! 

Dio vin benu ! Ood bless you ! 

Vivu la rego ! {Long) live the king ! 
Advice: Pensu antau ol agi ! Think before acting! 

Foriru, se vi ne estas kontenta! Go away, if you are not 
satisfied ! 
Consent: Nu, parolu, sed mi ne aiiskultos! Well, talk, but I shall not 
listen ! 

Iru tuj, se vi volas, go at once, if you like. 
Question: Cu mi faru tion aii ne? Am I to do that or not? 

Cu ni disdonu la librojn? Shall we distribute the books? 

Cu li estu kondamnita? Shall he be condemned? 

Cu ili venu £i tien? Are they to (shall they) come here? 


258. The word mosto may be used alone, or after a title, 
to denote respect. When used after a title, the title be- 
comes an adjective: 

Lia refa mo§to, his majesty. Lia jugista mosto, his honor the judge. 
Sia refina mo§to, her majesty. Lia urbestra mosto, his honor the mayor. 
Cu via moSto lin audis? Did your honor {excellency, etc.) hear him,? 


Afrik-0, Africa. 
barbar-o, barbarian. 
Damokl-o, Damocles. 
flank-o, side. 
imperi-o, empire. 
konsent-i, to consent. 
konsil-i, to advise. 

molt-o, a title (see 258). 
ordon-i, to order, to bid. 
permes-i, to permit. 
plac-i, to please. 
^sklav-o, slave. 
sol-a, sole, only. 
volont-e, willingly. 


Antaii pli multe ol dumil jaroj vivis en Sirakuzo, sur la 
insulo Sikelio, tre kruela tirano. Li diris al si " Mi estu 
6iopova (all-powerful)]" Tial li faris multe da militadoj, 

§258] LESSON Lv. 203 

kaj venkis ne nur barbarajn popolojn, sed ankafl. multajn 
urbojn en Italujo kaj norda Afriko. Detruinte feion sen 5 
kompato, li ordonis " La logantoj estu vendataj por 
sklavoj!" Li deziris fari por si, el lavenkitaj kaj sklavi- 
gitaj popoloj.unu grandan imperion. Sed la urboj 6ie, eS 
en Grekujo, ne kasis al li sian grandan malamon al tia 
tirano. Tial li 6iam timis pri sia vivo, timante ke iu subite lo 
mortigos lin. Unufoje Damoklo, amiko de la tirano, diris 
al li, " Se mi estus tiel ri6a kaj pova kiel via rega mosto, mi 
estus treege felica!" La tirano respondis, " Venn al festo 
6e mi, se tio pla6as al vi, kaj eltrovu 6u mi devus esti felica 
au ne." " Mi venos tre volonte," ekkriis Damoklo, " kaj is 
mi dankas vian moston pro tia afableco!" La tirano gentile 
respondis " Ho, estas nenio (=you are welcome)l Nur ne 
forgesu la deciditan horon!" Je la gusta horo Damoklo 
iris al la festo, kie oni donis al li segon flanke de la tirano 
mem. " Mangu kaj trinku kiom ajn vi volas," konsilis la 20 
tirano, " kaj poste ni parolos pri la feli6eco." Damoklo 
tuj konsentis al tia propono, kaj agis lau la permeso tiel 
afable donita al li. Mangante bonegan mangajon, kaj 
trinkante dol6an vinon, li tute ne enuis 6e la festo. Baldaii 
la. tirano diris " Rigardu supren, kaj vidu guste kian felice-25 
con mi havas!" Supren rigardinte, Damoklo ekvidis 
akran glavon, antatie kasitan al li de kurteno. Subtenate 
de unu sola haro, la glavo sajnis kvazati tuj falonta sur la 
kapon de Damoklo. " La dioj min helpu!" li ekkriis, for- 
saltinte de la tablo. Pro la jus dirita stranga rakonto, oni 30 
ankoraii nun nomas la atendadon por io timeginda, kio 
Sajnas ciam okazonta sed efektive ne okazas, " la glavo de 

1. The word ostracism comes from the Greek word signi- 
fying " oyster-shell." 2. It has its present meaning be- 

204 LESSON Lvi. [§259 

cause oyster-shells or pieces of pottery were used for the 
voting. 3. The story about Aristeides is interesting, but 
that about the sword of Damocles is also interesting. 
4. His friend, the Syracusan tyrant, had permitted all 
sorts of injustices, against not only barbarians but even 
Greeks. 5. His only bidding usually was " Let every in- 
habitant be sold as a slave!" 6. He thought " Let me 
make one sole empire out of Africa, Italy and Sicily!" 
7. Damocles said to him " Your royal highness ought to be 
very happy!" 8. The tyrant answered, " Come to a feast 
tomorrow, and find out. I will give you a seat (214, b) 
beside me." 9. Damocles willingly consented, and went 
thither. 10. The tyrant advised " Let us eat and drink 
until midnight, if that would be-pleasing to you. Then 
let us discuss the problem about happiness." IL After a 
few hours Damocles heard a slight sound over his head, and 
the tyrant said to him, " Look up and you will see what 
kind of happiness mine is." 12. " Heaven defend me!" 
exclaimed Damocles, catching sight of a sharp sword 
hanging by a single (sole) hair. 



259. The imperative mood is used in a subordinate 
clause, with a meaning similar to that in its independent 
use, after a main verb expressing command, exhortation, 
resolve, consent, wish, etc., or after any word or general 
expression of command, intention, necessity, expedience, 
etc.* Such clauses are introduced by the conjunction ke: 

* In English and some other languages an imperative idea may often be 
expressed by the infinitive, as " I wish you to go," but in Esperanto this must be 
expressed by the equivalent of " I wish that you go." The infinitive may not be 

§260] LESSON LVI. 205 

Command and Prohibition. 

Li diras ke vi iru, he says that you are to go. 

§i skribis al li ke li venu, she wrote him to come. 

Mi malpermesas ke vi restu, I forbid you to remain. 

Ni ordonos ke li estu punata, we shall order that he be punished. 
Request and Wisli. 

Mi petas ke vi ne lasu min, / beg that you do not leave me. 

Mi petegas ke vi estu trankvilaj, I implore you to be calm. 

Li deziras ke ili estu sklavigitaj, he desires that they be enslaved. 

Ni volis ke li ne forgesu tion, we wished him not to forget that. 
Advice, Consent, Permission. 

Mi konsilis al li ke li iru, / advised him, to go. 

Mi konsentis ke li restu, / consented that he remain. 

Ili permesos ke la barbaroj forkuru, they will permit the barbarians to 
escape {that the barbarians escape). 

Li demandas cu ili foriru, he inquires whether they are to go away. 

Oni demandis cu lia mosto eniru, they asked whether his honor was to 

Mi miras cu mi faru tion, I wonder whether I am to do that. 
Intention, Expedience, Necessity, etc. 

Ni intencas ke vi estu helpata, we intend that you shall be helped. 

Lia propono estas ke ni ricevu la duonon, his proposal is, that we re- 
ceive the half. 

Lia lasta ordono estis, ke vi venu, his last order was that you come. 

Estos bone ke vi ne plu nomu lin, it will be well for you not to (that 
you do not) mention him any more. 

Estas dezirinde ke ni havu bonan imperiestron, it is desirable that we 
have a good emperor. 

Estis necese ke £iu starigu, it was necessary for everyone to rise. 

Plafios al li ke vi iru, he will be pleased to have you go. 


260. Since prepositional uses are not exactly alike in any 
two languages, it is not always possible to translate a 

used except when it can itself be the subject of the verb in such general statements 
as " it is necessary to go." 

206 LESSON LVI. [§261 

preposition of one language by what is its equivalent in 
some senses in another.* In order to insure some means 
of translating correctly into Esperanto any prepositional 
phrase of the national languages, the preposition je is 
regarded as of rather indefinite meaning. In addition to 
its use in dates and allusions to time (89, 185), it may be 
employed when no other preposition gives the exact sense 
required, especially in protestations and exclamations, 
expressions of measure (see also 139), and of indefinite 
connection: f 

Je la nomo de cielo ! In the name of Heaven ! 

Je mia honoro mi ja elfaros tion! On my honor I will accomplish 

that ! 
6i estas longa je du mejloj, it is two miles long (long by two miles). 
Ili venis je gfandaj nombroj, they came in great numbers. 
Li estas tenata de la policano, je la brako, per forta snurego, he is 

held by the policemen, by the arm, with (by) a strong rope. 


261. The suffix -op- is used to form collective numerals: 

duope, by twos, in pairs. milope, by thousands. 

kvarope, by jours. sesopigi, to form into groups of six. 

* The translation given tor a preposition in any dictionary is the general one 
which serves in the majority of cases. The finer shades of meaning and real or 
apparent exceptions can merely be touched upon if mentioned at all. 

t The preposition je is used to express indefinite connection after the following 
words (other prepositions sometimes used are given in parentheses) : 
ekkrii je (pro), to cry out at. (sin) okupi je, to busy (oneself) at. 

enui je, to be bored with. plena je (de), full of. 

fiera je (pri), proud of. preni je, to take by. 

fidi je (al), to rely upon. provizi je (per), to provide with. 

goji je (pri), to rejoice at. ricigi je (per), to enrich with. 

gratuli je (pri), congratulate on: ridi je, to laugh at. 

honti je (pri), to be ashamed of. satigi je, to be sated with. 

inda je, worthy of. senigi je, to deprive of. 

interesigi je, to take interest in. simila je (al), similar to. 

kapti je, to seize by. sopiri je (al), to yearn for. 

kontenta je (kun), content with. sargi je, to load with. 

kredi je, to believe in. teni je, to hold by. 

§261] LESSON LVI, 207 


cel-i, to aim. prokrast-i, to delay (trans.). 

Cirus-o, Cyrus. proviz-i, to provide. 

fidi, to rely. rezult-i, to result. 

gu-i, to enjoy. sopir-i, to yearn, to sigh. 

honor-o, honor. spac-o, space. 

krom, beside, save, but. terur-a, terrible. 

plen-a, full. ver-o, truth. 

LA marSado de la dekmil grekoj. 

lam Ciruso, nepo de Ciruso Granda, sopiris je la imperio 
de sia pli maljuna frato, kiu sekvis la patron de ambaii fratoj 
kiel rego, aii pli guste imperiestro. Decidinte forigi de la 
regeco (to dethrone) sian fraton, Ciruso petis la grekojn ke 
ill partoprenu (take part) en kelkaj negravaj militadoj. 5 
Multaj tiamaj grekoj tre volonte sin okupis je la batalado, 
pro la granda pago ricevata. La venditaj sklavoj kaj la 
detruitaj konstruajoj 6iam provizis ilin je multe da ricajo, 
kaj krom tio la militistoj sajnis gui ec la militadon mem. 
Estis tute indiferente al ili 6u la kaiizo de la militado estas 10 
prava kaj justa aii ne. Unue Ciruso nur petis ke ili helpu 
liajn proprajn soldatojn kontrau iuj najbaroj. Li ka§is 
al ili sian veran celon, 6ar se la grekoj estus suspektintaj 
tion, kion li intends fari, ili neniam estus akompanintaj lin 
tiel malproksimen de sia patrolando. Grade li kondukis is 
ilin trans tutan Azion, kaj fine la dekmil grekoj kom- 
prenis 6ion, kaj treege kolerigis. Paroladante al ili, 
Ciruso tuj diris " Mi ne permesas ke vi reiru, kaj mi pe- 
tegas ke vi antaiien marsadu kun mi, sen plua (further) 
prokrasto! Se mi sukcesos kontrau mia frato, mi cer-20 
tigas vin je mia honoro ke ciu el vi revenos havante sakojn 
pleriajn je rifiajo! Estas nur necese ke vi fidu je mi, kaj 
6io estos bona!" Tiam la spldatoj hontis je sia antaua 

208 LESSON LVI. [§261 

timo, kaj kurage antaiien marsadis. Fine, apud granda 
25urbo, la frato de Ciruso elvenis havante okcentmil sol- 
datojn, por batali kontrau la centmil de Ciruso. Per la 
helpo de siaj grekoj, Ciruso estis preskatt venkinta en 
terura batalo, kiam subite li ekvidis sian fraton, je mal- 
granda interspace. Ekkriante " Mi vidas la viron!" li 
30 rajdis rekte al la rego, jetante sian pezan lancon al li. La 
sola rezulto estis la morto de Ciruso mem, 6ar la amikoj 
de la rego, kvinope kaj sesope atakinte Ciruson, lin tuj 


1. Cyrus did not desire that his brother should remain 
king. 2. He decided, " Let me myself become (farigi) 
king! I should much enjoy that!" 3. So he asked the 
Greeks to help him in some battles against nearby enemies. 
4. Gradually an army (126) of a hundred thousand men, 
ten thousand of whom were Greeks, gathered (232, b) 
around him. 5. He led them farther and farther, into the 
middle of Asia, until finally the Greeks suspected his true 
aim. 6. They said to each other in terror, " He did not at 
first propose that we fight against the Great King. Let us 
return home without delay!" 7. Cyrus addressed (218) 
them as follows: " Must I permit you to go back? I im- 
plore you to be courageous, and I do advise you not to 
forget your longing for (260) honor! 8. Only be worthy of 
your leader, and rely upon me ! Do you not wish to return 
home provided with wealth, beside the money which I shall 
pay to you ?" 9. Immediately the soldiers were ashamed of 
their fear, and advanced by hundreds, full of courage. 10. 
Soon the brother of Cyrus approached, with (havante) eight 
hundred thousand men. 1 1. By the aid of the Greeks, Cyrus 
won the battle, but he himself lost his life. 12. So neither 
he nor the Greeks could enjoy the result of their efforts. 

§§262-264] LESSON lvii. 209 



262. Purpose may be expressed by a subordinate im- 
perative clause, introduced by per ke : * 

Mi faras gin por ke li helpu vin, / do it in order that he may help you. 
Mi ekkriis por ke vi audu, / cried out in order that you should hear. 
Li venos por ke ni estu feli£aj, he will come that we may be happy. 
Mi studas por ke mi lernu, / study that I may learn. 
Hi restu por ke ni punu ilin, let them stay for us to punish them. 


263. The accusative of direction of motion is used after 
nouns from roots expressing motion: 

Lia eniro en la urbon estis subita, his entrance into the city was sudden. 
La irado lien estos plezuro, (the) going thither will be a pleasure. 
6ia falado teren timigis min, its falling earthward terrified me. 

264. a. An intransitive verb may be followed by a noun 
in the accusative case, if the meaning of the noun is re- 
lated to that of the verb: 

Li vivas agrablan vivon, he lives an agreeable life. 
§i dancis belan dancon, she danced a beautiful dance. 
Ili ploris maldolcajn larmojn, they wept bitter tears. 

b. Verbs of motion (iri, veni, pasi, marsi, veturi, etc.) 
compounded with prepositions or adverbs (121) indicat- 
ing direction, also compounds of such verbs as esti and 
stari with prepositions expressing situation, may be fol- 

* Cf. the expression of purpose by the infinitive with por (98), which however 
cannot be used except when the subject of the main verb is the subject of the 
subordinate verb, or when the object of the main verb is the subject of the sub- 
ordinate verb. 

t Cf. the accusative of direct object (23), direction of motion (46, 121), time 
(91), and measure (139). 

210 LESSON Lvii. [§§265-266 

lowed by the accusative, instead of by a prepositional 
phrase in which the preposition is repeated: 

La viro preterpasis la domon, the man passed Q>y) the house. 

Lin antauvenis du sklavoj, there preceded {came before) him two slaves. 

Ni supreniru la stuparon, let us go up the stairs. 

Mi Ceestis la feston, / attended (was present at) the entertainment. 

Mi kontraustaras vian opinion, I oppose {withstand) your opinion. 

c. The slight change in meaning given by pri used as a 
prefix may render intransitive verbs transitive.* The 
same is true of el prefixed to intransitive verbs not ex- 
pressing motion (see also p. 118, ftn.): 
§i priploris la mortintan birdon, she mourned the dead bird. 
Mi pripensos la aferon, I shall consider {think over) the matter. 
Ni |;in priparolos, we shall talk it over. 
Li klare elparolas la vortojn, he pronounces the words clearly. 

265. The accusative may be used after verbs of such 
meaning that either a prepositional phrase or an accusative 
would seem correct: 

Mi pardonas lin (al li), / pardon (grant pardon to) him.'f 

Mi helpis lin (al li), / helped (gave aid to) him. 

6i placas min (al mi), it pleases (is pleasing to) me. 

Li obeis nin (al ni), he obeyed (was obedient to) us. 

§i ridis mian timon (je mia timo), she ridiculed (laughed at) my fear. 

266. The accusative may be used after certain adverbs 
which are normally followed by a prepositional phrase: 

Rilate tion (rilate al tio), in regard to that. 

Escepte tion (escepte de tio), with the exception of that. 

Koncerne la aferon (koncerne je la afero), concerning the affair. 

Kompare la alian (kompare kun la alia), in comparison with the other. 

Konforme la Ieg;on (konforme al la lego), in conformity to the law. 

* In this use pri resembles the English and German inseparable prefix he-, 
as in English bemoan, bewail, bethink, bespeak, German beklagen, besprechen, 
hedenken sick, etc. 

t When ambiguity would be caused, as by the presence of another accusative, 
this construction may not be employed. One may say pardonu nin, but must 
say pardonu al ni niajn pekojn. 




267. vidi, to see. 




{Aoristic) mi vidas 
{Progressive) mi estas vidanta 

mi estas vidata 

{Aoristic) mi vidis 
{Imperfect) mi estis vidanta 


mi estis vidata 

{Aoristic) mi vidos 
{Progressive) mi estos vidanta 


mi estos vidata 

mi estas vidinta 


mi estas vidita 

mi estis vidinta 


mi estis vidita 

mi estos vidinta 

Future Perfect. 

mi estos vidita 

mi estas vidonta 

Periphrastic Futures. 

mi estas vidota 

mi estis vidonta 


mi estis vidota 

mi estos vidonta 


mi estos vidota 

212 LESSON LVII. [§267 




{Aoristic) mi vidus 
(Progressive) mi estus vidanta 

mi estus vidata 

mi estus vidinta 


mi estus vidita 

mi estus vidonta 


mi estus vidota 



(Aoristic) mi vidu 
(Progressive) mi estu vidanta 

mi estu vidata 

mi estu vidinta 


mi estu vidita 

mi estu vidonta 


mi estu vidota 



(Aoristic) vidi 
(Progressive) esti. vidanta 

esti vidata 

esti vidinta I esti vidita 

esti vidonta I esti vidota 

§268] LESSON LVII. 213 

268. The indefinite sufSx -um- serves the same general 
purpose in word formation which je serves as an indefinite 
preposition (260): 

aerumi, to air. kolumo, collar. 

buSumo, muzzle. plenumi, to fulfil. 

gustumi, to taste. proksimume, approximately. 


eben-a, level, even. nepr-e, inevitably, certainly. 

escept-o, exception. obe-i, to obey. 

esper-i, to hope. obstin-a, obstinate. 

fremd-a, foreign. promes-i, to promise. 

histori-o, history. rilat-o, relation. 

kompar-i, to compare. sat-a, satiated. 

koncern-i, to concern. sav-i, to save. 

konform-i, to conform. verk-i, to compose (books or music). 


La grekaj militistoj sentis grandan teruron kiam Ciruso 
ne plu vivis. La celo de la longa marsado ne povis esti 
plenumata, pro la morto de la obstina trokura^a militestro 
mem. Kvankam la grekoj estis venkintoj, ili estis tute 
solaj en fremda lando, fiirkattitaj de barbaroj kiuj, per 5 
trompemaj proponoj kaj falsaj promesoj pri amikaj inter- 
rilatoj, tuj okazigis la morton de la grekaj estroj. Seni- 
gite je siaj estroj, la kompatindaj viroj tute malesperis. 
Sed kelkaj subestroj, rapide kunveniginte la soldatojn, 
diris, " Ni mem kondukos vin per kiel eble plej rekta vojo 10 
hejmen! Ni faros nian eblon (utmost) por ke ni 6iuj estu 
savitaj !" Car restis nenio alia por fari, la malfacila mal- 
gaja reirado de la grekoj komenci^is sen prokrasto. Ili 
transiris varmegajn ebenajojn (plains), supreniris kaj 
malsupreniris krutajn negkovritajn montojn, meze de la 15 

214 LESSON LVII. [§268 

?intro, kaj sen pontoj transiris largajn riverojn. Cie la 
malfidindaj barbaroj atakis ilin, kvazaii por ke neniu greko 
restu viva. Krom tio, la grekoj mortis dekope kaj du- 
dekope ciutage, pro varmegeco, malvarmegeco, laceco kaj 

somalsateco (hunger). Fine, post nekredeblaj suferoj, la 
restajo de la dekmil soldatoj alvenis sur monton, kaj 
ekvidis la maron. Latita ekkriego " La maro ! La maro!" 
eksonis inter la lacaj viroj, el kiuj multaj ploris larmojn 
de §ojo. De infaneco ili alkutimis al la vojagado per 

25akvo, kaj post iom da ripozo ili sin provizis je sipoj, por 
transiri la maron al la patrujo je kiu ili estis tiel longe 
sopirintaj. Treege interesa historio concerne la tutan 
aferon estas verkita de fama greka verkisto (writer), kiu 
estis akompaninta Ciruson por ke li povu gui kaj studi 

3o6ion interesan sur la vojo. Tiu azia militado de Ciruso 
nepre estas unu el la plej rimarkindaj okazintajoj iam 
priskribitaj, e6 sen escepto de la posta irado tien de Alek- 
sandro Granda. 


1. After the death of Cyrus, the leaders of the Greek 
warriors did not know what to do. 2. In the course of the 
following day, one of the leaders of the enemy sent a mes- 
senger (205) with deceitful promises about help. 2. He 
said " Assemble in our leader's tent, in order that you may 
all discuss the matter." 3. The Greek leaders went, al- 
though they suspected danger, because they did not know 
how else to save their men. 4. But they never returned, 
and soon the Greeks understood that the barbarians had 
killed them. 5. They wept tears of despair, and said " The 
barbarians will inevitably destroy us, for we are in a for- 
eign land, where we know neither the languages nor the 
roads, and the peoples are without exception hostile to us." 

§§269-271] LESSON Lviii. 215 

6. But the leaders-of-lesser-rank said " Obey us and fol- 
low us, and we shall do our best to save you!" 7. Their 
return, across hot plains and snow-covered mountains, 
made-more-dif&cult by hunger and by the unceasing at- 
tacks of the barbarians, is related in the history written 
by a famous Greek historian. 8. One can still read this 
interesting narrative, in Greek or in a translation. 


269. Permission is usually expressed by the use of 
permesi, lasi, or the imperative mood: 

Cu vi permesas ke mi restu? May I {do you permit me to) stay? 
Jes, mi permesas (jes, restu), yes, you may {yes, stay). 
Ne estas permesate eniri tien, it is not allowed to enter there. 
Lasu lin veni, let him come. 

270. The idea of possibility or probability is given by 
the use of some such adverb as able, kredeble, versajne, 

Eble li obeos al vi, he may {perhaps he will) obey you. 

Kredeble li sukcesos, probably he will succeed. 

Versajne vi estas prava, you are probably right. 

Eble oni lin savus, they might (possibly they would) save him. 

Hi nepre ne batis lin, they could not have {surely did not) beat him. 

Tio estas neebla ! That can not be (that is impossible) ! 


271. Words formed with the prefix ge- indicate the twc 
sexes together: 

gepatroj, parents. gefiloj, son(s) and daughter{s). 

geavoj, grandparents. gefratoj, brother{s) and sister{s). 

genepoj, grandchildren. geedzoj, husband{s) and wife {wives). 

gesinjoroj, Mr. and Mrs., lady (ladies) and gentleman (gentlemen). 

216 LESSON Lviii. [§§272-273 


272. The suffix -ac- has a disparaging significance: 

domaco, a hovel. pentra£i, to daub. 

hundaco, a cur. popolaco, rabble, mob. 

obstinafia, obstinate. rida£i, to guffaw. 


273. Interjections are words used to express feeling or 
call attention.* Among the more common interjections 

Adiaii! Farewell! (171). Ho! Oh! Ho! Nu! Well! 

Fil Fie! f Hura! Hurrah! YelWoe! (Ho ve! ^Zas.'). 


Aleksandri-o, Alexandria. fond-i, to found, establish. 

Amerik-o, America. hispan-o, Spaniard. 

Aristotel-o, Aristotle. kapabl-a, capable. 

Australi-o, Australia. komun-a, common, mutual. 

bibliotek-o, library. kontinent-o, continent. 

eduk-i, to bring up, educate. Krist-o, Christ. 

Egipt-o, Egypt. milion-o, million. 

estlm-i, to esteem. spite, in spite of. 

firm-a, firm. vast-a, vast, extensive. 


Permesu ke mi diru kelkajn vortojn pri la vivo de Alek- 

sandro Granda, kiu ne estis matura viro sed havis nur du- 

dek jarojn kiam li farigis rego. Liaj gepatroj estis tre zorge 

edukintaj hn, kaj la filozofo Aristotelo, kiun li tre alte 

5 estimis, estis unu el liaj instruistoj . Aleksandro firme 

* Verbs in the imperative, and adverbs, are frequently used as interjections, 
as Atentu! Lookout.' A^kultu! Hark! Bonvenu! Welcome.' Antauen! Forward! 
Bone! Good.' For! Away! Ja! Indeed! Jen! There! Behold! 

t The interjection fi is sometimes used as a disparaging prefix, like -ac- (272), 
as fibirdo, ugly bird, ficevalo, a sorry nag. 

§273] LESSON LVIII. 217 

tenadis sian propran regolandon, kaj ankau Grekujon, 
kiun lia patro estis venkinta; krom tio, li faris militadojn 
kontraii diversaj fremdaj landoj, unue en Azio, tiam en 
Afriko, kie li fondis urbon, kaj gin nomis Aleksandrio. 
Aleksandrio nepre estis belega ri6a urbo. Tie trovi-io 
^is * poste la fama Aleksandria biblioteko. Se gi ne 
estus detruita de fajro, en la datiro de iuj militadoj, ni 
sendube konus multe pli bone la sciadon de la antikvaj 
grekoj, kiuj versa] ne estis la plej klera popolo iam vivinta 
en Eiiropo. Venkinte Egipton, Aleksandro reiris en Azion, 15 
gis tre orienta kaj suda partoj, venkante 6iujn 6ie, kvazati 
ili estus la plej malkuragaj popolacoj en la mondo. Sed 
spite 6ies petoj li estis obstinate nezorgema pri sia sano, kaj 
subite, ho ve, li mortis pro febro, tricent dektri jarojn an- 
taii Kristo. Se li ne estus tiel frue mortinta, kiel multe liso 
estus eble elfarinta! Li esperis venki Hispanujon, Italu- 
jon, kaj, mallongavorte, tiom de la okcidenta mondo kiom 
li jam posedis de la orienta. Tiam li cells kunigi cion en 
unu vastan imperion, kvazaii por fari el la mondo unu 
grandan familion. Li intends ke la milionoj da enlo^an- 25 
toj akceptu komunajn legojn kaj kutimojn, e6 komunan 
lingvon, — kredeble la grekan. Eble li ja havis la kapa- 
blecon por fari cion 61. Estas pro tio ke oni ofte atidas la 
diron " Aleksandro sopiris je aliaj mondoj por venki." 
Tamen, kiel malgranda estis tiu mondo kiun li konislso 
La tiamuloj konis nur malgrandan parton de Afriko, de 

* The use of trovigi, and also of sin trovi, kusi, stari and sidi, in a sense not 
greatly differing from that of esti, avoids the monotonous repetition of forms 
of esti, just as English uses lie, sit, perch, etc., in narration for similar reasons : 

Multaj vilagoj trovigas tie, many villages are (situated) there. 

Egipto trovigas en la nordorienta parte de Afriko, Egypt is {found) in the myrth' 

eastern par' of Africa. 
Li sin trovis sola en la dszerto, he found himself (he was) alone in the desert. 
La urbo Rusis inter du lagoj, the city lay between two lakes. 
Sur la montflanko sidis vilajeto, on the mountainside perched a tiny village. 

218 LESSON LIX. [§274 

Azio, e6 de Eviropo. Hi sciis nenion pri Anglujo, aii pri la 
vastaj kontinentoj Australio, norda kaj suda Amerikoj. 


1. Alexander the Great wished to unite the whole world 
into one vast empire. 2. He intended that all the dif- 
ferent peoples should conform to common laws and that 
their sons-and-daughters should speak one common lan- 
guage, and in spite of their love for their national lan- 
guages, should leave-off speaking them. 3. Possibly he 
might have accomplished his object to some extent (217), 
if he had not died suddenly when he was only thirty-two 
years old. 4. His soldiers marched weeping past his tent, 
to bid farewell to their dying leader. 5. They must have 
esteemed him very highly! 6. It was Alexander who 
founded the city of Alexandria, in Egypt, where approxi- 
mately three hundred years before Christ the famous 
Alexandrian library was located. 7. It contained an 
enormous eollection-of-books^almost seven hundred 
thousand. 8. Alas, this extensive library was destroyed 
by fire! 9. Alexander, who "sighed for other worlds to 
conquer," did not even know of the existence of North and 
South America, Australia, or even of England and North- 
ern Europe. 10. Beside his Asiatic empire, he knew very 
little of Asia, even of China, with its millions of inhab- 
itants. 11. How small the world was in those days! 



274. An unemphatic personal, indefinite or demon- 
strative pronoun very frequently precedes the verb of 




which it is the object. This is especially true if the verb 
in question is an infinitive: * 

Mi volas lin vidi, / wish to see him. 

Li povos tion fari, he will he able to do that. 

Vi devus ion mangi, you ought to eat something. 

Cu vi |;ia kredis? Did you believe it? 

Se li min vidus, li min savus, if he should see me, he would save me. 


275. Some intransitive verbs have English meanings 
which do not differ in form from the transitive English 
verbs to which they are related. f In Esperanto the suffix 
-ig- (214) must be used when the transitive meaning is de- 
sired. Some examples are given in the following table: 


Intransitive Use. 

Transitive Use. 

Boli .... 

La akvo bolas 

The water boils 

Li boligas la akvon 

He boils the water 

Bruli . . . 

La fajro brulas 

The fire burns 

Li bruligis la paperon 

He burned the paper 

Cesi .... 

La bruo Cesas 

The noise stops 

Li fiesigas la bruon 

He stops the noise 
Li daurigas la bruon 

He continues the noise 

Dauri . . . 

La bruo dauras 

The noise continues 

* C/. in other languages, as in German ich mochte ihn sehen, French je veux le 
voir, Latin se alunt, me defendi, etc. That such pronouns are unemphatic can 
be seen from English let her come {= let'er come), make him stop (— make'im 
stop), etc., in which the unemphatic forms er, im, replace him, her, in pronuncia- 
tion (cf. the Greek enclitic pronouns fj-ov, ijlol, fxe, crou, croi, <ri, ov, oX, e, the San- 
skrit enclitic forms md, m.e, tvd, te, nas, vas, enam, enat, enam, also sim, and the 
Avestan I, Im). The same phenomenon is indicated in prithee (^ pray thee), 
and in the spellings gimme (^ give me), lemme (^ let me), in dialect stories. 

t A transitive use of such intransitive verbs would be like using the English 
intransitive verb " learn " for the transitive verb " teach," as in the " I'll learn 
you" (for *' ril teach you ") of illiterate speech. 





Intransitive Use. 

Transitive Use. 

Degeli. . . 

La glacio degelas 

The ice thaws 

Li gin degeligas per fajro 

He thaws it with fire 

Droni . . . 

La knabino dronis 

The girl drowned 

La viro sin dronigis 

The m,an drowned her 

EksploJi. . 

Pulvo eksplodas 

Gunpowder explodes 
Li haltis timigite 
He halted in alarm 

Li fin eksplodigos 

He will explode it 

Haiti . . . 

Li haltigis la soldatojn 

He hatted the soldiers 

Lumi . . . 

La suno lumas 

The sun shines 

Li lumigis la lampon 

He lighted the lamp 

Pasi .... 

La tempo pasas 

Time passes 

Tiel li pasigis la tagon 

Thus he passed the day 

Pendi . . . 

&i pendas de branco 

It hangs on a branch 

Li gin pendigis de branfio 

He hung it on a branch 

Soni .... 

La saluta pafo sonis 

The salute sounded 

Oni sonigis la salutan paf on 

They sounded the salute 

Sonori . . 

La sonorilo sonoris 

The bell rang 

Oni sonorigis la sonorilon 

They rang the bell 


276. The suffix -er- is used to form words expressing 
units or component parts of that which is indicated in the 

fajrero, spark (of fire). ne|;ero, snowflake. 

monero, coin. sablero, grain of sand. 


277. The prefix bo- indicates relationship by marriage. 
To indicate half-blood relationship, or step-relationship, 
duon- (166) is used: 

bopatro, father-in-law. duonpatro, stepfather. 

bofratino, sister-in-law. duonfrato, half-brother. 

§278] LESSON LIX. 221 

278. a. Letters should be dated as indicated in the fol- 

Bostono, je la 24a de decembro, 1912a. 
Nov-Jorko, la 24an decembro, 1912a. 
Sirakuzo, 24/XII/i9i2. 

b. The usual methods of address are (to strangers and in 
business letters): Sinjoro, Sinjorino, Estimata Sinjoro, 
Karaj Sinjoroj, Tre estimata Fraiilino, etc. ; (to friends and 
relatives) Kara Fraiilino, Karaj Gefratoj, Kara Amiko, 
Kara Mario, Patrino mia,*etc.; (to persons whose opin- 
ions on some subject are known to agree with those of 
the writer) Estimata (Kara) Samideano {follower of the 
same idea). 

c. Among the more usual forms of conclusion are (to 
strangers and in business letters): Tre fidele la via, Tre 
vere, Kun granda estimo, Kun plej alta estimo, etc., (to 
friends): Kun amika saluto, Kun ciuj bondeziroj, Kun 
samideanaj salutoj, Frate la via, etc. 


adres-0, address. krajon-o, pencil. 

apart-a, separate. mend-i, to order (of stores, etc), 

bedaur-i, to regret. Nov-Jorko, New York. 

cef-a, chief. ■^ numer-o, number (numeral). 

do, so, then (p. 32, ftn.). ofic-o, ofjice, employment. 

fontan-o, fountain. poSt-o, post (letters, etc.). 

hotel-o, hotel. respekt-o, respect. 

ink-o, ink. special-a, special. 

konven-a, suitable. §tat-o, state (political body), 
kovert-o, envelope (for letters). tram-o, tram. 

* Placing the possessive adjective after the noun in this way gives an affec- 
tionate sense, as in English " Mother mine," etc. 

t Cef- is often used in descriptive compounds C167, b), as cefkuiristo, chief 
Qiead) cook, chef, cefurbo, chief city, capital, cefangelo, archangel. 

222 LESSON Lix. [§278 


Sirakuzo, la 2aii de marto, 1911. 
Kara Amiko, 

Sendube vin surprizos ricevi leteron skribitan de mi ce 
hotelo en 6i tiu urbo, ne tre malproksime de via propra 
soficejo! Via bofrato, kiun mi okaze renkontis iiierau en 
la poltoficejo, donis al mi vian adreson. Gis nun, mi 
estas tiel okupata ke mi ne havis la tempon e6 por telefoni 
al vi. Sed nun mi havas du aii tri minutojn da libera 
tempo, kaj mi tuj ekkaptas la okazon por skribi letereton, 

lopetante ke vi vespermangu kun mi hodiaii vespere, fie la 
hotelo kie, kiel vi vidas, mi logas de antaii unu tago. 
(Pardonu, mi petas, ke* mi finas 6i tiun leteron per kra- 
jono, sed mi jus eltrovis ke restas neniom plu da inko en 
mia fontanplumo.) Venu je la sesa, se tiu horo estas 

15 konvena. Bedaiirinde (unfortunately), mi devos forresti 
de la hotelo la tutan posttagmezon, pri komercaj aferoj, 
alie mi vin renkontus ce la tramvojo, kie haltas la tram- 
veturiloj (streetcars). Estos plej bone, mi opinias, ke vi 
iru rekte al mia cambro, numero 26, kie mi senprokraste 

20 vin renkontos, se mi ne estos efektive jam vin atendanta. 
Ni esperu ke la 6efkuiristo preparos al ni bonan mangon! 
Mi esperas ke vi malatentos la falantajn negerojn, kaj 
nepre venos, responde al mia iomete subita invito, car ni 
ja havos multe da komunaj travivajoj por priparoli. Do 

25 gis la baldaua revido je la vespermango! 

Kun plej amikaj salutoj, 


* The word tial may be omitted from the combination tial ke (83), if the mean- 
ing is obvious. 

§278] LESSON Lix. 223 

Boston, 13/VII/1911. 
Wilson kaj Jones, 

Nov-Jorko. 80 

Estimataj Sinjoroj: — 

Bonvolu sendi al mi per revenanta posto vian plej 
novan prezaron (price-list). Ni baldaii bezonos iujn no- 
vajn meblojn per niaj oficejoj, precipe skribtablojn, ta- 
blojnkonvenajnporskribmasinoj (ti/pewriters) , kaj specia-35 
lajn librujojn, farotajn lau niaj bezonoj. Se viaj prezoj 
estas konvenaj, ni sendube volos mendi de vi tian me- 
blaron. Kun respekto, 

J. F. Smith, 
ce Brown kaj Brown. « 

Nov-Jorko, 17/VII/1911. 
Sinjoro J. ¥. Smith, 

ce Brown kaj Brown, 
Estimata Sinjoro: — 45 

Ni havas la honoron sendi al vi en aparta koverto 
nian plej novan prezaron, al kiu ni petas ke vi donu vian 
atenton, precipe al pagoj 15-29. Tie vi trovos priskri- 
bitaj niajn plej bonajn oficejajn meblarojn. Ni senpage 
metos fiiujn afietitajn meblojn sur la vagonaron, sed kom-50 
preneble ni ne pagos la koston de la sendado. 

Ni plezure fabrikos specialajn librujojn laii viaj bezonoj, 
kaj volonte ricevos viajn ordonojn pri tio. Niaj prezoj 
estos kiel eble plej malaltaj. 

Esperanto ke la meblaroj priskribitaj en nia prezaro, $5 
kune kun la tie-presitaj prezoj, estos plene kontentigaj, 
kaj certigante al vi ke ni zorge plenumos 6iun mendon, ni 
restas, Tre respekte la viaj, 

Wilson kaj Jones. 

224 LESSON LX. [§279 

Bostono, la 27an Majo. 
eoSinjoro B. F. Brown, 

Sirakuzo, Nov-Jorka Stato. 
Kara Sinjoro: — 

Vian adreson ni dankas al niaj komunaj amikoj Sin- 

joroj Miller kaj White, kaj per ci tio ni permesas al ni 

feproponi al vi niajn servojn por la vendado de tiaj infan- 

ludiloj, kiajn vi fabrikas. Ni havas bonegajn montrajn 

fenestrojn (show-windows), en nia butiko, preskaii meze 

de la fiefstrato en la urbo, kaj en nia butiko trovigas sufifie 

da grandaj vitramebloj (show-cases). Tial ni povus tre 

70oportune administri tian aferon. Ni multe gojos se vi 

respondos kiel eble plej baldatt, sciigante al ni kiom da 

procento vi donos, kaj kiajn arangojn vi volus fari. Ni 

certigas al vi ke en 6iu okazo ni penos fari nian eblon por 

via plej bona intereso. 

76 Kun alta estimo, 

D. Rose. 


279. Some transitive verbs have English meanings 
which do not differ in form from the intransitive English 
verbs to which they are related (conversely to the use 
explained in 275). In Esperanto the suffix -ig- (232), 
or a different root, must be used when an intransitive 
meaning is desired. Following are the more common verbs 
of this character, together with examples of the intransi- 
tive use of several of them : 

balanci, to balance. fini, to end, to finish. 

etendi, to extend, to expand. fermi, to close, to shut. 

§280] LESSON Lx. 225 

fleksi, to bend, to flex. ruli, to roll, (a wheel, ball, etc.). 

hejti, to heat. skui, to shake. 

klini, to incline, to bend. streci, to stretch. 

kolekti, to gather, -to collect. svingi, to swing. 

komenci, to begin, to commence. Sanceli, to cause to vacillate. 

mezuri, to measure. Sa-nfi, to change. 

montri, to show. Siri, to tear. 

movi, to move. turni, to turn. 

paSti, to pasture, to feed. veki, to wake. 

renversi, to upset, to overturn. verSi, to pour. 

rompi, to break. volvi, to roll (around something). 

La laboro nun finifas, the work is now coming to an end. 

La glavo fleksi|;is, the sword bent. 

La folioj disvolvigas, the leaves unroll (develop). 

Ciu kutimo langi|;os, every custom will change. 

La vintro jam komencigas, the winter is already beginning. 

Mi vekigos je la sesa, / shall awake at six (o'clock). 

La montrilo Sanceligis, the indicator trembled (vacillated). 

Vasta ebenajo etendifis antaii li, a vast plain extended before him. 


280. Elision is not common, and its use in writing as 
well as in speaking is best avoided. It occurs most fre- 
quently in poetry. 

a. The -a of the article may be elided before a word be- 
ginning with a vowel, or after a preposition ending in a 

" L' espero, 1' obstino kaj la pacienco." 
" De 1' montoj riveretoj fluas." 
" Kaj kantas tra 1' pura aero." 

b. The final -o of a noun may be elided in poetry. The 
original accent of the noun remains unchanged: 

" Ho, mia kor', ne batu maltrankvile." 
" Sur ia kampo la rozet'. " 

226 LESSON Lx. [§§281-284 

c. The final -e of an adverb is very rarely elided (except 
in the expression dank' al, which occurs in prose as well as 
in poetry) : 

" Ke povu mi foj' je eterno ekdormi ! " 

Dank' al vi, mi sukcesis, thanks to you, I succeeded. 


281. The prefix eks- is used to form words expressing a 
previous incumbent of a position, or removal from such 

eksprezidanto, ex-president. 

eksrego, ex-king. 

eksigi, to put out of office, to discharge. 

eksigi, to withdraw from one's office, to resign. 


282. The prefix pra- is used to form words expressing 
precedence in the line of descent, or general remoteness in 
past time: 

praavo, great grandfather. prapatroj, forefathers, ancestors. 

pranepo, great grandson. pratempa, primeval. 


283. The suffix -cj- is used to form affectionate diminu- 
tives, from the first syllable or syllables of masculine names 
or terms of address. The suffix -nj- forms similar fem- 
inine diminutives: 

Jo£jo, Johnnie, Joe. Manjo, May, Mamie. 

Pa£jo. Papa. Panjo, Mamma. 


284. National systems of weights and measures trans- 
lated into international form (as mejlo, mile, funto, pound) 

§285] LESSON Lx. 227 

cannot convey a very definite meaning to one not familiar 
with the particular system used. Consequently the met- 
ric system (already used by scientists everywhere and by 
the general public in many countries) is adopted for the 
international system of weights and measures: 

Length and Surface. 
milimetro, millimeter (.0394 inch). 
centimetro, centimeter (.3937 inch), 
decimetro, decimeter (3.937 inches). 
metro, meter (39.37 inches). 
dekametro, dekameter (393.7 inches). 
hektometro, hektometer (328 feet 1 inch). 
kilometro, kilometer (3280 feet 10 inches; .62137 mile). 
kvadrata metro, square meter (1550 square inches). 
hektaro, hektare (2.471 acres). 

gramo, gram (15.432 grains avoirdupois). 
dekagramo, dekagram (.3527 ounce avoirdupois). 
hektogramo, hektogram (3.5274 ounce avoirdupois). 
kilogramo, kilogram (2.2046 pounds avoirdupois). 

decilitre, deciliter (6.1022 cubic inches; .845 gill). 
litre, liter (.908 quart, dry measure; 1.0567 quart, liquid). 
dekalitre, dekaliter (9.08 quart, dry measure; 2.6417 gallons). 
hektolitro, hektoliter (2 bushels 3.35 pecks; 26.417 gallons). 
kilolitre, kiloliter (1.308 cubic yards; 264.17 gallons). 


285. Names of national coins translated into interna- 
tional form (as dolaro, dollar, cendo, cent) cannot convey 
a very definite meaning to persons not familiar with 
these coins. Consequently the system devised for interna- 
tional use (not for actual coins, but for calculation and 
price quotations) is based upon a unit called the speso. 




The multiples of this unit are the spesdeko (10 spesoj), 
spescento (100 spesoj), and spesmilo (1000 spesoj). Ten 
spesmiloj have approximately the value of a five-dollar 
gold piece, twenty marks, twenty-five francs, one pound 
sterling, etc. The spesmilo, equivalent to about $0.4875 
in the money of the United States and Canada, is the unit 
commonly used. (To reduce dollars to spesmiloj, multiply 
by 2.051.) 


286. The following abbreviations are often used (for 
those of the ordinals see p. 107, ftn., and for those of the 
metric system see any English dictionary) : 

Dro., Doktoro, Dr. 
Fino., Frafilino, Miss. 
Pro., Profesoro, Prof. 
Sro., Sinjoro, Mr. 
Sino., Sinjorino, Mrs. 
Ko., K-io., Kompanio, Co. 
No., N-ro., Numero, No. 
&, kaj, &. 

Sm., spesmilo (j). 

Sd., spesdeko(j). 

k. t. p., kaj tiel plu, and so forth. 

k. c, kaj ceteraj, etc. 

k. sim., kaj simila(j), et. sim. 

t. e., tic estas, i.e. 

e., ekzemple, e.g. 

p.s., postskribajo, P.S. 


abon-i, to subscribe to, take. 
aparat-o, apparatus. 
aiitomat-a, automatic. 
bov-o, ox. 

dimensi-o, dimension. 
ekzempl-o, example. 
fokus-o, focus. 
fotograf-i, to photograph. 
funkci-i, to function, to work, 
kamer-o, camera. 

led-o, leather. 

metal-o, metal. 

moment-o, moment. 

negativ-o, negative. 

objektlv-o, lens, objective. 

original-o, original. 

plat-o, plate (photographic, etc.). 

prov-i, to try.* 

reklam-i, to advertise. 

stre6-i, to stretch (trans.). 

* Cf. the difference between provi, to try in the sense of testing, making an 
essay or endeavor, peni, to try in the sense of taking pains or making an effort, 
and jugi, iotryia^ judicial sense. 

§286J LESSON Lx. 229 


Bostono, 12/XI/1910. 
Brown kaj Ko., 

Sinjoroj: — 

Vidinte vian reklamon en gazeto al kiu mi abonas, mi 5 

slcribas por peti ke vi sendu al mi priskribajon de via 

kamero nomita " La Infaneto," kiun eble mi deziros provi. 

Bonvolu ankau sendi dekduonon da platoj, 6x9 centi- 

metrojn, por kiu mi 6i kune* sendas spesmilon kaj 

duonon. 10 

Kun respekto, 

J. C. Smith. 

Nov-Jorko, 18an novembro, 1910. 
Kara Sinjoro: — 

Respondante al via estimata letero de la 12a, ni donas is 
6i sube mallongan priskribajon de nia bonega fotografilo 
nomita " La Infaneto." 

" La Infaneto " kamero ha vis neesperitan sukceson, kaj 
estas vendita po miloj da ekzempleroj. Cie oni unuvoce 
latidas gian malgrandan kaj tamen bonegan konstruon, 30 
kaj ankatt gian firman samtempe facilan funkciadon. Cri 
ne estas pli granda ol monujo, tial gi ne bezonas pli multe 
da spaco ol tiu, kaj povas esti portata kaj uzata treege 

La dimensioj de la fermita kamero estas 8 x 5 x 6.5 25 
centimetroj. La pezo, kun objektivo, tri platingoj, kaj 
malbrila {ground) vitro, estas 365 gramoj. " La Infa- 
neto " estas konstruita tute el metalo, kaj kovrita de 
bonega bovledo. Kiam oni malfermas la aparaton, la 

* The particle 6i (used with tiu, tio, ties, 6iu, cio) may also be used with cer- 
tain adverbs, as ci sube, here below, ci supre, here above, £i kune, herewith, etc. 

230 LESSON LX. L§286 

soobjektivo samtempe enfokusigas, tiamaniere ke la kamero 
estas preta por uzado post unu sekundo, car la objektiv- 
fermilo (shutter) estas ciam strecita. Sekve: neniaj pre- 
pai'adoj, nenia prokrasto je la ekfotografado. 

Ija negativoj estas klaraj gis la bordo, kaj tial konvenaj 

35 por pligrandigo. Cetere, oni scias ke bona pligrandigo 

ofte pli kontentigas ol malgranda originalo. Precipe 6e 

promenoj kaj vojagoj oni tial volonte preferas la mal- 

grandan " Infaneton," por poste pligrandigi la negativojn. 

Por la pligrandigo ni fabrikas specialajn taglum-pli- 

40grandigajn aparatojn, Ides prezoj estas malaltaj (vidu en 

nia prezaro). 

Ni ne sangis la konstruon de "La Infaneto " de post 
1909, car gis nun gi estas 6iurilate kontentiga. Sole la 
rapideca reguligo de la momenta {instantaneous) fermilo 
45 estas plibonigita, 6ar ni gin fabrikas kun speciala atito- 
mata fermilo, kiu estas arangita por malfermoj dauraj 
{time exposures), kaj momentaj, je unu sekundo gis unu 
centono da sekundo. 

Esperante ke ni baldaii ricevos mendon de vi, kaj certi- 
sogante al vi ke ni tre zorge plenumos iun ajn mendon, ni 

Tre respekte la viaj, 

Brown & Ko. 




The following vocabulary includes all roots used in the preceding 
Lessons, all primary words of the language, and a large number of 
additional roots (to facilitate original composition). No attempt 
has been made, however, to include all of the roots in the language, 
for which an Esperanto-English Dictionary should be consulted. 

References are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. For 
other parts of speech than those indicated under each root or pri- 
mary word, see Word Formation, ii6, 120, 159, 171. See also the 
references given under each prefix and suffix. For formation of 
compound words, see i6o, 167, 176, 184. The following abbrevia- 
tions are used: adj. = adjective; adv. = adverb: conj. = conjunc- 
tion; intrans. = intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = transi- 
tive; — = repetition of the word. 

abel-o, bee. 

abi-o, fir. 

abiturient-o, bachelor of arts (A. 

abomen-a, abominable. 
abon-i, to subscribe to, take 

(magazine, etc.). 
abrikot-o, apricot, 
acer-o, maple (tree). 
acid-a, acid, sour. 
-ac-, derogatory suffix (272). 
acet-i, to buy. 

-ad-, suffix indicating duration 

adiaii, (adv. and interjection), 
farewell, good-bye (171, 273). 
adjektiv-o, adjective. 

administr-i, to administer, to 

admir-i, to admire. 

admon-i, to exhort, admonish. 

ador-i, to worship, adore. 

adres-o, address (on letters, etc.). 

adverb-o, adverb. 

advokat-o, lawyer, barrister. 



aer-o, air. 

afabl-a, affable, amiable. 

afer-o, affair, matter, thing, 

afi§-o, handbill, placard, poster. 

afrank-i, to. frank (letters), pre- 
pay; -ite, post-paid. 

Afrik-o, Africa. 

ag-i, to act, perform action. 

agac-i, to set on edge (of teeth). 

agent-o, agent. 

agit-i, to agitate. 

agl-o, eagle. 

agoni-o, agony. 

agrabl-a, agreeable, pleasant. 

al-o, age. 

ajn (adv.), ever (236). 

-aj-, suffix forming concrete words 

akademi-D, academy. 

akcel-i (trans.), to accelerate, 

akcent-o, accent, stress. 

akcept-i, to accept, receive, wel- 

akcident-o, accident. 

akir-i, to acquire. 

akompan-i, to accompany. 

akr-a, sharp, acute, shrill. 

akrid-o, grasshopper. 

aks-o, axis, axle. 

akt-o, act (of a play). 

aktiv-a, active (grammatical). 

aktor-o, actor (player). 

akurat-a, accurate, exact. 

akuz-i, to accvise. 

akuzativ-o, accusative. 

akv-o, water. 

akvarel-o, water-color painting. 

akvari-o, aquarium. 

al (prep.), to, toward (46, 160, 
251, 252)- 

alaud-o, lark (bird). 

ale-o, avenue, walk, path (of 
garden, park, etc.). 

Aleksandri-o, Alexandria. 

Aleksandr-o, Alexander. 

alfabet-o, alphabet. 

Alfred-o, Alfred. 

algebr-o, algebra. 

ali-a, other. 

alk-o, elk. 

alkohol-o, alcohol. 

alkov-o, alcove, recess. 

almanak-o, almanac. 

almenau (adv.), at least (66). 

almoz-o, alms; — ulo, beggar. 

alt-a, high, tall. 

altar-o, altar. 

alud-i, to allude to. 

alumet-o, match (for fire). 

am-i, to love. 

amas-o, crowd, throng, mass. 

ambau (pronoun), both (of two 
objects naturally in pairs, or 
of persons or things assumed 
or already known to be thus 
grouped) (238). 



ambos-o, anvil. 

amel-o, starch. 

Amerik-o, America. 

amfibi-a, amphibious. 

amfiteatr-o, amphitheatre. 

amxk-o, friend. 

amindum-i, to woo, make love. 

ampleks-o, extent, dimension. 

amuz-i, to amuse. 

-an-, suffix denoting membership, 

etc. (145). 
analiz-i, to analyse. 
ananas-o, pineapple. 
anas-o, duck. 
anekdot-o, anecdote. 
Angl-o, Englishman, 
angul-o, angle, corner, 
an^el-o, angel. 
anim-o, soul. 
ankaii (adv.), also. 
ankorau (adv)., still, yet (p. 112, 

ftn.; see also p. 124, ftn.). 
ankr-o, anchor. 
anonc-i, to announce. 
ans-o, latch, door-handle. 
anser-o, goose. 
anstatau (prep.), instead of (98, 

p. 63, ftn., 159). 

antau (prep.), before (89, 90, 120, 
159, 160), antaii ol (conj.), 97, 

antikv-a, ancient, antique (p. 
128, ftn.). 

antilop-o, antelope. 

antipati-o, antipathy. 

aparat-o, apparatus. 

apart-a, separate. 

apartament-o, apartment, suite 
(of rooms). 

aparten-i, to belong. 

apati-o, apathy. 

apenau (adv.), scarcely, hardly. 

aper-i, to appear. 

apetit-o, appetite. 

aplaiid-i, to applaud. 

aplomb-o, assurance, self-com- 

apog-i, to lean, to rest (upon). 

apologi-o, apology, vindication. 

apotek-o, pharmacy, drugstore, 
chemist's shop. 

april-o, April. 

aprob-i, to approve. 

apud (prep.), near to, close by 

(120, 159). 
-ar-, suffix forming collectives 

Arab-o, Arab, 
arane-o, spider. 
arang-i, to arrange, 
arb-o, tree. 

arbitraci-i, to arbitrate, 
ardez-o, slate (stone). 
aren-o, arena, 
arest-i, to arrest. 
argil-o, clay. 
argument-i, to argue, 
ar^ent-o, silver (metal). 



arfiitektur^o, architecture. 

Arfiimed-o, Archimedes. 

ari-o, tune, air (music). 

Aristejd-o, Aristeides. 

aristokrat-o, aristocrat. 

Aristotel-o, Aristotle. 

aritmetik-o, arithmetic. 

ark-o, arc. 

arkad-o, arcade. 

arm-i, to arm. 

arme-o, army. 

armoraci-o, horse-radish. 

arogant-a, arrogant. 

arom-o, aroma, fragrance. 

art-o, art. 

artik-o, joint. 

artikol-o, article (grammatical or 
literary) . 

Artur-o, Arthur. 

asekur-i, to insure (with a com- 

asoci-o, association (organiza- 

asparag-o, asparagus. 

aspekt-o, aspect, appearance. 

astr-o, heavenly body, star. 

atak-i, to attack. 

atend-i, to wait, wait for, expect. 

atent-a, attentive (p. 216, ftn.). 

atest-i, to attest, give witness, 

ating-i, to attain, reach. 

atlas-o, satin. 

atlet-o, athlete. 

atmosfer-o, atmosphere. 

atribut-o, attribute. 

au (conj.), or, either (p. 32, ftn.). 

aiid-i, to hear. 

august-o, August. 

aflskult-i, to listen (p. 216, ftn.). 

Aflstrali-o, Australia. 

automat-a, automatic. 

autor-o, author. 

autun-o, autumn. 

av-o, grandfather. 

avar-a, avaricious, miserly. 

avel-o, hazel-nut. 

aven-o, oats. 

avert-i, to warn, caution. 

avid-a, eager. 

aviz-i, to give notice. 

azen-o, ass, donkey. 

Azi-o, Asia. 

azot-o, nitrogen. 


babil-i, to chatter, babble. 

bagatel-o, trifle, bagatelle. 

bal-o, ball (dance). 

bak-i, to bake. 

bala-i, to sweep (a floor, etc.). 

balanc-i (trans.'), to balance, 

poise; — i la kapon, to nod 

the head, 
baldau (adv.), soon, 
balen-o, whale. 
ban-i (trans.), to bathe. 



banan-o, banana. 

bandag-i, to bandage. 

bank-o, bank (financial). 

bankrot-i, to become bankrupt, 

bant-o, bow (of ribbon). 

bar-i (trans.), to bar, to ob- 

barakt-i, to wrestle, struggle. 

barb-o, beard. 

barbar-o, barbarian. 

barel-o, barrel. 

bariton-o, barytone. 

bas-o, bass (voice). 

baston-o, stick. 

bat-i, to beat. 

batal-i, to fight, battle. 

batat-o, sweet potato. 

bedaur-i, to regret. 

bek-o, beak, bill. 

bel-a, beautiful, handsome. 

belg-o, Belgian. 

ben-i, to bless. 

benk-o, bench. 

ber-o, berry. 

best-o, animal, beast. 

bet-o, beet. 

bezon-i, to need, want. 

bibliotek-o, library. 

bicikl-o, bicycle. 

bien-o, land, property, estate. 

bier-o, beer. 

bifstek-o, beefsteak. 

bild-o, picture, image. 

bilet-o, ticket, note; bank-o, 

bank-note, bill, 
bird-o, bird, 
bis (adv.), once more, a second 

time, encore, 
biskvit-o, biscuit. 
blank-a, white. 

blek-i, to neigh, bleat, give its 

cry (of any animal). 
blind-a, blind, 
blov-i, to blow. 
blu-a, blue (color). 
bluz-o, blouse. 

bo-, prefix expressing relationship 
by marriage (277). 

boat-o, boat. 

boj-i, to bark (of dogs). 

bol-i (intrans.), to boil. 

bombon-o, bonbon, sweet. 

bon-a, good; — veni, to welcome 

(p. 216, ftn.). 
bor-i, to bore (holes), 
bord-o, shore, bank, edge (of 

rivers, etc.). 
Boston-o, Boston, 
bot-o, boot, 
botel-o, bottle. 
bov-o, ox; — ajo, beef; — idajo, 

veal; — viro, bull. 
brak-o, arm (of the body), 
branfi-o, branch, bough, 
brand-o, brandy. 



brasik-o, cabbage; florbrasiko, 

brav-a, brave. 
bret-o, shelf, bracket. 
brid-o, bridle (of harness). 
brik-o, brick, tile. 
bril-i, to shine (ii6). 
Brit-o, Briton, 
brod-i, to embroider. 
bronz-o, bronze, 
bros-i, to brush. 
bro§ur-o, pamphlet, brochure. 
brov-o, eyebrow, 
bru-o, noise. 
brul-i (intrans.), to burn 

brun-a, brown. 
brut-o, cattle, dumb animal. 
bub-o, street arab, gamin. 
buc-i, to slaughter, butcher. 
buf-o, toad, 
buk-o, buckle (metal). 
buked-o, bouquet. 
bukl-o, curl, ringlet (of hair). 
bulb-o, onion, bulb. 
<)ulgar-o, Bulgarian. 
Wlk-o, roll (bread). 
bulvard-o, boulevard. 
burton-o, bud, young shoot. 
bu§-o, mouth. 
buter-o, butter. 
butik-o, shop, store. 
buton-o, button. 

cel-i, to aim, have as purpose or 

celeri-o, celery. 
cend-o, cent (coin). 
cent, hundred (142). 
centigram-o, centigram (284). 
centilitr-o, centiliter (284). 
centimetr-o, centimeter (284). 
centr-o, center. 
cerb-o, brain, 
cert-a, certain, sure. 
cerv-o, stag, deer, 
ceter-a, remaining. 
ci (pronoun), thou (p. 15, ftn., 

cidoni-o, quince, 
cifer-o, cipher. 
cigar-o, cigar. 
cigared-o, cigarette. 
cign-o, swan. 
cilindr-o, cylinder. 
cinam-o, cinnamon, 
cindr-o, ashes. 
cir-o, blacking (for shoes), 
cirkonstanc-o, circumstance, 
cirkuler-o, circular (letter). 
Cirus-o, Cyrus, 
cit-i, to quote. 
citron-o, lemon, 
civiliz-i, to civilize. 
col-o, inch (measure). 



£agren-i (trans.), to grieve, vex, 

cambr-o, room. 

cap-o, cap. 

£apel-o, hat. 

£apitr-o, chapter (of book). 

car (conj.), because, since (83). 

carm-a, charming, delightful. 

carnir-o, hinge. 

cas-i, to hunt (game or wild ani- 

ce (prep.), at, in the house or 
presence of (125, 160). 

£ef-a, chief, principal, head (p. 
221, ftn.). 

cek-o, cheque. 

cemiz-o, shirt, chemise. 

cen-o, chain (for watch, etc.). 

ceriz-o, cherry. 

ces-i (intrans.), to cease, leave off 

6eval-o, horse; — viro, stallion. 

ci {adv.), expresses proximity (60, 
66, p. 229, ftn.). 

6ia, of every kind (177). 

cial (adv.), for every reason (188). 

ciam (adv.), always (187). 

cie (adv.), everywhere (182). 

£iel (adv.), in every way (193). 

£ieI-o, heaven, sky. 

cies (pronoun, possessive), every- 
body's (174). 

cifon-o, rag. 

£io (pronoun), everything, all 

£iom (adv^, all (194). 

£irkau (prep.), around, round- 
about (89, 120, 159, 160). 

ciu (pronoun and adj.), every 
one, each (173). 

-cj-, suffix forming affectionate 
diminutives (283). 

£okolad-o, chocolate. 

cu (adv.), whether (when trans- 
lated) (30, 66, a, p. 110, ftn.). 


da (prep.), of (after quantitative 

noun or adv.) (99, loi, 103). 
daktil-o, date (fruit). 
Damokl-o, Damocles, 
dan-o, Dane. 
danc-i, to dance. 
danger-o, danger. 
dank-i, to thank. 
dat-o, date (chronological), 
daur-i (intrans.), to continue, 

de (prep.), of, from, by (49, 89, 

100, 160, 169, 170). 
dec-i, to be proper, decent; ne 

decas ke vi iru, it is not proper 

for you to go. 
decembr-o, December, 
decld-i, to decide. 
decigram-o, decigram (284). 
decilitr-o, deciliter (284) 



decimetr-o, decimeter (284). 
defend-i, to defend. 
degel-i (intrans.), to thaw (275). 
dejor-i, to be on duty (of officer, 

attendant, etc.). 
dek (adj.), ten (136). 
dekagram-o, dekagram (284). 
dekalitr-o, dekaliter (284). 
dekametr-o, dekameter (284). 
deklam-i, to declaim, recite. 
dekstr-a, right (not left). 
deleg-i, to delegate. 
delikat-a, delicate, dainty, nice. 
demand-i, to ask, inquire. 
dens-a, dense, thick, close. 
dent-o, tooth. 
depe§-o, a dispatch. 
des (adv.), the more (used with 

pU, 84). 
desert-o, dessert. 
detal-o, detail. 
detru-i, to destroy. 
dev-i, to have to, must (247). 
dezert-o, desert, waste. 
dezir-i, to desire. 
Di-o, God. 
diamant-o, diamond, 
difekt-i, to damage, spoil, 
diferenc-a, different. 
difin-i, to define, to destine. 
dik-a, thick, corpulent. 
dikt-i, to dictate (letters, etc.) 
diligent-a, diligent. 

dimanc-o, Sunday. 

dimensi-o, dimension. 

Diogen-o, Diogenes. 

diplom-o, diploma. 

diplomat-o, diplomat. 

dir-i, to say (77). 

direkt-i, to direct, guide, man- 

dis-, prefix expressing separation 

diskut-i, to discuss. 

distanc-o, distance. 

disting-i, to distinguish. 

distr-i, to distract, take away the 

diven-i, to guess. 

divers-a, varied, diverse, differ- 

divid-i (trans.), to divide. 

do, consequently, then, so (p. 32, 

doktor-o, doctor. 
dolar-o, dollar. 
dolc-a, sweet, pleasant. 
dolor-o, pain, ache. 
dom-o, house. 

domat-o, pity, regrettable affair, 
don-i, to give. 

donac-i, to make a gift, present, 
dorlot-i, to caress, fondle, pet. 
dorm-i, to sleep. 
dorn-o, thorn. 
dors-o, back (of the body), 
dot-i, to endow. 



drap-o, cloth. 
drog-o, drug. 

dron-i (intrans.), to drown (275). 
du (adj.), two (136) 
dub-i, to doubt. 

dum (prep, and con].), during, 

while (p. 63, ftn., 96, 120, 159). 

dung-i (trans.), to hire (persons). 


eben-a, even, flat, level. 

-ebl-, suffix expressing possibility 
(161, 162). 

ebri-a, inebriate, intoxicated. 

-ec-, suffix forming abstracts 

ec (adv.), even. 

eduk-i, to bring up, educate. 

edz-o, husband, married man. 

efekt-o, effect. 

efektiv-a, real, actual. 

efik-i, to be efficacious, act (on), 
produce a result. 

-eg-, suffix forming augmentatives 

egal-a, equal. 

Egipt-o, Egypt. 

efi-o, echo. 

-ej-, suffix forming words indicat- 
ing place (ill). 

ek-, prefix expressing suddenness 
or beginning (206). 

eks-, prefix expressing former in- 
cumbency (281). 

ekscit-i, to excite. 
eksperiment-i, to experiment, 
eksplod-i (intrans.), to explode, 
ekster (prep.), outside of (120, 

ekzamen-i, to examine, test. 
ekzempl-o, example. 
ekzempler-o, copy (of book or 

ekzerc-i (trans.), to exercise, 
ekzil-i, to exile, banish 
ekzist-i, to exist. 
el (prep.), out of, of, out (75, 106, 

138, 197, P- 115, ftn., p. 118, 

ftn., 264, c). 
elekt-i, to choose, 
elektr-a, electric, 
elokvent-a, eloquent, 
-em-, suffix expressing propensity 

or inclination (192). 
eminent-a, eminent. 
en (prep.), in (89, 160), into (46). 
energi-o, energy. 
entrepren-i, to undertake, 
entuziasm-o, enthusiasm. 
enu-i, to be wearied, be bored 

(p. 206, ftn.). 
envi-i, to envy. 
epok-o, epoch, period, time. 
-er-, suffix expressing a compo- 
nent part (276). 
erar-i, to err, make a mistake, 
escept-i, to except (266). 
esper-i, to hope. 



esplor-i, to investigate, explore. 

esprim-i, to express. 

est-i, to be (109). 

establ-i, to establish. 

estim-i, to esteem. 

esting-i, to extinguish. 

-estr-, suffix expressing leadership 

or authority (253). 
-et-, suffix forming diminutives 

etaf-o, story (of a house) ; tere- 

tago, ground floor; unua etago, 

second story. 

etend-i (trans.), to extend, 
lengthen, widen. 

etern-a, eternal. 
Europ-o, Europe. 
evangeli-o, gospel, evangel. 
evit-i, to avoid, shun. 
evoluci-o, evolution. 

fab-o, bean (leguminous fruit). 

fabel-o, story, tale. 

fabl-o, fable. 

fabrik-i, to manufacture. 

facil-a, easy. 

faden-o, thread. 

fajf-i, to whistle. 

fajr-o, fire. 

fak-o, department, specialty. 

fakt-o, fact. 

fal-i, to fall. 

fald-i, to fold. 

fals-i, to falsify, forge, debase. 

fam-o, fame, renown,, rumor. 

famili-o, family. 

familiar-a, familiar, accustomed. 

fand-i (trans.), to smelt, fuse 
(metals, etc.). 

fanfaron-i, to boast, vaunt one- 
self, brag. 

fantom-o, phantom, ghost. 

far-i, to make, do, render. 

faraon-o, pharaoh (Egyptian 

farm-i, to farm (as a tenant). 
farmaci-o, pharmacy (knowledge 

of the use of drugs). 
fart-i, to be in (good or bad) 

farun-o, flour, 
fask-o, bundle, bunch, 
fason-o, cut, mode, fashion. 
fatal-a, fatal, predestined. 

fauk-o, jaw (literal and figura- 
favor-a, favorable. 
fazeol-o, bean (garden bean). 
fe-o, fairy, fay; — ino, fairy. 
febr-o, fever. 
februar-o, February. 
fel-o, skin, hide (of animals). 
felic-a, happy, 
femur-o, thigh, 
fend-i (trans.), to split. 
fenestr-o, window. 



fer-o, iron; — vojo, railway. 
ferdek-o, deck (of siiip). 
ferm-i (trans.), to close, shut. 
fervor-o, zeal, fervor, 
fest-i, to celebrate. 
festen-o, banquet. 
fi {interjection), fie! (273). 
flakr-o, cab. 

fian£-o, betrothed man, fiance. 
fid-i, to rely upon, trust (p. 206, 
. ftn.). 

fldel-a, faithful, loyal, 
fier-a, proud, haughty (p. 206, 

fll-o, son. 

filozof-o, philosopher, 
fin-i {trans.), to finish, end. 

fingr-o, finger; dika fingro, 
thumb; montra fingro, index 
finger; longa fingro, middle 
finger; ringa fingro, ring- 
finger; malgranda fingro, little 

firm-a, firm, steady. 

fi§-o, fish. 

fizik-o, physics, physical science. 

flag-o, flag, banner, small stand- 

flank-o, side. 

flar-i {trans.), to smell, scent. 

flav-a, yellow. 

fleks-i {trans.), to bend, flex. 

flik-i, to patch. 

flor-o, flower (116). 

fiu-i, to flow. 

flug-i, to fly. 

fluid-a, fluid, liquid. 

foj-o, time, occasion (127). 

fojn-o, hay. 

fokus-o, focus. 

foli-o, leaf. 

fond-i, to found, establish. 

font-o, spring (of water), fount. 

fontan-o, fountain (artificial). 

for {adv.), away (71). 

forges-i, to forget. 

fork-o, fork. 

form-o, shape, form. 

formik-o, ant. 

forn-o, stove. 

fort-a, strong. 

fos-i, to dig. 

fotograf-i, to photograph 

frag-o, strawberry. 

frak-o, evening dress (for men). 

frakas-i, to shatter, break to 

framb-o, raspberry. 
franc-o. Frenchman. 

frand-i, to be fond of sweets, be 

an epicure. 
fran|-o, fringe. 
frap-i, to knock, strike. 
frat-o, brother. 

fraul-o, bachelor, unmarried man. 
fraz-o, sentence, phrase. 
Frederik-o, Frederick. 



fremd-a, foreign. 

frenez-a, crazy, mad. 

fre§-a, fresh, new. 

fripon-o, rogue, rascal, knave. 

frit-i (trans.), to fry. 

fromag:-o, cheese. 

frost-o, frost. 

frot-i, to rub. 

fru-a, early. 

frukt-o, fruit. 

frunt-o, forehead. 

fulm-o, lightning. 

fum-i, to smoke. 

fund-o, bottom. 

fundament-o, foundation, base. 

funebr-o, mourning. 

fung-o, mushroom. 

funkci-i, to function, work. 

funt-o, pound. 

furioz-a, furious, raging. 

fu§-i, to bungle. 

fut-o, foot (measure). 


gaj-a, gay, merry. 

gajn-i, to gain. 

galeri-o, gallery. 

galop-i, to gallop. 

gant-o, glove. 

gard-i, to guard, watch over. 

gas-o, gas. 

gast-o, guest. 

gazet-o, gazette, magazine. 
ge-, prefix indicating both sexes 

together (271). 
general-o, general (military). 
genu-o, knee; — fleksi, to kneel, 
geometri-o, geometry. 
german-o, German. 
Gertrud-o, Gertrude. 
gi£et-o, wicket, ticket-window, 

girland-o, garland, wreath. 
glaci-o, ice; — ajo, an ice (food), 
glad-i, to iron (linen, etc.). 
glas-o, tumbler, glass. 
glat-a, smooth, polished, flat, 
glav-o, sword. 
glit-i, to glide, slide. 
glob-o, globe, 
glor-o, glory. 
glu-o, glue, 
glut-i, to swallow, 
gorg-o, throat. 
graci-a, graceful. 
grad-o, grade, degree. 
graf-o, count; — lando, county, 
gram-o, gram (284). 
gramatik-o, grammar. 
grand-a, great, large, big. 
gras-o, fat. 
gratul-i, to congratulate (p. 206, 

grav-a, important, serious, grave, 
gravit-i, to gravitate. 
grek-o, Greek. 



gren-o, grain (wheat, corn, etc.). 
grimp-i, to climb up, creep up. 
grinc-i, to grind, gnasii. 
griz-a, gray. 
grup-o, group. 

gurd-o, hurdy-gurdy, barrel or- 
gust-o, taste. 
gut-i, to drip, 
gvid-i, to guide. 

farden-o, garden. 

gem-i, to groan. 

|en-i, to disturb, incommode. 

|eneral-a, general, common. 

|entil-a, courteous, polite. 

gi (pronoun), it (32, 37, 42, 274). 

gis (prep.), as far as, until (46, 

goj-i, to rejoice, be glad (116, p. 

206, ftn.). 
|;u-i, to enjoy, find pleasure in. 
gust-a, exact, just (p. 198, ftn.). 


hajl-o, hail (frozen rain). 
hak-i,to chop, hack; — ilo, axe. 
halt-i (intrans.), to halt, stop. 
har-o, a hair. 
haiit-o, skin (human). 
hav-i, to have. 
haven-o, harbor, port. 

hazard-o, chance, hazard. 

hebre-o, Hebrew. 

hejm-o, home. 

hejt-i (trans.), to heat (a place). 

hektar-o, hektare (284). 

hektogram-o, hektogram (284). 

hektolitr-o, hektoliter (284). 

hektometr-o, hektometer (284). 

hel-a, bright, clear. 

help-i, to help, aid, assist. 

herb-o, grass, herb. 

hero-o, hero. 

hezit-i, to hesitate. 

hieraii (adv.), yesterday (93, 

Hieron-o, Hiero. 
hipokrit-i, to play the hypocrite, 
hirund-o, swallow (bird). 
hispan-o, Spaniard. 
histori-o, history. 
ho (interjection), ho, oh (273). 
hodiau (adv.), today (93, 171). 
Holand-o, Holland, 
hom-o, human being (p. 154, 

honest-a, honest. 
honor-i, to honor, 
hont-i, to be ashamed (p. 206, 

hor-o, hour (185). 
horizont-o, horizon, 
horizontal-a, horizontal, 
horlog-o, clock; polhorlogo, 




hotel-o, hotel. 

humil-a, humble. 

humor-o, humor, temper. 

hund-o, dog. 

hura! (interjection), hurrah! 

fiemi-o, chemistry. 
fiin-o, Chinaman. 
fior-o, choir. 


ia, any kind of (208). 
ial (adv.), for any reason (213). 
iam (adv.), ever, at any time, 
once (212). 

-id-, sufjix indicating descendant 
or young of (207). 

ide-o, idea. 

ideal-o, ideal. 

ident-a, identical. 

idiom-o, idiom. 

idiot-o, idiot. 

ie (adv.), somewhere (209). 

iel (adv.), somehow (216). 

ies (pronoun, possessive), some- 
body's (204). 

-ig-, suffix forming causative verbs 

ignor-i, to ignore. 

-i^-, sufjix forming inchoative 
and intransitive verbs (232, 
239, 279)- 

-il-, suffix forming namss of in 

struments (63). 
ili (pronoun), they (32, 37, 42). 
ilustr-i, to illustrate. 
iluzi-o, illusion, delusion. 
imag-i, to imagine, fancy, 
imit-i, to imitate. 
imperi-o, empire. 
implik-i, to implicate, 
impost-o, tax, impost, 
impres-i, to impress. 
impuls-o, impulse. 
-in-, suffix forming feminines (59). 
incit-i, to incite, arouse, provoke. 

-ind-, suffix expressing worth or 

merit (154, p. 206, ftn.). 
indian-o, Indian (American). 

indiferent-a, indifferent, uncon- 
cerned, unimportant (p. 162, 

industri-o, industry (trade, busi- 

infan-o, child. 

infekt-i, to infect, contaminate. 

influ-i, to influence. 

inform-i, to give information. 

-ing-, suffix expressing a holder or 

container (237). 
ingenier-o, engineer, 
ink-o, ink. 
insekt-o, insect, 
insist-i, to insist. 
inspir-i, to inspire. 
instru-i, to instruct, teach. 



insul-o, island. 

insult-i, to insult. 

inteligent-a, intelligent. 

intenc-i, to intend. 

inter {prep.), between, among 

(85, 89, 160). 
interes-i (trans.), to interest (p. 

206, ftn.). 
intermit-i, to be intermittent. 
intern-a, internal; — e, inside, 
interpret-i, to interpret. 
intim-a, intimate. 
invit-i, to invite. 
io (pronoun), something (233). 
Jom (adv.), some, a certain 

amount; iom post iom, little 

by little (217). 
ir-i, to go. 
-ist-, suffix indicating profession, 

etc. (172, p. 154, ftn.). 
ital-o, Italian. 

iu (pronoun), sovae one, a certain 
(one) (203). 

ja (adv.), indeed, in fact (215). 

jak-o, jacket, short coat. 

jam (adv.), already (p. 124, ftn.). 

januar-o, January. 

jar-o, year. 

je, prep, of indefinite meaning 

(89, i8s, 260). 
jen (adv.), there, behold (228, p. 

216, ftn.). 

jes (adv.), yes (171). 

Jesu-o, Jesus. 

Johano, John. 

ju (adv.), the more (used with 

pli, 84). 
i^S-o, yoke. 

jug-i, to judge (p. 228, ftn.). 
juli-o, July, 
jun-a, young. ' 
jung-i, to harness, 
juni-o, June, 
jup-o, skirt, 
jurist-o, jurist. 

just-a, just, upright (p. 198, ftn.) 
juvel-o, jewel. 

Jaluz-a, jealous, 
jaiid-o, Thursday. 
Jet-i, to throw, oast, hurl. 
}ongl-i, to juggle. 
Jur-i, to take oath, swear. 
jurnal-o, newspaper, journal. 
JUS (adv.), a moment before, just 
(p. 116, ftn., p. 198, ftn.). 


kadavr-o, corpse, 
kadr-o, frame (of pictures), 
kaduk-a, decaying, in ruin, 
kaf-o, coffee, 
kag-o, cage. 



kahel-0, tile (for paving). 

kaj (conj.), and; kaj. .kaj. ., 

both. .and. . (26, p. 32, ftn.). 
kajer-o, notebook, 
kaldron-o, caldron, 
kalendar-o, calendar. 
kale§-o, carriage. 
kalkan-o, heel (of the foot); 

— umo, heel ofa shoe. 
kalkul-i, to calculate, reckon, 
kamel-o, camel, 
kamen-o, chimney, 
kamer-o, camera. 
kamp-o, field. 
kanajl-o, scoundrel, rascal, 
kanap-o, sofa, 
kand-o, candy. 
kandel-o, candle 
kanot-o, canoe, 
kant-i, to sing. 
kap-o, head. 
kapabl-a, capable, 
kapel-o, chapel (for prayer). 
kapital-o, capital (money). 
kapitol-o, capitol. 
kapt-i, to catch, seize (p. 206, 

kar-a, dear, prized, 
karakter-o, character, 
karb-o, coal. 
karcer-o, jail, 
kares-i, to caress. 
karn-o, flesh, 
karot-o, carrot. 

kart-o, card; poStkarto, post- 
card; vizi tkarto, visiting card. 

karton-o, pasteboard. 
karusel-o, merry-go-round, 
kas-o, money-box, treasury; 

— isto, cashier, treasurer. 
kaskad-o, waterfall, cascade. 
kastel-o, castle. 
ka§-i, to hide, conceal (252). 
ka§tan-o, chestnut. 
kat-o, cat. 

katen-o, fetter, chain, 
kauz-o, cause. 
kav-o, cavity, hole. 
kaz-o, case {grammatical). 

ke {mnj.), that (53, 83, lOS, 259, 
262, p. 222, ftn.). 

kel-o, cellar. 

kelk-a,some; — aj, several, more 
than one or two. 

kelner-o, waiter (in hotel or res- 

kest-o, chest; tirkesto, drawer. 

kia, what kind of (112, igo); 
kiamanier-e, how (p. 170, ftn.) . 

kial {adv.), why (129). 

kiam {adv.), when (123, 155). 

kie {adv.), where (118, 151). 

kiel {adv.), how, in which way, 
as (134, 156, p. 110, ftn.). 

kies {"pronoun, possessive), whose 
(107, 147). 

kilogram-o, kilogram (284). 

kilolitr-o, kiloliter (284). 



kilometr-o, kilometer (284). 

klo {prorwun), what (233). 

kiom {adv.), how much (140, 
164, 185, p. 110, ftn.). 

kis-i, to kiss. 

kiu (pronoun), who (106, 146). 

klak-i {trans.), to clap, clatter. 

klar-a, clear, distinct. 

klav-o, key (of piano, etc.). 

klas-o, class. 

kler-a, enlightened, well-in- 

klimat-o, climate. 

klin-i (trans.), to incline, bend. 

kling-o, blade (of knife, etc.). 

klopod-i, to undertake initiative 
work, take steps toward, 
labor for the success or com- 
pletion of something. 

klub-o, club (organization) 

knab-o, boy. 

kobold-o, sprite, kobold, 

kofr-o, trunk, chest with a lid. 

kok-o, cock (domestic fowl). 

koket-a, coquettish. 

koks-o, hip. 

kol-o, neck. 

kolbas-o, sausage. 

kolegi-o, college. 

kolekt-i (trans.), to collect, 

koler-i, to be angry, lose the 

kolomb-o, pigeon, dove. 

kolon-o, column, pillar. 

kolonel-o, colonel. 

kolor-o, color. 

kolport-i, to peddle. 

komand-i, to command (military 

and naval). 
komb-i, to comb, 
komedi-o, comedy. 
komenc-i (trans.), to begin, 

komerc-i, to trade, engage in 


komfort-o, comfort (freedom 
from pain, want, etc.). 

komisi-i, to entrust with, put 
in charge of, give the agency 

komitat-o, committee. 

komiz-o, clerk, employe, assist- 

kompani-o, company (commer- 
cial organization). 

kompar-i, (trans.) to compare, 

kompat-i, to pity, have com- 
passion for. 

komplet-o, suit (of clothes). 

komplez-o, kindness, courtesy, 

disposition to oblige, 
komplik-i, to complicate, 
kompost-i, to compose, set 

(type) ; — isto, compositor, 
kompot-o, jam, preserve, 
kompren-i, to understand. 



komun-a, common, mutual. 

komunik-i, to communicate. 

kon-i, to be acquainted with, 
know; — atigi kun, to become 
acquainted with (117). 

koncern-i, to concern (266). 

koncert-o, concert (musical). 

kondamn-i, to condemn. 

kondic-o, terms specified, stipu- 
lation, condition. 

konduk-i, to conduct, lead. 

konduktor-o, conductor (of car, 
train, etc.). 

kondut-i, to behave, conduct 

konfes-i, to confess, admit. 

konfid-i, to trust, have confi- 
dence in. 

konfit-i, to preserve, pickle 
(fruits, etc.). 

konform-i, to be in conformity 
with (266). 

konfuz-i, to confuse, confound. 

kongres-o, congress (assembly). 

konk-o, shell (of moUusk, etc.). 

konkur-i, to vie, compete. 

korikurenc-o, competition (in 
business, etc.). 

konkurs-o, prearranged trial of 
skill, formal competition (for 
prizes, etc.). 

konsci-i, to be conscious. 

konscienc-o, conscience. 

konsent-i, to consent, agree. 

konserv-i,to keep, preserve, save. 

konservativ-a, conservative. 

konsil-i, to advise, counsel. 

konsist-i, to consist. 

konsol-i, to console, comfort. 

konsonant-o, consonant. 

konspir-i, to conspire, plot. 

konstant-a, constant. 

konstat-i, to verify, ascertain the 
truth of, certify. 

konstituci-o, constitution. 

konstru-i, to build. 

konsul-o, consul. 

konsult-i, to seek advice of, 

kont-o, account (book-keeping, 
commercial) . 

kontent-a, jontent, satisfied (p. 
206, ftn.). 

kontinent-o, continent (geo- 

kontrakt-i, to contract, agree. 

kontrald-o, contralto. 

kontraii {prep.), against, oppo- 
site, opposed to (p. 49, ftn., 
159, 160). 

kontrol-i, to control, inspect, 
examine and check. 

kontur-o, outline, contour. 

kontuz-i, to bruise. 

konven-i, to be suitable, be fit- 
ting or convenient. 

konvink-i, to convince, persuade. 

kopi-i, to copy. 

kor-o, heart (of the body). 

korb-o, basket. 



korekt-i, to correct. 

korespond-i, to exchange ietters, 

koridor-o, corridor, passage. 
kork-o, cork (bark). 
korn-o, horn. 

korp-o, body, — a, corporeal. 
korpus-o, corps (mihtary). 
kort-o, courtyard, court, 
kortego, court (royal, etc.). 
korv-o, raven, 
kost-i, to cost. 
kostum-o, costume. 
kot-o, mud. 

kotiz-i, to pay dues, pay one's 
share of an assessment. 

kotlet-o, cutlet, chop. 

koton-o, cotton. 

kov-i, to brood (of birds). 

kovert-o, envelope 

kovr-i, to cover. 

krab-o, crab. 

krad-o, grating, grate, lattice. 

krajon-o, pencil. 

krak-i, to clack, crackle. 

kran-o, faucet, tap. 

kravat-o, cravat. 

kre-i, to create. 

kred-i, to believe (265, p. 206, 

krem-o, cream. 

krepusk-o, twilight, half-light of 
dawn or evening. 

kresk-i, to grow. 

krestomati-o, chrestomathy, col- 
lection of selected passages. 

kret-o, chalk. 

krev-i {intrans.), to burst, crack 
open (suddenly and with 

kri-i, to cry out (p. 206, ftn.). 

kribr-i, to sift (with a sieve). 

krim-o, crime. 

kring-o, ring-shaped biscuit. 

kripl-a, crippled. 

Krist-o, Christ. 

kritik-i, to criticise. 

kro£-i, to hook. 

krom (prep.), beside, aside from, 
except, save, but. 

kron-o, crown. 

kruc-o, cross ; — umi, to crucify. 

kruc-o, pitcher, jug; tekruco, 

kruel-a, cruel. 

krur-o, leg. 

krust-o, crust. 

krut-a, steep. 

kubut-o, elbow. 

kudr-i, to sew. 

kugl-o, bullet. 

kuir-i, to cook. 

kuk-o, cake; — ajo, pastry. 

kukum-o, cucumber. 

kukurb-o, pumpkin. 

kuler-o, spoon. 

kulp-a, guilty. 



kultur-i, to cultivate; terkulturi, 
to till the soil, farm. 

kun {prep.), with (70, 76, 120, 
160, 159, p. 229, ftn.). 

kunikl-o, rabbit. 

kupon-o, coupon. 

kupr-o, copper (metal). 

kur-i, to run. 

kurac-i, to treat for illness, cure; 
— ato, a patient; — ^isto, a phy- 
sician, medical man. 

kura|-o, courage. 

kurb-o, curve. 

kurioz-a, uncommon, curious. 

kurs-o, course (of lessons). 

kurten-o, curtain. 

kusen-o, cushion. 

ku§-i, to lie, recline (p. 217, ftn., 

kutim-o, custom, habit. 

kuv-o, tub, large basin. 

kuz-o, cousin. 

kvadrat-o, square (equilateral 

kvalit-o, quality, texture. 

kvankam {conj.), though, al- 
though, while (concessive). 

kvant-o, quantity, amount. 
kvar, (adj.), four (136). 
kvartal-o, quarter (of a city). 
kvaza^ (conj.), as though, as if 

kverk-o, oak. 
kviet-a, calm, quiet. 

kvin, (adj.), five (136). 
kvitanc-o, receipt (for payment). 

la (article), the (11, 47, 201, 
280, a). 

labor-i, to work, labor. 

lac-a, tired, weary. 

lafi-o, string, lace (of shoe, etc.). 

lad-o, tin plate (sheet iron cov- 
ered with tin). 

lag-o, lake. 

lakt-o, milk. 

laktuk-o, lettuce. 

lam-a, lame. 

lamp-o, lamp. 

lan-o, wool. 

lanc-o, lance, spear. 

land-o, land, country. 

lang-o, tongue (of the body). 

lantern-o, lantern. 

lanug-o, down (hairs, feathers). 

lard-o, bacon. 

larg-a, wide, broad. 

larm-o, tear (of the eye). 

las-i, (trans.), to leave, let, per- 

last-a, last (in a series). 

latin-a, Latin. 

lau (prep.), in accordance with, 
along, by (191). 

laub-o, arbor, summer-house. 

lafid-i, to praise. 



laiit-a, loud. 

lav-i, to wash. 

lecion-o, lesson. 

led-o, leather. 

leg-i, to read. 

legom-o, vegetable. 

leg-o, law. 

lek-i, to lick. 

leon-o, lion. 

lepor-o, hare. 

lern-i, to learn. 

lert-a, clever, skilful. 

leter-o, letter (epistle). 

lev-i, to raise, lift. 

li {pronoun), he, him (32, 37, 42). 

liber-a, free. 

libr-o, book. 

lig-i, to tie, bind, fasten; — ilo, 

bond; that which ties or 

fastens; — ajo, knot; — o, 

league, alliance. 
lign-o, wood. 
lim-o, limit, boundary. 
limonad-o, lemonade, 
lingv-o, language. 
lini-o, line; — ilo, ruler. 
lip-o, lip; — haroj, moustache. 
lit-o, bed (for sleeping). 
liter-o, letter of the alphabet; 

lauUtera, literal. 

literatur-o, literature. 

Ijtr-o, liter (284). 

liver-i, to deliver, supply, fur- 

log-i, to allure. 

lo^-i, to dwell, reside (133). 

lok-o, place; — a, local. 

lokomotiv-o, locomotive. 

long-a, long. 

lonicer-o, honeysuckle. 

lorn-o, telescope, spyglass; 

— etc, opera-glasses. 
lu-i, to hire, rent (engage and 

pay rent for). 
lud-i, to play. 
luks-o, luxury. 

lul-i, to lull to sleep; — ilo, 

lum-i, to shine (275). 
iun-o, moon, 
lunatik-o, lunatic. 
lund-o, Monday, 
lup-o, wolf. 


mac-i, to chew, masticate, 
magazen-o, warehouse. 
magi-o, magic. 

magistr-o, master of arts (A.M.). 
maiz-o, maize, Indian corn, 
maj-o, May. 
majest-a, majestic. 
majones-a, mayonnaise. 

majstr-o, master (of his art or 

makaroni-o, macaroni, 
maksimum-o, maximum. 



makul-o, spot, stain. 

makzel-o, jaw; — osto, jawbone. 

mal-, prefix forming opposites 

maleol-o, ankle. 

malgrau (prep.), notwithstand- 

malic-a, malicious. 

man-o, hand. 

mandat-o, money-order. 

mang-i, to eat. 

manier-o, manner, way. 

manik-o, sleeve. 

mank-i (intrans.), to be lacking, 

mantel-o, cloak, mantle. 

manuskript-o, manuscript. 

mar-o, sea. 

marc-o, swamp, marsh. 

mard-o, Tuesday. 

Mari-o, Mary. 

mark-o, mark. 

marmelad-o, marmalade. 

marmor-o, marble (stone). 

mars-i, to walk. 

mart-o, March. 

martel-o, hammer. 

mastr-o, master (of a house, etc.) 

ma§in-o, machine. 

maten-o, morning (93). 

material-o, material. 

matur-a, ripe, mature. 

mebl-o, piece of furniture. 

medicin-o,medicine (the scier.ce) . 

mehanik-o, mechanics. 

mejl-o, mile. 

meleagr-o, turkey. 

melk-i, to milk. 

melodi-o, melody. 

melon-o, melon. 

mem (pronoun), self, selves (219), 

membr-o, limb, member. 

memor-i, to remember, keep in 

mind; rememori, to recall to 

mend-i, to order (of a store, etc.). 
mensog-i, to lie, tell lies, 
menton-o, chin, 
menu-o, menu, 
merit-i, to deserve, merit, 
merkred-o, Wednesday. 
merl-o, blackbird, 
met-i, to put, place, 
metal-o, metal. 
meti-o, trade, handicraft. 
metod-o, method, way. 
metr-o, meter (284). 
mez-o, middle, 
mezur-i, to measure, 
mi (pronoun), 1, me (32, 37), 
miel-o, honey. 
mien-o, appearance, mien, 
miks-i (trans.), to mix. 
mil (adj.), thousand (142). 
mild-a, mild. 

milimetr-o, millimeter (284). 
milion-o, million. 



milit-i, to fight, wage war. 
min-o, mine (of coal, silver, etc.). 
minac-i, to threaten. 
minerai-o, mineral. 
minimum-o, minimum, 
ministr-o, minister (political). 
minut-o, minute. 
miop-a, shortsighted. 
mir-i, to wonder, 
mister-o, mystery. 
mizer-o, misery. 
mod-o, mode, fashion, 
model-o, model, 
moder-a, moderate. 
modest-a, modest, 
mok-i, to mock, 
mol-a, soft. 

moment-o, moment; — a, mo- 
mentary, instantaneous. 

mon-o, money. 
monafi-o, monk, 
monarfi-o, monarch. 
monat-o, month, 
mond-o, world, 
mont-o, mountain, 
montr-i (trans.), to show. 

mor-o, conduct (in regard to 
right or wrong); — oj, morals. 
moral-a, moral; ^ — eco, morality, 
mord-i, to bite. 

morgau (adv.), tomorrow (171). 
mort-i, to die; — igi, to kill. 
mo§t-o, title of respect (258). 

mov-i (trans.), to move, put in 

muel-o, mill (for grinding), 
mug-i, to roar, bellow, 
mult-a, much (81). 
mur-o, wall. 
murmur-i, to murmur, 
mus-o, mouse. 
mustard-o, mustard, 
mug-o, fly. 
mut-a, dumb, mute. 
muze-o, museum. 
muzik-o, music. 


naci-o, nation. 

na^-i, to swim. 

naiv-a, artless, naive, ingenu- 

najbar-o, neighbor. 

najl-o, nail (of metal). 

nap-o, turnip. 

nask-i, to produce, bring forth, 
give birth to. 

natur-o, nature. 

nafi (adj.), nine (136). 

naz-o, nose. 

ne (adv.), no, not (27, 66, a, 171). 

nebul-o, fog, mist. 

neces-a, necessary. 

negativ-o, negative (photo- 

neg-o, snow. 



nek (negative conj.), neither, nor 
(31, p. 32, ftn.). 

nenia, no kind of (224). 

nenial {adv.), for no reason (229). 

neniam (adv.), never (226). 

nenie {adv.), nowhere (225). 

neniel {adv.), in no way (230). 

nenies {pronoun, possessive), no- 
body's (221). 

nenio (pronoun), nothing (233). 

neniom (adv.), none, not any 

neniu (pronoun), no one, nobody, 
no (220). 

nep-o, grandson. 

nepr-e, inevitably, certainly, un- 

nerv-o, nerve. 

nest-o, nest. 

neutral-a, neutral, non-partisan. 

nev-o, nephew. 

ni {-pronoun), we, us (32, 37). 

nigr-a, black. 

nivel-o, level. 

-nj-, suffix forming affectionate 
diminutives (283). 

nobel-o, nobleman. 

nobl-a, noble (in character). 

nokt-o, night. 

nom-o,nanie; — i, to name, men- 

nombf-o, number (quantity). 

nord-o, north. 

norveg-o, Norwegian. 

nostalgi-o, homesickness. 

not-o, note. 

nov-a, new, recent, novel; de» 

nove, anew, again, 
novembr-o, November, 
nu {interjection), well! (273). 
nuanc-o, shade, tint, hue. 
nub-o, cloud, 
nud-a, bare, naked, nude, 
nuks-o, nut. 
nui-o, zero, naught. 
numer-o, number, numeral (No.), 
nun {adv.), now (171). 
nur (adv.), merely, only. 
nutr-i, to nourish, to feed. 


obe-i, to obey (265). 

objekt-o, object, thing. 

objektiv-o, lens, objective. 

-obi-, suffix forming multiples 

oblikv-a, oblique, slanting. 

observ-i, to observe, take note of. 

obstin-a, obstinate. 

ocean-o, ocean. 

odor-i, to smell (good or bad). 

ofend-i, to offend. 

ofer-i, to sacrifice, offer. 

ofic-o, office, employment ; — isto, 
officer (of firm or organiza.- 
tion); — ejo, office (the place). 

oficial-a, official. 



oficir-o, officer (military or na- 
oft-a, frequent. 
ok (adj.), eight (136). 
okaz-i, to happen, occur, take 

okcident-o, west. 
oktobr-o, October, 
okul-o, eye. 

okup4, to occupy (p. 206, ftn.). 
ol {conj.), than (82, 97, 98). 
ole-o, oil. 
oliv-o, olive, 
ombr-o, shadow, shade, 
ombrel-o, umbrella, 
-on-, suffix forming fractions 

ond-o, wave. 

oni (pronoun), one, they (54). 
onkl-o, uncle, 
-op-, suffix forming collective 

numerals (261). 
oper-o, opera. 
opini-i, to have the opinion, 

oportun-a, handy, convenient, 

or-o, gold. 

orang-o, orange (fruit). 
ord-o, order (methodical or 

proper arrangement), 
ordinar-a, ordinary; eksterordi- 

nara, extraordinary. 
Oidon-i, to order, bid, command. 

orel-o, ear (of the body), 
orf-o, orphan, 
organ-o, organ (physical). 
organiz-i, to organize, 
orgen-o, organ, (musical instru- 
orient-o, east. 
original-o, original, 
orkestr-o, orchestra. 
ornam-i, to ornament, adorn, 
ort-a, right-angled. 
osced-i, to gape, yawn. 
ost-o, bone, 
ostr-o, oyster. 
ostracism-o, ostracism, 
ov-o, egg. 

pac-o, peace, 
pacienc-o, patience, 
padel-i, to paddle. 
paf-i, to shoot (with gun, etc.). 
pag-i, to pay. 

pag;-o, page (of a book, etc.). 
pajl-o, straw. 
pak-i, to pack, 
pal-a, pale. 
palac-o, palace, 
palis-o, stake; — aro, palisade, 
palp-i, to feel (with the fingers, 
etc.); — ado, touch (the sense), 
palpebr-o, eyelid, 
pan-o, bread. 



pantalon-o, trousers. 
pantofl-o, slipper. 
paper-o, paper (material), 
papili-o, butterfly, 
par-o, pair, 
paradiz-o, paradise. 
paragraf-o, paragraph. 
paralel-a, parallel. 
pardon-i, to forgive, pardon (265) . 
parenc-o, relative (person). 
parfum-o, perfume, 
park-o, park. 

parker-e, by rote, by heart, from 

parol-i, to speak (77). 
part-o, part, share. 
particip-o, participle. 
pas-i, (intrans.), to pass. 
pasa^er-o, passenger. 
paser-o, sparrow. 
pasi-o, passion. 
pasiv-a, passive. 
Pask-o, Easter. 
pastec-o, patty, small pie. 
pastinak-o, parsnip. 
pastr-o, pastor, clergyman, priest. 
pa§-i, to step. 

palt-i (trans.), to pasture, feed; 
. — ^isto, shepherd. 

pat-o, pan, frying-pan. 
patr-o, father. 
paiiz-o, pause. 
pavim-o, pavement. 

pec-o, piece, morsel. 

pejzag-o, landscape. 

pek-i, to sin. 

pekl-i, to pickle (meat, etc.). 

pel-i, to chase away, drive off. 

pelt-o, coat or wrap of fur. 

pen-i, to strive, try (p. 228, ftn.J. 

pend-i (intrans.), to hang. 

penetr-i, to penetrate. 

penik-o, paintbrush, hair pencil. 

pens-i, to think. 

pent-i, to repent. 

pentr-i, to paint. 

pep-i, to chirp, twitter. 

per (prep.), by means of, with, 
by (64, p. 49, ftn., p. 53, 

perd-i, to lose. 

pere-i, to perish. 

perfekt-a, perfect. 

perfid-i, to betray; — a, perfid- 
ious, treacherous. 

period-a, periodic. 

perl-o, pearl. 

permes-i, to permit, allow, let. 

peron-o, platform (railway), 
stoop (entrance porch). 

persekut-i, to persecute, prose- 

persik-o, peach. 

persist-i,. to persist, persevere. 

person-o, person. 

peruk-o, wig. 

pes-i {trans.), to ascertaia the 



weight of; — ^ilo, scales, bal- 
pet-i, to request, beg, ask. 
petol-i, to be mischievous, saucy, 

petrol-o, petroleum, kerosene, 
petrosel-o, parsley. 
pez-i (intrans.), to be heavy, 

pi-a, pious. 
pice-o, spruce (tree). 
pied-o,foot; — iranto, pedestrian, 
piedestal-o, pedestal. 
pik-i to prick, sting. 
pilgrim-i, to go on a pilgrimage. 
pilk-o, ball (to play with). 
pin-o, pine (tree). 
pinakotek-o, picture gallery, 
pinc-i, to pinch, 
pingl-o, pin. 

pint-o, point, pinnacle, summit. 
pionir-o, pioneer. 
pip-o, pipe (for smoking). 
pipr-o, pepper. 
pir-o, pear, 
pist-i, to crush, mash; — ajo, 

pitoresk-a, picturesque. 
piz-o, pea. 
plac-o, public square, place 

(broad, short street or open 

plac-i, to please, to be pleasing 


plad-o, flat dish, 
plafon-d, ceiling, 
plan-o, plan, scheme, 
pland-o, sole (of the foot), 
planed-o, planet, 
plank-o, floor, 
plant-i, to plant. 
plat-a, flat, plane, 
plaud-i (trans.), to splash, dab- 
ble (a liquid). 

plej (adv.), most (74, 79, 81, 

162) ; malplej, least (80). 
plekt-i, to weave, plait, braid. 
plen-a, full (p. 206, ftn.); 

plenum-i, to fulfil. 
plend-i, to complain, 
plet-o, tray. 
plezur-o, pleasure. 
pli (adv.), more (74, 79, 81); 

malpli, less (80). 
plor-i, to weep, cry. 
plu (adv.), further, more, any 

more (p. 190, ftn.). 
plug-i, to plow. 
plum-o, pen, feather. 
plumb-o, lead (metal); — isto, 

pluv-o, rain. 

pneiimatik-o, pneumatic tire. 
po (prep.), at the rate of (175). 
poem-o, poem, 
poet-o, poet. 
poezi-o, poetry, poesy, 
pokal-o, goblet, cup. 



pol-o, Pole. 

polic-o, police (force). 

politik-o, politics. 

polm-o, palm (of the hand). 

polur-i, to polish, make smooth 
and glossy. 

polus-o, pole (geographical). 

polv-o, dust. 

pom-o, apple. 

pomp-o, pomp, splendor. 

pont-o, bridge. 

popol-o, a people, folk. 

popular-a, popular. 

per {prep.), for (qs, 98, 262). 

porcelan-o, porcelain, china. 

porci-o, portion, share. 

pord-o, door 

pork-o, swine, pig, hog. 

port-i, to carry, bear. 

portret-o, portrait. 

posed-i, to possess, own. 

post (prep.), after, behind (89, 

postul-i, to require, demand. 

poi-o, pocket. 

post-0, post (mail) ; — kesto, mail- 
box; — marko, postage stamp; 
— mandate, postal money or- 

pot-o, pot. 

potenc-a, powerful, mighty. 

pov-i, to be able, can (72). 

pra-, prefix indicating remoteness 
in line of descent (282). 

praktik-o, practice. 

prav-a, right, in the right. 

precip-a, principal, chief. 

preciz-a, precise. 

predik-i, to preach. 

prefer-i, to prefer. 

prefiks-o, prefix. 

preg-i, to pray; — ejo, church. 

prem-i, to press. 

premi-o, premium, prize. 

pren-i, to take (p. 206, ftn.). 

prepar-i, to prepare. 

pres-i, to print. 

preskaii (adv.), almost. 

pret-a, ready. 

pretekst-i, to make pretext of, 

pretend, sham. 
pretend-i, to make pretension to, 

lay claim, to. 
prefer (prep.), beyond, past, by 

(p. 139, ftn.). 
prez-o, price, 
prezent-i, to present, offer. 

prezid-i, to preside; — anto, pre- 
siding officer, president, chair- 

pri (prep.), concerning, about, 
of (160, 264, c). 

princ-o, prince. 

princip-o, principle. 

printemp-o, spring (season). 

pro (prep.), on account of, be- 
cause of, for (86). 

problem-o, problem. 



procent-o, interest, percentage. 

proces-o, lawsuit, legal process. 

produkt-i, to produce. 

profesi-o, profession, occupation, 

profesor-o, professor. 

profil-o, profile. 

profit-o, profit ; — i, to profit (by) . 

profund-a, deep, profound. 

progres-i, to progress. 

projekt-o, project. 

proklam-i, to proclaim. 

prokrast-i, to delay, procrasti- 

proksim-a, near. 

promen-i, to go walking, prom- 

promes-i, to promise. 

propon-i, to propose, offer. 

proporci-o, proportion. 

propr-a, own (one's own) ; mal- 
propra, other people's; — igi 
al si, to appropriate, make 
one's own. 

prosper-i, to have success, pros- 

protekt-i, to protect. 

protest-i, to protest. 

protokol-o, minutes (of a meet- 

prov-i, to try, attempt, test (p. 
228, ftn.). 

proviz-i, to provide (p. 206, ftn.). 

proz-0, prose; — ajo, prose com- 
position, piece of prose. 

prudent-a, reasonable, sensible, 

prujn-o, hoar frost. 
prun-o, plum, 
prunt-o, loan; — i, ( — e doni), to 

lend; — e preni, to borrow, 
pruv-i, to prove, give proof of. 
psalm-o, psalm, 
publik-o, public (the): — igi, to 

puding-o, pudding. 
pudr-i, to powder. 
pugn-o, fist. 
pulm-o, lung. 
pulv-o, gunpowder. 
pump-i, to pump, 
pun-i, to punish. 
punt-o, lace (point, etc.). 
pup-o, doll, 
pupitr-o, desk. 
pixr-a, clean, pure, 
purpur-a, purple. 
pu§-i, to push; repuli, to repulse, 
put-o, well (for water). 

rabarb-o, rhubarb. 

rab-i, to pillage, plunder; — isto, 

rabat-i, to rebate, give a reduc- 
tion, discount or rebate. 

rad-o, wheel. 

radi-o, ray (of light), spoke (of 
wheel), radius. , 



radik-o, root. 

rafan-o, radish. 

rafin-i, to refine; — ejo, refinery. 

rajd-i, to ride (horse, etc.). 

rajt-o, right (to something). 

rakont-i, to relate, narrate (77). 

ramp-i, to creep, crawl, clamber. 

ran-o, frog. 

rand-o, edge, border. 

rang-o, rank, grade, dignity. 

rapid-a, rapid, quick; — o, speed; 

— emo, haste. 
raport-i, to report, give a report. 
ras-o, race (tribe, people, nation). 
rasp-i, to rasp, grate; — ilo, 

rat-o, rat. 

rauk-a, hoarse, raucous. 
rav-i, to enchant. 
raz-i, to shave. 
re-, prefix indicating repetition or 

return (223). 
real-a, real. 
reciprok-a, reciprocal, mutual 

redakci-o, editorial department, 
redakt-i, to edit. 
redaktor-o, editor. 
redingot-o, frock coat, 
refut-i, to refute. 
reg-i, to rule, govern, reign. 
regal-i (trans.), to regale, treat 

(to food or drink). 
region-o, region. 

registr-i (trans.), to register, en- 

regn-o, state, governed body; 
— ano, citizen, subject. 

regul-o, rule, regulation. 

re|-o, king. 

reklam-i, to advertise, 

rekomend-i, to recommend, reg- 
ister (a letter). 

rekompenc-i, to recompense, re- 

rekt-a, straight, undeviating, di- 

rel-o, rail. 

religi-o, religion. 

rem-i, to row. 

rembur-i, to upholster, stuff, pad. 

renkont-i (trans.), to meet. 

renvers-i (trans.), to upset. 

reprezent-i, to represent. 

respekt-i, to respect. 

respond-i, to answer. 

respublik-o, republic. 

rest-i, to remain, stay. 

restoraci-o, restaurant. 

resum-i, to summarize, give in 

ret-o, net, netting. 

rev-i, to indulge in revery, 
dream, fancy. 

revu-o, journal, review, maga- 

rezon-i, to reason (exert the 
power of reasoning). 



rezult-i, to result. 

ricev-i, to receive. 

ric-a, rich. 

rid-i, to laugh (265, p. 206, ftn.). 

rifuz-i, to refuse. 

rigard-i, to look. 

rigl-i, to bolt (fasten). 

rikolt-i, to harvest, reap. 

rilat-i,tohave relation (to) (266). 

rimark-i, to notice, note. 

rimed-o, means, way; vivrime- 

doj, means of livelihood. 
rimen-o, thong, strap. 
ring-o, ring. 
rip-o, rib. 

ripar-i, to mend, repair. 
ripet-i, to repeat. 
ripoz-i, to repose, rest. 
ripro£-i, to reproach, 
river-o, river. 
riz-o, rice. 
rob-o, dress, robe. 
Robert-o, Robert, 
romp-i (trans.), to break, 
rond-o, circle, ring, round, 
ros-o, dew. 
rost-i, to roast. 
roz-o, rose (flower). 
ruband-o, ribbon. 
rubus-o, blackberry. 
rul-a, red. 
ruin-o, ruin. 
rul-i (trans.), to roll (ball, etc.). 

rus-o, Russian. 

rust-i, to rust. 

rutin-o, routine. 

ruz-a, crafty, cunning, sly. 

sabat-o, Saturday. 

sabl-o, sand. 

sag-o, arrow 

sag-a, wise. 

sak-o, sack, bag. 

sal-o, salt. 

salajr-o, salary, wages. 

salat-o, salad. 

salon-o, parlor, drawing-room. 

salt-i, to jump, leap. 

salut-i, to salute, greet. 

sam-a, same. 

san-a, healthy, well. 

sang-o, blood. 

sankt-a, sacred, holy. 

sap-o, soap. 

sarden-o, sardine. 

sat-a, sated; malsata, hungry 

(p. 206, ftn.). 
sauc-o, sauce, gravy, dressing, 
sav-i, to save, rescue, 
sci-i, to know (117). 
scienc-o, science. 
se (conj.), if (240). 
sed (conj.), but (p. 32, ftn.). 
seg-i, to saw. 
seg-o, chair. 



sek-a, dry. 
sekret-o, secret. 
sekretari-o, secretary. 
sekund-o, second (of time). 
sekv-i, to follow. 
sel-o, saddle. 
sem-o, seed; — i, to sow. 
semajn-o, week. 

sen (prep.), without (248, p. 206, 

senat-o, senate; — ano, senator. 
senc-o, sense, meaning. 
send-i, to send. 
sent-i, to feel, perceive. 
Sep (adj.), seven (136). 
septembr-o, September. 
ser£-i, to seek, hunt, look for. 
serur-o, lock. 
serv-i, to serve. 
servic-o, course (of a meal), 
ses (adj.), six (136). 
sever-a, severe, stern. 
sezon-o, season. 

si (pronoun, reflexive), himself, 

herself, etc. (40, 44, 274). 
sibl-i, to hiss, whistle (wind, etc.). 
sid-i, to sit (239, p. 217, ftn.). 
sigel-i, to seal. 
sign-o, sign, trace, mark, 
signif-i, to signify, mean, 
silab-o, syllable. 
silent-i, to be silent (239). 
silk-o, gilk. 

simi-o, monkey. 

simil-a, like, similar (p. 206, 

simpl-a, simple. 

sinjor-o, gentleman, Mr. (163). 

Sirakuz-o, Syracuse. 

sitel-o, pail, bucket. 

skatol-o, small box or case. 

skiz-i, to sketch. 

sklav-o, slave. 

skot-o, Scot, Scotchman. 

skrap-i, to scrape. 

skrlb-i, to write. 

sku-i (trans.), to shake. 

skulpt-i, to carve, sculpture. 

societ-o, society. 

soif-i, to be thirsty. 

sojl-o, threshold. 

Sokrat-o, Socrates. . 

sol-a, alone, sole, only. 

soldat-o, soldier. 

solen-a, formal, solemn. 

somer-o, summer. 

son-i (intrans.), to sound. 

song-i, to dream (in sleep). 

sonor-i (intrans.), to ring, sound; 
— ilo, bell. 

sopir-i, to yearn, long, sigh (p. 
206, ftn.). 

sorb-i, to absorb; — papero, blot- 

sor£-o, witchcraft; ensorfii, to 
bewitch; — isto, sorcerer. 

sort-o, destiny, fate, lot. 



sova§-a, wild, savage. 

spac-o, space. 

spec-o, kind, sort, species. 

special-a, special. 

specimen-o, specimen, sample. 

spegul-o, mirror. 

spert-a, experienced, expert. 

spes-o, speso (international unit 
of money, 284). 

spez-o, clearing (financial); el- 
spezi, to disburse, expend, 
spend; enspezi, to take in, 
receive (funds). 

spinac-o, spinach. 

spir-i, to breathe; elspiri, to ex- 

spite (prep.), in spite of. 

sprit-a, witty. 

staci-o, station (railway, boat, 

stamp-i, to mark officially, stamp. 

standard-o, standard, flag. 

stan-o, tin (metal). 

stang-o, pole. 

star-i, to stand (239, p. 217, ftn.). 

stat-o, state (of being), condi- 

stel-o, star. 

stenografi-o, shorthand, stenog- 

stil-o, style. 

stim'ol-i, to stimulate. 

stomak-o, stomach. 

strang-a, strange, peculiar. 

strat-o, street. 

strec-i (trans.), to stretch. 

strek-i, to make a streak, or line; 
substreki, to underline; sur- 
streki, trastreki, to cross off, 
strike out. 

stri-o, streak, stripe, band. 

strik-o, strike (of labor). 

stud-i, to study. 

student-o, student (college, etc.). 

stuf-i (trans.), to stew. 

stump-o, stump (of tree, etc.). 

sub (prep.), under, beneath (121, 
160, p. 229, ftn.). 

subit-a, sudden, abrupt. 

substanc-o, substance. 

sud-o, south. 

sufer-i, to suffer, endure. 

sufi£-i, to suffice; — ega, abund- 

sufiks-o, suffix. 

sufok-i (trans.), to suffocate. 

sugesti-i, to suggest. 

suk-o, sap, juice (of plants, etc.); 

— a, succulent. 
sukces-i, to succeed. 
suker-o, sugar. 
sulfur-o, sulphur. 
sulk-o, furrow, wrinkle, 
sum-o, sum, amount, 
sun-o, sun. 
sup-o, soup, 
super (prep.), above, over (159;); 

— a, superior. 



supergtic-o, superstition. 

supoz-i, to suppose. 

supr-e (adv.), above; — a, upper, 

above; — ajo, surface. 
sur (prep.), on, upon (i6o). 
surd-a, deaf. 
surpriz-i, to surprise. 
surtut-o, overcoat. 
suspekt-i, to suspect. 
sved-o, Swede. 
sven-i, to faint, swoon. 
sving-i (trans.), swing, brandish. 
svis-o, Swiss. 


iaf-o, sheep; — ajo, mutton; 

— ido, lamb; — idajo, lamb 

(meat); — viro, ram. 
lajn-i, to seem, appear. 
Sal-o, shawl. 
ianc-o, luck, chance; bonSance, 

§ancel-i (trans.), to oscillate, 

vacillate, make tremble. 
lang-i (trans.), to change, alter. 
sarg-1, to burden, load (p. 206, 

§at-i, to like, prize. 
§aum-o, foam, froth. 
§el-o, shell, peeling, bark. 
selk-o, suspender, supporter. 
§erc-i, to joke, jest. 
§i (pronoun), she, her (32, 37, 42). 

sild-o, shield. 

sink-o, ham. 

§ip-o, ship. 

sir-i, to tear. 

Mrm-i, to shelter, shield; — ^ilo, 

slim-o, slime. 

§los-i, to lock; — ilo, key. 

Imir-i, to anoint, smear. 

§nur-o, string. 

sose-o, broad roadway, drive. 

Sov-i, to shove, push. 

lovel-i, to shovel. 
' spar-i, to spare, be economical 

spin-i, to spin. 

spruc-i, to gush, spout, spurt (of 
liquids) . 

Irank-o, cupboard, wardrobe. 

sraub-o, screw. 

§tal-o, steel. 

stat-o, state (political). 

Itel-i, to steal (252). 

stip-o, log, block of wood. 

stof-o, cloth, stuff. 

ston-o, stone. 

stop-i, to stop up, cork; — ilo, 

strump-o, stocking. 

stup-o, step, round; — aro, stair- 

su-o, shoe; supersuo, overshoe. 

suld-i, to owe, be indebted. 

§ultr-o, shoulder. 



§ut-o, chute; — i, to pour (as in a 

Ivel-i, to swell, become swollen. 
Ivit-i, to perspire. 

tabak-o, tobacco. 

tabel-o, table, index, tabulation. 

tabl-o, table (furniture). 

tabul-o, board, plank. 

tag-o, day; — i|o, dawn; — mezo, 

tajlor-o, tailor. 

taks-i, to estimate, value, rate. 

talent-o, talent. 

tali-o, wa-ist; beltalia, shapely, 
having a good figure. 

tambur-o, drum. 

tamen (conj.), nevertheless, how- 
ever, yet, still (p. 32, ftn.). 

tantiem-o, percentage of profit, 

tapis-o, carpet. 

tarif-o, tariff, schedule of rates. 

tas-o, cup; subtaso, saucer. 

task-o, task. 

taug-i, to be fit for, good for. 

tavol-o, layer. 

te-o, tea. 

teatr-o, theatre; — ajo, play. 

ted-i, to be tedious. 

teg-i, to cover, put a covering 

tegment-o, roof. 

teks-i, to weave. 

telefon-i, to telephone. 

telegraf-i, to telegraph. 

teler-o, plate; — meblo, side- 

tem-o, theme, subject. 

temp-o, time. 

tempi-o, temple (of the head). 

templ-o, temple (building). 

ten-i, to hold, keep (p. 206, ftn.). 

tend-o, tent. 

tenor-o, tenor (voice). 

tent-i, to tempt. 

teori-o, theory. 

ter-o, earth, soil; enterigi, to 

teras-o, terrace. 

teritori-o, territory. 

termin-o, term, definition (word). 

tern-i, to sneeze. 

terpom-o, potato. 

terur-o, terror. 

tia, that kind of, such (65). 

tial (adv.), therefore (78, 83, p. 
222, ftn.). 

tiam (adv.), then, at that time 

tibi-o, shin bone, tibia; — karno, 
calf (of the leg). 

tie (adv.), there (68). 

tiel (adv.), thus, so (88, 156). 

tigr-o, tiger. 

tikl-i, to tickle. 



tili-o, linden. 

tim-i, to fear, be afraid of. 

timon-o, pole, tongue, shaft. 

tint-i, to jingle, tinkle. 

tic {pronoun), that (233, 234). 

tiom {adv.), that much, so much 

(104, 164). 
tir-i, to pull, draw. 
tiran-o, tyrant. 
titol-o, title. 
tiu {pronoun), that one, that 

(56); tiu ci, this one, this 

tost-o, toast (sentiment). 
tol-o, linen. 
toler-i, to tolerate. 
tomat-o, tomato. 
tomb-o, tomb, grave. 
ton-o, tone. 
tond-i, to shear; — ilo, shears, 

tondr-i, to thunder. 

tord-i, to twist; — a, crooked, 

tra {prep.), through (46, 160). 

trab-o, beam (wooden). 

traduk-i, to translate. 

traf-i, to reach, attain (that 

which was aimed at or sought) ; 

maltrafi, to miss. 
trajt-o, feature, 
trakt-i, to treat of (in essay, 

speech, etc.); — ato, treatise. 
tram-o, tram; — vojo, tramway, 

street-car line; — veturilo, 

tran£4, to cut, sever, 
trankvil-a, serene, tranquil, calm, 
trans {prep.), across, the other 

side of (160). 
tre {adv.), very, very much, 
trem-i, to tremble. 
fremp-i, to drench, dip. 
tren-i, to drag, haul, draw; — ajo, 

train (of a dress). 
trezor-o, treasure, 
tri {adj.), three (136). 
trik-i, to knit. 
trink-i, to drink, 
tritik-o, wheat. 
triumf-o, triumph, 
tro {adv.), too, too much, 
tromp-i, to deceive, 
tron-o, throne. 
tropik-o, tropic, 
trot-i, to trot. 

trotuar-o, sidewalk, pavenient. 
trov-i, to find (p. 217, ftn.). 
tru-o, hole, 
trud-i, to force upon, impose; 

altrudema, importunate. 
trunk-o, trunk (of tree or body), 
tualet-o, toilet. 
tub-o, tube, pipe, 
tuber-o, bulb, knot, tuber, 
tuj {adv.), at once, immediately 

tuk-o, piece of cloth. 



tur-o, tower. 

turk-o, Turk. 

turment-i, to torment. 

turn-i (trans.), to turn. 

tus-i, to cough. 

tui-i, to touch; kortusi, to touch 

(the heart of). 
tut-a, entire, whole, all (p. 130, 



-uj-, suffix indicating receptacle, 

that which bears or contains 

-ul-, suffix indicating person 

characterized by that in the root 

ulni-o, elm. 
-um-, indefinite suffix (268). 

ung-o, nail (of finger); — ego, 
claw, talon. 

univers-o, universe. 

universitat-o, university. 

unu (adj.), one (136, 137, 180); 
unuito, union. 

uragan-o, hurricane. 

urb-o, city; £efurbo, capital. 

ur|-i, to be urgent or press- 

urs-o, bear. 

Uson-o, United States of Amer- 

util-a, useful. 

uz-i, to use; trouzi, to abuse. 


vad-i, to wade. 

vafl-o, wafHe. 

vag-i, to wander, to roam; — Isto, 

vagon-o, car, railway carriage. 
vak-i, to be vacant. 
vaks-o, wax. 
val-o, valley. 

valiz-o, valise, satchel, bag. 
valor-i, to be worth. 
vals-i, to waltz. 
van-a, vain, fruitless. 
vang-o, cheek. 
vant-a, vain, conceited. 
vapor-o, steam, vapor. 
varb-i (trans.), to enlist, recruit, 
varm-a, warm. 

vast-a, vast, spacious, exten- 

vaz-o, vase, basin. 

ve! (interjection), woe! ho vel 

alas! (273). 
veget-i, to vegetate, grow (as 

vegetar-a, vegetarian 
vejn-o, vein. 

vek-i (trans.), to wake, awake, 
vel-o, sail. 

velk-i, to fade, wither, wilt. 
velur-o, velvet. 
ven-i, to come, 
vend-i, to sell. 



vendred-o, Friday. 

venen-o, poison. 

veng-i, to avenge. 

venk-i, to conquer, vanquish. 

vent-o, wind. 

ver-o, truth. 

verand-o, veranda, porch. 

verd-a, green. 

verk-i, to compose (music or 

verm-o, worm. 
vermi6el-o, vermicelli. 
vers-o, verse, 
veri-i, to pour (a liquid). 
vertikal-a, vertical. 
vesper-o, evening (93). 
vest-i, to clothe, dress. 
ve§t-o, vest, waistcoat. 
vet-i, to wager, bet. 
veter-o, weather. 
vetur-i, to ride, go (in vehicle, 

boat, etc.). 
vi (pronoun), you (32, 37, 274). 
viand-o, meat. 
vibr-i, to vibrate. 
vic-o, turn, place in a series; 

laii vice, in turn; siavice, in his 

(her, its, their) turn; vicprezi- 

danto, vice-president. 
vid-i, to see. 

vidv-o, widower; — ^ino, widow, 
vigl-a, alert, brisk. 
vila|-o, village. 
vin-o, wine. 

vinagr-o, vmegar. 

vinber-o, grape; sekvinbero, 

vintr-o, winter. 

viol-o, violet. 

violon-o, violin. 

vip-i, to whip. 

vir-o, man (p. 154, ftn.). 

virt-o, virtue. 

vi§-i, to wipe. 

vitr-o, glass (material). 

viv-i, to live (133). 

vizat-o, face, visage. 

vizit-i, to visit. 

voc-o, voice; — doni, to vote. 

voj-o, road, way. 

vojat-i, to journey, travel, voy- 

vok-i, to call. 

vokal-o, vowel. , 

vol-i, to be willing, will, wish. 

volont-e, willingly. 

volum-o, volume (book). 

volumen-o, volume (of a body). 

volv-i, to roll (something around 

vort-o, word; — arc, diction- 

vost-o, tail. 

vual-o, veil. 

vulgar-a, common, vulgar. 

vulp-o, fox. 

vund-i, to wound. 




zenit-o, zenith, 
zigzag-o, zigzag, 
zingibr-o, ginger. 
zink-o, zinc. 

zon-o, girdle, belt, zone. 

zoologi-o, zoology. 

zorg-i, to care (for), be anxious 

(about), (p. 162, ftn.). 
zum-i, to hum, buzz. 


The following vocabulary includes all Esperanto roots used in the 
preceding lessons, all primary words of the language, and a large 
number of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). No 
attempt has been made, however, to include all of the roots of the 
language, or their various English meanings, for which an English- 
Esperanto Dictionary should be consulted. 

References are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. For 
other parts of speech than those indicated, see Word Formation, 
ii6, 120, 159, 171, also the references under Prefixes and Suffixes 
in the Index. For formation of compound words other than those 
given, see 160, 167, 176, 184. The following abbreviations are used: 
adj. = adjective; adv. = adverb; conj. = conjunction; intrans. = 
intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = transitive; — = repeti- 
tion of the English word. 

abandon, forlas-i. 

abash, hontig-i. 

(be)able, pov-i(72). 

abominable, abomen-a. 

about (prep.), cirkati; (concern- 
ing) pri; (adv.), (approxi- 
mately, proksimum-e. 

above (prep.), super (159); 

(adv.), supr-e, ci supre. 
abrupt, subit-a. 

absorb, sorb-i. 

abundant, suficeg-a. 

academy, akademi-o. 

accelerate (trans.), akcel-i. 

accent, akcent-o. 

accept, akcept-i. 

accident, akcident-o; (chance) 

accompany, akompan-i. 
(in) accordance with (prep.), 

laii (191). 



account, kont-o; (bill) kalkul-o; 

(story) rakont-o. 
(on) account of (prep.), pro 

accurate, akurat-a. 
accusative, akuzativ-o. 
accuse, akuz-i, kulpig-i. 
accustomed, familiar-a, kutim- 

ache, dolor-o. 
acid, acid-o. 
(be) acquainted with, kou-i 

(117); become — , konatig-i. 

acquire, akir-i. 

across (prep.), trans. 

act, ag-i; — on, efik-i; (behave) 

kondut-i; (of play) akt-o. 
active, agema; (grammatical), 

actor, aktor-o. 
actual, efektiv-a, ver-a. 
acute, akr-a. 
add, aldon-i (160). 
address (on letters, etc.) adres-o; 

(lecture) parolad-o. 
adequate, sufic-a. 
adjacent, apud-a (159). 
adjective, adjektiv-o. 
administer (manage), administr-i. 
admire, admir-i. 
admit, konfes-i; (let in) allas-i. 
admonish, admon-i. 
adore, ador-i. 
adorn, ornam-i. 

adverb, adverb-o. 

advantage, util-o, profit-o. 

advertise, reklam-i. 

advise, konsil-i. 

affable, afabl-a. 

affair, afer-o; regrettable — , do- 

affirmative, jes-a (171). 
(be) afraid, tim-i. 
Africa, Afrik-o. 
after (prep.), post (89). 
afternoon, posttagmez-o (p. 140, 

again, denov-e, re-e (223, 
against (prep.), kontraii (p. 49, 

age, ag-o; of — , plenag-a; old 

— , maljunec-o. 
(give an) agency, komisi-i. 
agent, agent-o. 
agitate, agit-i. 
agony, agoni-o. 
agree, konsent-i; (contract) kon- 

agreeable, agrabl-a. 
aid, help-i. 
aim at, cel-i. 
air, aer-o; to — , aerum-i; (music) 

alas! ho ve (273^. 
alcohol, alkohol-o. 
alcove, alkov-o. 
alert, vigl-a. 
Alexander, Aleksandr-o. 



Alexandria, Aleksandri-o. 

Alfred, Alfred-o. 

algebra, algebr-o. 

alive, viv-a. 

all {pronoun and adj.), ciuj 
(173); (indefinite pronoun) oio 
(233) ; (adv. of quantity) ciom 
(194); (whole, entire) tut-a 
(p. 130, ftn.). 

alliance, lig-o. 

allow, permes-i. 

allude, alud-i. 

allure, log-i. 

almanac, almanak-o. 

almost (adv.), preskafi. 

alms, almoz-o. 

alone, sol-a. 

along (prep.), lati (191); — with, 
kune kun. 

aloud, laut-e. 
alphabet, alfabet-o. 
already (adi;.), jam (p. 124, ftn.). 
also (adv.), ankail. 
altar, altar-o. 

alter (trans.), sang-i, aliig-i. 
although (conj.), kvankam. 
always (adv.), clam (187). 
America, Amerik-o. 
amiable, afabl-a, amind-a. 
amid, maze de, inter (85). 
among (prep.), inter (85). 
amount, sum-o, kvant-o; a cer- 
tain — , iom (217). 
amphibious, amfibi-a. 

amphitheatre, amfiteatr-o. 

amuse, amuz-i. 

analyse, analiz-i. 

ancestor, prapatr-o (282). 

anchor, ankr-o. 

ancient, antikv-a (p. 128, ftn.). 

and (conj.), kaj (26, p. 32, ftn.). 

anecdote, anekdot-o. 

anew, denov-e. 

angel, angel-o. 

angle, angul-o. 

angry, koler-a. 

animal, best-o. 

ankle, maleol-o. 

announce, anonc-i. 

annoy, 6agren-i. 

anoint, smir-i. 

answer, respond-i. 

ant, formik-o. 

antelope, antilop-o. 

antipathy, antipati-o. 

antique, antikv-a, (p. 128, ftn.). 

anvil, ambos-o. 

anxious, maltrankvil-a. 

any (pronoun and adj.), iu (203) ; 

(adv. of quantity) iom (217); 

— kind, — time, — thing, etc., 

see table, 235. 
any more (adv.), plu (p. 190, 

apartment, apartament-o. 
apathy, apati-o. 
apologise, pardonon pet-i. 
apology (defence), apologi-o. 



apparatus, aparat-o. 

appear (come in sight) aper-i; 
(seem) sajn-i. 

appearance (aspect), aspekt-o, 
mien-o, vidi^-o. 

appetite, apetit-o. 

applaud, aplatid-i. 

apple, pom-o. 

apply (put on), almet-i; — to 
(for information, etc.), sin 
turni al. 

approach, alproksimig-i al. 

appropriate, proprigi al si; (suit- 
able), konven-a, dec-a. 

approve, aprob-i. 

approximate, proksimum-a. 

apricot, abrikot-o. 

April, april-o. 

apron, antatttuk-o. 

aquarium, akvari-o. 

Arab, arab-o; street — , bub-o. 

arbitrate, arbitraci-i. 

arbor, laflb-o. 

arc, ark-o. 

arcade, arkad-o. 

archer, pafarkist-o. 

Archimedes, Arnimed-o. 

architecture, arhitektur-o. 

arena, aren-o. 

argue, argument-i. 

Aristeides, Aristejd-o. 

aristocrat, aristokrat-o. 

Aristotle, Aristotel-o. 

arithmetic, aritmetik-o. f 

arm (of the body) brak-o; 

(weapon) armil-o. 
army, arme-o. 
aroma, arom-o. 

around {prep.), fiirkatt (89, 160). 
arouse, incit-i, vek-i. 
arrange, arang-i. 
arrest, arest-i. 
arrive, alven-i. 
arrogant, arogant-a. 
arrow, sag-o. 
art, art-o. 
Arthur, Artur-o. 
article (grammatical, literary) 


artificial, artefarit-a. 
artless, naiv-a. 

as (fldv.) kiel; as . . . as . . . tiel 
. . . kiel . . . (156); — if, 

— though, kvazaii (250); 

— far as, gis (prep., 46); 

— much . . as . . , tiom . . 
kiom (164). 

ascertain, certig-i; — the truth 
of, konstat-i. 

(be) ashamed, hont-i. 

ashes, oindr-o. 

Asia, Azi-o; 

aside from {prep.), krom. 

ask (inquire), demand-i; (re- 
quest), pet-i. 

asparagus, asparag-o. 

aspect, aspekt-o, mien-o. 

jiss, azen-o. 



assemble, kunven-i, kunvok-i. 

assist, help-i. 

association (organization), aso- 

assurance, aplomb-o, certigo. 
at (prep.), 6e (125, 160), je 

(260); — the rate of, po (175). 
athlete, atlet-o. 
atmosphere, atmosfer-o. 
attack, atak-i. 
attain, ating-i, traf-i. 
attempt, prov-i. 
attentive, atent-a. 
attest, atest-i. 
attribute, atribut-o. 
August, august-o. 
Australia, Afistrali-o. 
author, atitor-o, verkist-o. 
automatic, afitomat-a. 
autumn, autun-o. 
avaricious, avar-a. 
avenge, ven|-i. 
avenue, ale-o, bulvard-o. 
avoid, evit-i. 
awake (trans.), vek-i. 
away (adv.), for (71) ; (distant), 

malproksim-e (170). 
axe, hakil-o. 
axis (axle), aks-o. 


babble, babil-i. 
baby, infanet-o. 

bachelor, fraiil-o; — of arts 

(A.B.), abiturient-o. 
back (of the body), dors-o; to the 

rear (adv.), malantaiien (121). 
bacon, lard-o. 
bag, sak-o, valiz-o. 
bagatelle, bagatel-o. 
bake (trans.), bak-i. 
balance (trans.), balanc-i; 

(scales), pesil-o. 
ball (to play with), pilk-o; 

(dance), bal-o; (globe), glob-o. 
banana, banan-o. 
band (stripe), stri-o; (music), 

orkestr-o; (group), ar-o (126). 
bandage, bandag-i. 
banish, ekzil-i. 
bank (financial), bank-o; (shore), 

(become) bankrupt, bankrot-i. 
banner, flag-o, standard-o. 
banquet, festen-o. 
bar, bar-i. 

barbarian, barbar-o. 
bare, nud-a. 
bark (of trees), sel-o; (of dogs), 

barrel, barel-o; — organ, gurd-o. 
barren, senfrukt-a. 
barrister, advokat-o. 
barytone, bariton-o. 
base (foundation), fundament-o, 

baz-o; (ignoble), malnobl-a. 
basin, vaz-o, kuv-o. 



basket, korb-o. 
bass (voice), bas-o. 
bathe (trans.), ban-i. 
battle, batal-i. 
be, est-i (109, p. 229, ftn.). 
beak, bek-o. 

beam (wooden), trab-o; (light), 

bean (leguminous fruit), fab-o; 
(garden bean), fazeol-o. 

bear (animal), urs-o; (carry), 
port-i; (endure), elport-i, su- 
fer-i; (produce, give birth to), 

beard, barb-o. 
beast, best-o. 
beat, bat-i; (surpass), super-i, 

beautiful, bel-a. 
because {conj.), car (83), tial ke 

(83,p.222,ftn.); — of (prep.), 
pro (86). 

become, ig-i, farig-i (232); (be 
suitable), konven-i, dec-i. 

bed, lit-o. 

bee, abel-o. 

beef, bovaj-o (227, c). 
beefsteak, bifstek-o. 
beet, bet-o. 

before (prep.), antaii (89, 90, 120, 
159, 160); (conj.), antau ol 
(97, 98); (adv.), antatte, Jus 
antaue (p. 116 , ftn.). 

beg (request), pet-i; (ask alms), 
almozon pet-i. 

beggar, almozul-o. 

begin (trans.), komenc-i (see also 

prefix ek-, 206). 
behave, kondut-i. 
behind (prep.), post. 
behold, rigard-i, vid-i; (adv.), jen 

Belgian, belg-o. 

believe, kred-i (265, p. 206, ftn.). 
bell, sonoril-o. 
belong, aparten-i. 
below (prep.), sub; (adv.), sub-e, 

belt, zon-o. 
bench, beok-o. 
bend (trans.), klin-i, fleks-i. 
benevolence, bonfar-o. 
berry, ber-o. 
beside (prep.), krom; (near), 

apud; (at the side of), flanke 

bet, vet-i. 
betray, perfid-i. 
betrothed (man), fianc-o. 
between (prep.), inter (85, 89). 
bewitch, ensorc-i. 
beyond (prep.), preter (p. 139, 

bicycle, bicikl-o. 
bid (order), ordon-i; — farewell, 

big, grand-a. 
bill (of bird), bek-o; bank — , 

bankbilet-o; hand — , afis-o; 

(reckoning), kalkul-o. 



bind (fasten), lig-i; (wounds), 

bird, bird-o. 
biscuit, biskvit-o; (ring-shaped), 

bit (piece), pec-o; (adv.), iom 

bite, mord-i. 
black, nigr-a; to — (shoes, etc.), 

blackberry, rubus-o. 
blackbird, merl-o. 
blacking, cir-o. 
blade (of knife, etc.), kling-o. 
bleat, blek-i. 
bless, ben-i. 
blind, blind-a. 
block (of wood), stip-o. 
blood, sang-o. 
bloom, flor-i (116). 
blot (spot), makul-o. 
blotter, sorbil-o, sorbpaper-o. 
blouse, bluz-o, kitel-o. 
blow, blov-i; (stroke), bat-o. 
blue, blu-a; — ish, dubeblu-a. 
blush, rugig-i. 
board (plank), tabul-o; (food), 

boast, fanfaron-i. 
boat, boat-o, sipet-o. 
body, korp-o. 

boil (infrans.), bol-i (275). 
bolt (fasten), rigl-i. 
bonbon, bombon-o. 

bond (fastening), ligil-o. 

bone, ost-o. 

book, libr-o; note — , copy — , 

boot, bot-o. 
border (edge), rand-o. 
bore (holes), bor-i; (weary), 

(be) born, naskig-i. 
borrow, pruntepren-i. 
Boston, Boston-o. 
both (pronoun and ad].), ambatt 

(238); (adv.), kaj (26). 
bottle, botel-o. 
bottom, fund-o, malsupr-o. 
bough, branc-o. 
boulevard, bulvard-o. 
boundary, lim-o. 
bouquet, buked-o. 
bow (of ribbon), bant-o; (for 

shooting), pafark-o. 
bow (bend), klinig-i, salut-i. 
box, kest-o; small — , skatol-o. 
boy, knab-o. 
bracket (shelf), bret-o. 
brag, fanfaron-i. 
braid, plekt-i. 
brain, cerb-o. 
branch (of tree), branc-6; (of 

work or study), fak-o. 
brandish, sving-i. 
brandy, brand-o. 
brave, brav-o. 
bread, pan-o. 



break (trans)., romp-i; — to 

pieces, frakas-i. 
breakfast, matenmang-o. 
breathe, spir-i. 
brick, brik-o. 
bridge, pont-o. 
bridle, brid-o. 
bright (clear), hel-a. 

bring, alport-i; — forth (pro- 
duce), nask-i; — up (educate), 

brisk, vigl-a. 
Briton, Brit-o. 
broad, larg-a. 
brochure, brosur-o. 
bronze, bronz-o. 
brood (birds), kov-i. 
brother, frat-o. 
brown, brun-a. 
brownie, kobold-o. 
bruise, kontuz-i. 
brush, bros-i. 
brute, brut-o. 
bucket, sitel-o. 
buckle, buk-o. 
bud, burgon-o. 
build, konstru-i. 
bulb, tuber-o, bulb-o. 
Bulgarian, Bulgar-o. 
bull, bovvir-o. 
bullet, kugl-o. 
bunch, fask-o. 
bundle, fask-o, pakaj-o. 

bungle, fus-i. 

burden, sarg-i (p. 206, ftn.). 

burn (intrans.), brul-i (275). 

burst (intrans.), krev-i. 

bury, enterig-i. 

but (con]'.), sed (p. 32, ftn.); 

(prep.), krom. 
butcher, buc-i. 
butter, buter-o. 
butterfly, papili-o. 
button, buton-o; to — , buto- 

buy, acet-i. 
buzz, zum-i. 
by (prep.), per (64, p. 49, ftn.); 

de (169, 170); (past), preter 

(p. 139, ftn.); (according to), 

latt (191). 

cab, fiakr-o. 

cabbage, brasik-o. 

cage, kag-o. 

cake, kuk-o. 

calculate, kalkul-i. 

caldron, kaldron-o. 

calendar, kalendar-o. 

calf, bovid-o; (of the leg), tibi- 

call, vok-i; (visit), vizit-i. 
calling (profession), profesi-o. 
calm, kviet-a, trankvil-a. 
camel, kamel-o. 
camera, kamer-o. 



can (be able), pov-i (72); (pre- 
serve fruit, etc.), konfit-i. 

candle, kandel-o. 

candy, kand-o. 

canoe, kanot-o. 

cap, cap-o. 

capable, kapabl-a. 

capital (money), kapital-o; (ex- 
cellent), boneg-a; (city), cef- 

capitol, kapitol-o. 

car, vagon-o. 

card, kart-o; visiting — , vizit- 

care (for), zorg-i (pri); {see also 
p. 162, ftn.). 

caress, dorlot-i, kares-i. 

carpet, tapis-o. 

carriage, kales-o, veturil-o. 

carrot, karot-o. 

carry, port-i. 

carve, skulpt-i. 

case (small box), skatol-o; (chest), 
kest-o; (legal), prooes-o; (hold- 
er), uj-o (181), ing-o (237); 
(occasion), okaz-o; (grammat- 
ical), kaz-o. 

cashier, kasist-o. 

cascade, kaskad-o. 

cast, jet-i. 

castle, kastel-o. 

cat, kat-o. 

catch, kapt-i (p. 206, ftn.). 

cattle, brut-o, brutar-o. 

cauliflower, florbrasik-o. 

cause, ig-i (214); (produce a re- 
sult), kaflz-i; (motive), kial-o; 
tial-o; (espoused or advocated), 
afer-o; (legal), proces-o. 

caution, avert-i. 

cavity, kav-o. 

cease (intrans.), ces-i (see also 
ne. . . .plu, p. 190, ftn.). 

ceiling, plafon-o. 

celebrate, fest-i, solenig-i; — ed, 

celery, celeri-o. 

cellar, kel-o. 

cent, cend-o. 

center, centr-o. 

centigram, centigram-o (284). 

centiliter, centilitr-o (284). 

centimeter, centimetr-o (284). 

certain, cert-a; a — (one), iu 
(pronoun and adj., 203); — 
amount, etc., see table, 235. 

certainly, nepr-e, cert-e, ja (215). 

certify, atest-i, certig-i, konstat-i. 

chain, cen-o; (fetter), katen-o; 
(of mountains), montar-o. 

chair, seg-o. 

(be) chairman, prezid-i. 

chalk, cret-o. 

chance, sanc-o; (hazard), ha- 
zard-o; (opportunity), okazo. 

change (trans.), sang-i; (coins), 

chapel, kapel-o. 

chapter, capitr-o. 



character, karakter-o. 

charge (commission), komisi-o; 

(burden), sarg-o; (price, cost), 

prez-o, kost-o. 
charm, carm-i. 
chase (game, etc.), 6as-i; (drive 

off), forpel-i. 
chatter, babil-i. 
check (on bank), cek-o. 
cheek, vang-o. 
cheese, fromag-o. 
chemise, cemiz-o. 
chemistry, hemi-o. 
chemist's shop, apotek-o. 
cheque, cek-o. 
cherry, ceriz-o. 
chest (box), kest-o; (with a lid), 

chestnut, kastan-o. 
chew, mac-i. 
chief, cef-a (p. 221, ftn.), 

precip-a; (leader), estr-o (253). 
child, infan-o, id-o (207). 
chimney, kamen-o. 
chin, menton-o. 

china (porcelain), porcelan-o; 

(country), Hinuj-o. 
Chinaman, hin-o. 
chirp, pep-i. 
chocolate, cokolad-o. 
choir, hor-o. 
choose, elekt-i. 

chop, hak-i; (cutlet), kotlet-o. 
chrestomathy, krestomati-o. 

Christ, Krist-o. 

church (building), pregej-o. 

chute, sut-o. 

cigar, cigar-o. 

cigarette, cigared-o. 

cinnamon, cinam-o. 

cipher, cifer-o. 

circle, cirkl-o, rond-o. 

circular (letter, etc.), cirkuler-o. 

circumstance, okaz-o, detal-o, 

citizen, regnan-o, urban-o. 
city, urb-o. 
civilise, civiliz-i. 
clack, krak-i. 
claim, pretend-i. 
clamber, ramp-i. 
clap (trans.), klak-i. 
class, klas-o. 
clatter, (trans.), klak-i. 
claw, ungeg-o. 
clay, argil-o. 
clean, pur-a. 

clear (bright), hela; (distinct), 

clearing (financial), spez-o. 
clergyman, pastr-o. 
clerk, komiz-o. 
clever, lert-a. 
climate, klimat-o. 
cUmb up, grimp-i, supren ramp-i. 
cloak, mantel-o. 
clock, horlog-o. 



close (trans.), ferm-i; (dense), 
dens-a; — to (prep.), apud; 
proksim-e de (170). 

cloth (in general), stof-o; 
(woollen, etc.), drap-o; (piece 
of), tuk-o; table — , tablotuk-o. 

clothe, vest-i. 
cloud, nub-o. 

club (organization), klub-o; 
(weapon), bastoneg-o. 

coal, karb-o. 

coat, vest-o; (short), jak-o; 

(frock), redingot-o; over — , 

cock (fowl) J kok-o. 
coffee, kaf-o. 
collect (trans.), kolekt-i. 
college, kolegi-o. 
colonel, kolonel-o. 
color, kolor-o. 
column, kolon-o. 
comb, komb-i. 
come, ven-i. 
comedy, komedi-o. 
comfort (console), konsol-i; 

(freedom from pain, etc.), 

command, ordon-i; (military and 

naval), komand-i. 
commerce, komerc-o. 
commission (entrusted), komi- 

si-o; (percentage of profit), 

tantiem-o, komisipag-o. 
committee, komitat-o. 
common (general), general-a; 

(mutual), komun-a; (vulgar), 

communicate, komunik-i. 

company (commercial), kom- 
panio; (guests), gastar-o; 
(presence), 6eest-o. 

compare (trans.), kompar-i (266). 

compassion, kompat-o. 

compete, konkur-i. 

competition, konkurad-o; (for 
prizes), konkurs-o; (in busi- 
ness), konkurenc-o. 

complain, plend-i. 

complicate, komplik-i. 

compose (music or literature), 

compositor (of type), kompos- 

conceal, kas-i (252). 

concern, koncern-i (266); (anx- 
iety), maltrankvilec-o. 

concerning (prep.), pri. (264, c). 

concert (musical), koncert-o. 

condemn, kondamn-i. 

condition, cirkonstanc-o; (stipu- 
lation), kondic-o; (state), 

conduct (lead), konduk-i; — one- 
self (behave), kondut-i. 

conduct (behavior), kondut-o; 
(in regard to right or wrong), 

conductor (of car, etc.), kon- 

confess, konfes-i. 



confide, konfid-i (p. 206, ftn.)- 
conform, koaform-i (266). 
confound (confuse), konfuz-i. 
congratulate, gratul-i. 
congress, kongres-o. 
conquer, venk-i. 
conscience, konscieno-o. 
(be) conscious, konsci-i. 
consent, konsent-i. 
consequently, sekv-e, do (p. 32, 

ftn.); tial (78). 
(be) conservative, konservativ-a. 
consist, konsist-i. 
console, konsol-i. 
consonant (letter), konsonant-o. 
conspire, konspir-i. 
constant, konstant-a. 
constitution, konstituci-o. 
consul, konsul-o. 
consult, konsult-i, pet-i konsilon 

contaminate, infekt-i. 
content, kontent-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
continent (land), kontinent-o. 
continue, daflr-i, daurig-i. 
contour, kontur-o. 
contract (commercial and legal), 

contralto, kontrald-o. 
contrary, mal-o (67) ; kontrausta- 

control, kontrol-i; (govern), reg-i. 
convenient, konven-a, oportun-a. 
convince, konvink-i. 

cook, kuir-i. 

copper, kupr-o. 

copy, kopi-i; (of a book, etc.), 

coquettish, koket-a. 
cork, stop-i; (bark of cork tree), 


corner, angul-o. 

corporal, corporeal, korp-a. 

corps (military), korpus-o. 

corpse, kadavr-o. 

correct, korekt-i; (right), prav-a. 

correspond, korespond-i. 

corridor, koridor-o. 

cost, kost-i. 

costume, kostum-o. 

cotton, koton-o. 

cough, tus-i. 

counsel, konsil-i. 

count, kalkul-i, sum-i, nombr-i; 

(person), graf-o. 
county, grafland-o. 

country, land-o; (as opposed to 

city), kampar-o. 
coupon, kupon-o. 
(be) courageous, kurag-i. 

course (of lessons), kurs-o; (of a 
meal), servic-o; of — , kom- 
preneble; in the — of, en la 
dattro de. 

court, kort-o, korteg-o, julej-o. 

courteous, gentil-a. 

courtesy, gentilec-o; (kindness), 



cousin, kuz-o. 

cover, kovr-i; (put covering 
upon), teg-i. 

crab, krab-o. 

crack (split) (trans.), fend-i; 
(crackle), krak-i; (burst open) 

(intrans.), krev-i. 

cradle, lulil-o. 

crafty, ruz-a. 

cravat, kravat-o. 

crawl, ramp-i. 

crazy, frenez-a. 

cream, krem-o. 

create, kre-i. 

creep, ramp-i; — up, grimp-i. 

crime, krim-o. 

crippled, kripl-a. 

criticise, kritik-i. 

crooked, tord-a, malrekt-a, 

cross, kruc-o; (angry), koler-a; 

— off, trastrek-i. 
crowd, amas-o, anar-o (145, 126). 
crown, kron-o. 
crucify, krucum-i. 
cruel, kruel-a. 
crush, pist-i, premeg-i. 
crust, krust-o. 
cry (weep), plor-i; (shout), kri-i 

(p. 206, ftn.); (of animals), 


cucupiber, kukum-o. 
cultivate, kultur-i; — the soil, 

cunning, ruz-a. 

cup, tas-o; (goblet), pokal-o. 

cupboard, srank-o. 

curious (odd), kurioz-a; (inquisi- 
tive), scivol-a. 

curl (of hair), bukl-o. 

curtain, kurten-o. 

curve, -kurb-o. 

cushion, kusen-o. 

custom, kutim-o; (tax), impost-o. 

cut, tranc-i; (of a garment), 

cutlet, kotlet-o. 

cylinder, cilindr-o. 

Cyrus, Cirus-o. 

dabble (a liquid), plafid-i. 

dainty, delikat-a. 

damage, difekt-i. 

Damocles, Damokl-o. 

Dane, dan-o. 

danger, danger-o. 

dance, danc-i. 

date (fruit), daktil-o; (time), 

dawn, tagig-o. 
day, tag-o. 
deaf, surd-a. 
dear (prized), kar-a; (expensive), 

debase (adulterate), fals-i; (make 

bad), malbonig-i. 



decay (mould), sim-o; (in health), 

deceive, tromp-i. 
December, decembr-o. 
decide, decid-i. 
decigram, decigram-o (284). 
deciliter, decilitr-o (284). 
decimeter, decimetr-o (284). 
deck (of ship), ferdek-o; (adorn), 

declaim, deklam-i. 
deep, profund-a. 
deer, cerv-o. 
defend, defend-i. 
define, defin-i, priskrib-i. 
degree, grad-o. 

dekagram, dekagram-o (284). 
dekaliter, dekalitr-o (284). 
dekameter, dekametr-o (284). 
delay, prokrast-i. 
delegate, deleg-i. 
delicate, delikat-a. 
delightful, carm-a, pla6eg-a. 
deliver (supply), liver-i; (set free), 

delusion, iluzi-o. 
demand, postul-i. 
dense, dens-a. 
deny, ne-i (171). 
department (of work, etc.), fak-o. 
desert, dezert-o; (just reward), 

deserve, merit-i. * 
desire, dezir-i. 

desk, pupitr-o, skribtabl-o. 

dessert, desert-o. 

destine, destin-i, difin-i. 

destiny, destin-o; (lot), sort-o. 

destroy, detru-i, neniig-i. 

detail, detal-o. 

dew, ros-o. 

diamond, diamant-o. 

dictionary, vortar-o. 

dictate (letters), dikt-i. 

die, mort-i. 

different, divers-a, malsam-a, 

differentiate, diferencig-i. 
dig, fos-i. 

dignity (rank), rang-o. 
diligent, dlligent-a. 
dimension, dimensio; (size), am- 


Diogenes, Diogen-o. 
dip (in liquid), tremp-i. 
diploma, diplom-o; holder of — , 

diplomat, diplomat-o. 
direct (guide), direkt-i; (unde« 

viating), rekt-a. 

disburse, elspez-i, elpag-i 
discount, rabat-i. 
discuss, diskut-i, priparol-i. 
disdain, malsat-i, malestim-i. 
dish (flat), plad-o. 
dispatch (letter), depes-o. 
distance, distanc-o. 



distinct, klar-a. 

distinguish, disting-i. 

distract (the attention), distr-i; 

(confuse), konfuz-i. 
disturb, gen-i, maltrankvilig-i. 
diverse, divers-a. 
divide {trans.'), divid-i. 
do, far-i; (suffice), sufic-i. 
doctor, doktor-o; (medical), ku- 

dog, hund-o. 
doll, pup-o. 
dollar, dolar-o. 
donkey, azen-o. 

door, pord-o; — handle, ans-o. 
doubt, dub-i. 

down (hair or feathers), lanug-o; 

(downward) (adv.), malsupren. 
dove, kolomb-o. 
drag (trans.), tren-i. 
draw (pull), tir-i; (sketch)^ skiz-i. 
drawer, tirkest-o. 
drawing-room, salon-o. 
dream (in sleep), song-i; (fancy), 


drench, tremp-i. 

dress, vest-i (sin); (frock), rob-o; 
— suit, frak-o. 

dressing (sauce), sauc-o. 

drink, trink-i. 

drip, gut-i. 

drive (off), pel-i; (vehicle), vetu- 

rig-i; (roadway), sose-o. 
drown (intrans.), dron-i. 

drug, drog-o; — store, apotek-6. 

drum, tambur-o. 

dry, sek-a. 

duck, anas-o. 

dues, kotizaj-o; pay — , kotiz-i. 

dumb, mut-a; — animal, brut-o. 

during (prep.), dum (96); en la 

daiiro de-. 
dusk, krepusk-o. 

dust, polv-o; remove the — , 

duty, dev-o; be on — , dejor-i. 
dwell, log-i. 


each (adj. and pronoun), citt 

eager, avid-a. 
eagle, agl-o. 

ear (of the body), orel-o. 
early, fru-a. 
earth, ter-o; (the planet), ter- 

east, orient-o. 
Easter, Pask-o. 
easy, facil-a. 
eat, mang-i. 
echo, eh-o. 

economical, sparem-a. 
edge, rand-o; (of rivers, etc.), 

edit, redakt-i. 
editor, redaktor-o. 
editorial body, redakci-o. 



educate, (rear), eduk-i; (teach), 

effect, efekt-o. 
effective, efektiv-a. 
(be) efficacious, efik-i. 
egg, ov-o. 
Egypt, Egipt-o. 
eight (adj.), ok (136). 
either {pronoun and adj.), iu 

(203); ciu (173); unu ati la 

alia; {adv.), au (p. 32, ftn.); 

on — side {adv.), ambauflanke 

elbow, kubut-o. 
electric, elektr-a. 
elk, alk-o. 
elm, ulm-o. 
eloquent, elokvent-a. 
embroider, brod-i. 
eminent, eminent-a. 
empire, imperi-o. 
employ (hire), dung-i; — oneself, 

sin okupi (p. 206, ftn.); (use), 


employ^, komiz-o, dungit-o, ofi- 

employment, ofic-o, okupad-o. 
enchant, ensorc-i, rav-i. 
encore {adv.), bis. 
end {trans.), fin-i. 
endow, dot-i. 
endure, sufer-i, elport-i. 
engineer, ingenier-o. 
Englishman, angl-o. 

enjoy, gu-i; — oneself, sin 

enUghtened, kler-a. 
enlist {trans.), varb-i. 
enroll {trans.), registr-i, varb-i. 
enthusiasm, entuziasm-o. 
entire, tut-a (p. 130, ftn.). 
entrust, komisii, alkonfid-i. 
envelope (of letter), kovert-o. 
envy, envi-i. 
(be an) epicure, frand-i. 
epoch, epok-o. 
equal, egal-a. 
err, erar-i. 
establish, establ-i, fond-i; (prove, 

etc.), konstat-i. 

estate, bien-o. 

esteem, estim-i. 

estimate, taks-i. 

eternal, etern-a, ciam-a. 

Europe, Eflrop-o. 

evangel, evangeli-o. 

even (level), eben-a; — number, 
parnombro; (actually) {adv.), 

evening, vesper-o (93); — dress 
(of man), frak-o. 

ever {adv.), iam (212); {indefinite 

adv.), ajn (236) ; (always), oiam 

every (one), {pronoun and adv.), 

ciu (173); —thing, — way, 

etc., see table, 235. 

evolution, evoluci-o. 



exact, akurat-a, gust-a (p. 198, 
ftn.); (demand), postul-i. 

examine, ekzamen-i; — and 
check, kontrol-i. 

example, ekzempl-o; (model), 

' model-o. 

Excellency (title), most-o (258). 

except, escept-i (266); (prep.), 
krom. , 

excite, ekscit-i. 
exercise (trans.), ekzerc-i. 
exhale, elspir-i. 
exhort, admon-i. 
exile, ekzil-i. 
exist, ekzist-i. 
expect, atend-i. 

expend (money), elspez-i; (en- 
ergy, etc.), uz-i, eluz-i. 
experienced, spert-a. 
experiment, eksperiment-i. 
expert, spert-a, lert-a. 
explode (intrans.), eksplod-i 

explore, esplor-i. 
express, esprim-i; (train), rapida 


extend (trans.), etend-i, pligran- 
dig-i, plilongig-i. 

extensive, vast-a, vastampleks-a. 
extent (size), ampleks-o. 
extinguish, esting-i. 
extraordinary, eksterordinar-a. 
eye, okul-o; — brow, brov-o; 
— lid, palpebr-o. 

fable, fabel-o. 
face, vizag-o. 

fact, fakt-o; in — , fakt-e, efek- 

tiv-e, ja (215). 
fade, velk-i. 
fair (just), just-a; (beautiful), 

fairy, fe-o, fein-o. 
faint, sven-i. 
faithful, fidel-a. 
fall, fal-i; (autumn), autun-o. 
false, fals-a; (treacherous), per- 

fame, fam-o. 

familiar, familiar-a, kutim-a. 
family, famili-o. 
fancy, imag-i, rev-i. 
far, malproksim-e; as — as 

(prep.), ^is (46). 
farm (as a tenant), farm-i; (till 

the soil), terkultur-i. 
farewell (adv. and interjection), 

adiaQ (171, 273). 
fashion, fason-o, mod-o. 
fasten, lig-i. 

fat, gras-o; (corpulent), dik-a. 
fatal, fatal-a. 

fate, sort-o, fatal-o, destin-o. 
father, patr-o. 
faucet, kran-o. 

favor, favor-i; a — , komplezo. 
favorable, favor-a. 
fay, fe-o, fein-o. 



fear, tim-i. 

feather, plum-o. 

feature, trajt-o. 

feed, nutr-i; — flocks, past-i. 

feel, sent-i; (with fingers, etc.), 

female, in-o (59). 
fervor, fervor-o. 
fetter (chain, etc.), katen-o. 
fever, febr-o. 
fianc€, fianc-o. 
fie {interjection), & (273). 
field, kamp-o. 
fight, batal-i, milit-i. 
fill, plenig-i. 

find, trov-i (p. 217, ftn.). 
fine, bel-a, delikat-a; (of money), 

finger, fingr-o; index — , montra 

fingro; little — , malgranda 

fingro; middle — , longa fingro; 

ring — , ringa fingro. 
finish (trans.), fin-i. 
fir, abi-o. 

fire, fajr-o; set — to, ekbrulig-i. 
firm, firm-a. 

fish, fis-o; (catch fish), fiskapt-i. 
fist, pugn-o. 

fit, almezur-i; (be) — , taiig-i. 
(be) fitting, konven-i; (decent), 

five (adj.), kvin (136). 
flag, flag-o, standard-o. 
flat, glat-a, eben-a, plat-a. 

flesh, karn-o. 

flex (trans.), fieks-i. 

floor, plank-o. 

flour, farun-o. 

flow, flu-i. 

flower, flor-o (116). 

fluid, fiuid-a. 

fly, flug-i; (insect), mus-o. 

foam, saum-o. 

focus, fokus-o. 

fog, nebul-o. 

fold, fald-i. 

folk, popol-o. 

follow, sekv-i, postven-i, postir-i. 

(be) fond of sweets, frand-i. 

fondle, dorlot-i. 

foot (of the body), pied-o; (meas- 
ure), fut-o. 

for (prep.), per (95, g8, 262); 
pro (86); (conj.), car (83). 

force, fort-o; (compel), devig-i; 

— (upon), altrud-i (al). 
fore-, pra- (282). 
forehead, frunt-o. 
foreign, fremd-a. 
forge (falsify), fals-i. 
forget, forges-i. 
forgive, pardon-i. 
fork, fork-o. 

form, form-i, alform-i, model-i. 
formal, solen-a. 
found, fond-i. 
foundation, fundament-o. 



four (adj.), kvar (136). 

fount, font-o. 

fountain, fontan-o. 

fox, vulp-o. 

fragrance, arom-o, bonodor-o. 

frame (of picture), kadr-o. 

frank, afrank-i. 

Frederick, Frederik-o 

free, liber-a. 

Frenchman, franc-o. 

frequent, oft-a; (visit often), 

fresh, fres-a, nov-a. 
Friday, vendred-o. 
friend, amik-o. 
fringe, frang-o. 
frivolous, malserioz-a. 
frock coat, redingot-o. 
frog, ran-o. 
from (prep.), de (89, 170); el (p. 

115, ttn.); (cause), pro (86). 
frost, frost-o; (hoar), prujn-o. 
froth, saum-o. 
fruit, frukt-o. 
fruitless (vain), van-a. 
fry {trans.), frit-i. 
function (of machinery, etc.), 

funereal, funebr-a. 
fulfil, plenum-i. 
full, plen-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
fur, tel-o; (coat or wrap), pelt-o. 
furious, furioz-a. 

furnish (supply), liver-i; (pro- 
vide), proviz-i; (a house), 

furniture (piece of), mebl-o. 

furrow, sulk-o. 

further (adv.), plu (p. 190, ftn.). 

fuse (trans.), fand-i. 

futile, van-a. 

future, estontec-o; (grammati- 
cal), estont-o; {adj.), estont-a. 


gain, gajn-i, obten-i. 

gallery, galeri-o; (for pictures), 

gallop, galop-i. 
gamin, bub-o. 
gape (yawn), osced-i. 
garden, garden-o. 
garland, girland-o. 
gas, gas-o. 

gather {trans.), kolekt-i. 
gay, gaj-a. 
gaze, fikse rigard-iv 
gazette, gazet-o. 
general, general-a, komun-a; 

(military), general-o. 
gentleman, sinjor-o. 
geometry, geometri-o. 
German, german-o. 
Gertrude, Gertrud-o. 
ghost, fantom-o. 
gift, donac-o. 
ginger, zingibr-o. 



girdle, zon-o. 

give, don-i; (as a gift), donac-i; 
— information, inform-i; — 
notice, aviz-i; — witness, 
atest-i; — birth to, nask-i. 

(be) glad, goj-i (ii6, p. 206, ftn.). 

glass (material), vitr-o; (tum- 
bler), glas-o. 

glide, glit-i. 

globe, glob-o. 

glory, glor-o. 

glossy (polished), polurit-a. 

glove, gant-o. 

glue, glu-i. 

gnash, grinc-i. 

go, ir-i; (in vehicle, boat, etc.), 

vetur-i; — on a pilgrimage, 

goal, eel-o. 
goblet, pokal-o. 
God, Di-o. 

good, bon-a; be — for, taflg-i per. 
good-bye (adv. and interjection), 

adiafi (171, 273). 
goose, anser-o. 
gospel, evangeli-o. 
govern, reg-i. 
graceful, graci-a. 
grade, grad-o; (rank), rang-o. 
grain (wheat, etc.), gren-o; (unit) 

er-o (276). 
gram, gram-o (284). 
grammar, gramatik-o. 
grandfather, av-o. 

grandson, nep-o. 

grape, vinber-o. 

grass, herb-o. 

grasshopper, akrid-o. 

grate, rasp-i; grater, raspil-o. 

grating (bar or lattice), krad-o. 

grave, tomb-o; (serious), grav-a. 

gravitate, gravit-i. . 

gravy, satlc-o. 

gray, griz-a. 

grieve (trans.), cagren-i, mal- 
gojig-i; (intrans.) malgoj-i. 

grind, grinc-i. 

great, grand-a; (remote in ances- 
try), pra- (282). 

Greek, grek-o. 

green, verd-a; — ish, dubeverd-a. 

greet, salut-i. 

groan, gem-i. 

group, grup-o, ar-o (126). 

ground, ter-o; — floor, teretag-o. 

grow, kresk-i, veget-i. 

guard, gard-i. 

guess, diven-i. 

guest, gast-o. 

guide, gvid-i, direkt-i. 

guilty, kulp-a. 

gunpowder, pulv-o. 

gush (of liquids), spruc-i. 


habit, kutim-o. 

hack, hak-i; (carriage), fiakr-o. 



hail (frozen rain), hajl-o. 

(a) hair, har-o ; — pencil, penik-o. 

half, duon-o (i66, 277). 

halt (intrans.), halt-i. 

ham, sink-o. 

hammer, martel-o. 

hand, man-o; (of clock), mon- 

handbill, afis-o. 
handicraft, meti-o. 
handsome, bel-a. 
hang (intrans.), pend-i. 
handy, oportun-a. 
happen, okaz-i. 
happy, felic-a. 
harbor, haven-o. 
hardly {adv.), apenaii. 
hare, lepor-o. 
haricot (bean), fazeol-o. 
harness, jung-i. 
harvest, rikolt-i. 
hasten {trans.), akcel-i; (intrans.) 

hat, capel-o. 

haughty, fier-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
haul, tren-i. 

have, hav-i; — to, dev-i. 
hay, fojn-o. 
hazard, hazard-o. 
hazel-nut, avel-o. 
he (pronoun), li (32, 37) 42). 
head, kap-o; (adj.), cef-a (p. 221, 


health, san-o; state of (good or 
bad) — , fart-o. 

hear, aiid-i. 

heart, kor-o; by — , (by rote), 

heat (trans.), hejt-i, varmig-i. 

heaven, ciel-o; heavenly body, 

heavy, pez-a. 

Hebrew, hebre-o. 

heel (of foot), kalkan-o; (of 
shoe), kalkanum-o. 

hektare, hektar-o (284). 

hektogram, hektogram-o (284). 

hektoliter, hektolitr-o (284). 

hektometer, hektometr-o (284). 

help, help-i (265). 

hen, kokin-o. 

herb, herb-o. 

hero, hero-o. 

hesitate, hezit-i. 

hide, kas-i (252); (skin of ani- 
mals), fel-o. 

Hiero, Hieron-o. 

high, alt-a. 

hinge, 6arnir-o. 

hip, koks-o. 

hire (persons), dung-i; (houses, 
etc.), lu-i. 

hiss, sibl-i. 

history, histori-o 

ho (interjection), ho (273). 

hoar (frost), prujn-o. 

hoarse, raiik-a. 



hog, pork-o. 

hold, ten-i (p. 206, ftn.). 

holder (handle), tenil-o, ans-o; 
(receptacle), uj-o (i8i); ing-o 

hole, tru-o; (cavity), kav-o. 

Holland, Holand-o. 

holy, sankt-a. 

home, hejm-o; at — , cehejme. 

homesickness, nostalgi-o. 

honest, honest-a. 

honey, miel-o. 

honeysuckle, lonieer-o. 

honor, honor-i; (as term of ad- 
dress), most-o (258). 

hook, kro6-i. 

hope, esper-i. 

horizon, horizont-o. 

horizontal, horizontal-a. 

horn, korn-o. 

horse, ceval-o. 

horse-radish, armoraci-o. 

hose, strump-oj; — supporter, 

hotel, hotel-o. 

hour, hor-o (185). 

house, dom-o; at the — of 
(prep.), ce (125, 160). 

how (adv.), kiel (134); kiama- 
nier-e (p. 170, ftn.) ; — much, 
kiom (140, 185). 

however (conj.), tamen (p. 32, 
ftn.)," (adv.), ajn (236). 

hue, nuane-o. 

hum, zum-i. 

human being, hom-o (p. 154, ftn.). 
humble, humil-a. 
humor, humor-o. 
hundred (adj.), cent (142). 
hungry, malsat-a. 
hunt, ser-ci; (game or wild ani- 
mals), cas-i. 
hurdy-gurdy, gurd-o. 
hurl, Jet-i. 

hurrah (interjection), hura (273). 
hurricane, uragan-o. 
hurry, rapid-i. 
husband, edz-o. 
hjrpocrite, hipokrit-o. 


I (pronoun), mi (32, 37, 274). 

ice, glaci-o; (food), glaciaj-o. 

idea, ide-o. 

ideal, ideal-o. 

identical, ident-a. 

idiom, idiom-o. 

idiot, idiot-o. 

if (conj.), se (240); as — , kvazaii 

(250); (whether), 6u (P- 38, 


ignore, ignor-i. 
illusion, iluzi-o. 
illustrate, ilustr-i. 
image, bild-o. 
imagine, imag-i. 
imitate, imit-i. 



immediate, tuj-a (171). 

implicate, implik-i. 

important, grav-a, serioz-a. 

importunate, altrudem-a. 

impose, trud-i. 

impost, impost-o. 

impress, impres-i. 

impulse, impuls-o. 

in (prep.), en (46, 89, 160); — 

the presence of, ce (125, 160). 
inch, col-o. 
incite, incit-i. 
incline (trans.), klin-i. 
incommode, gen-i. 
(be) indebted, suld-i. 
indeed (adv.), ja (215); do (p. 

32, ftn.); efektiv-e. 
index, tabel-o. 
Indian (American), indian-o, 

rughautul-o; — corn, maiz-o. 
indifferent, indiferent-a (p. 162, 

industry (trade), industri-o. 
inebriate, ebri-a. 
inevitable, nepr-a, neevitebl-a. 
infect, infekt-i. 
influence, influ-i. 
inform, inform-i, soiig-i. 
ingenuous, naiv-a. 
inhabitant, logant-o, an-o (145). 
inhale, enspir-i. 
ink, ink-o. 
inquire, demand-i. 
insect, insekt-o. 

inside (adv.), intern-e; (prep.), 

insist, insist-i. 
inspect, inspekt-i, ekzamen-i, 

rigard-i, kontrol-i. 
inspire, inspir-i. 
instantaneous, moment-a. 
instead of (prep.), anstatau (98, 

instruct, instru-i; (order), ordon-i. 
insult, insult-i. 
insure (with a company), ase- 

kur-i; (make certain), certig-i. 
intelligent, inteligent-a. 
intend, intenc-i. 
interest, interes-i (p. 206, ftn.); 

(of money), procent-o. 
(be) intermittent, intermit-i. 
internal, intern-a. 
interpret, interpret-i. 
intimate, Intim-a. 
intoxicated, ebri-a. 
investigate, esplor-i, ekzamen-i, 


invite, invit-i. 

iron (metal), fer-o; (linen), glad-i. 

island, insul-o. 

it (pronoun), gi (32, 37, 42, 274); 

see also 50, 51. 
Italian, ital-o. 

jacket, jak-o. 
jail, karcer-o. 



jam, kompot-o, fruktaj-o. 

January, januar-o. 

jaw (orifice, opening), faflk-o; (of 

the skull), makzel-o; — bone, 

jealous, 3aluz-a. 
jest, serc-i. 
Jesus, Jesu-o. 
Jew, hebre-o. 
jewel, juvel-o. 
jingle (intrans.), tint-L 
John, Johan-o. 
joint, artik-o. 
joke, serc-i. 

journal, Jurnal-o, revu-o. 
journey, vojag-i. 
judge, jug-i (p. 228, ftn.). 
jug, kruc-o. 
juggle, jongl-i. 
July, juli-o. 
jump, salt-i. 
June, juni-o. 
jurist, jurist-o. 
just (upright), just-a; (exact), 

gust-a; (adv.), gust-e, Jus (p. 

198, ftn.). 


keep, ten-i, gard-i; (preserve), 
konserv-i; — in mind, memor-i. 

kerosene, petrol-o. 

key, slosil-'o; (of piano, etc.), 

kill, mortig-i. 

kilogram, kilogram-o (284). 
kiloliter, kilolitr-o (284). 
kilometer, kilometr-o (284). 
kind (species), spec-o; (good), 

bon-a, bonkor-a; that — , 

what — , etc., see table, 235. 
kindness, komplez-o, bonkorec-o. 
king, reg-o; — dom, regolando. 
kiss, kis-i. 
knave, fripon-o. 
knee, genu-o. 
kneel, genufleks-i. 
knit, trik-i. 
knock, frap-i. 
knot, tuber-o; (tied), ligaj-o; (of 

ribbon), bant-o. 
know, sci-i; (be acquainted with), 

kon-i (117). 
kobold, kobold-o. 

labor, labor-i; — for the success 
or completion of something, 

lace, punt-o; (of a shoe), lac-o. 

(be) lacking (intrans.), mank-i. 

lake, lag-o. 

lamb, safid-o; (meat), safidaj-o. 

lame, lam-a. 

lamp, lamp-o. 

lance, lanc-o. 

land, land-o; (estate), bien-o; 
(soil), ter-o. 



landscape, pejzag-o. 

language, lingv-o. 

lantern, lantern-o. 

large, grand-a 

lark (bird), alattd-o. 

last (intrans.), dailr-i; (in a 

series), last-a; (previous) pa- 

sint-a, antau-a. 
latch, ans-o. 
late, malfru-a. 
Latin, latin-a. 
latter, ci-tiu (6i, 62). 
lattice, krad-o. 

laugh, rid-i (265, p. 206, ftn.). 
law, leg-o; — suit, proces-o; 

(rule), regul-o. 

lawyer, advokat-o, legist-o. 

lay, meti, kusig-i; — aside, 
demet-i; ' — claim, pretend-i. 

layer, tavol-o. 

lead, konduk-i. 

lead (metal), plumb-o. 

leaf, foli-o. 

league (alliance), lig-o. 

lean (trans.), apog-i, klin-i; (not 
fat), malgras-a. 

leap, salt-i; — year, superjar-o. 
learn, lern-i; (news, etc.), sciig-i. 
learned, kler-a. 
least (adv.), malplej (80), malpli 

multe (81); at — , almenaii. 
leather, led-o. 
leave (trans.), las-i; — off (in- 

trans.), ces-i. 

leg, krur-o. 

legal, leg-a; — process, proces-o. 

lemon, citron-o. 

lemonade, citrona]-o, limonad-o. 

lend, prunt-i, pruntedon-i. 

lens, objektiv-o. 

lengthen (trans.), etend-i, pli- 

less (adv.), malpli (80); malpli 

multe (81). 

lesson, lecion-o. 

let (trans.), las-i; (rent), luig-i; 
(permit), permes-i. 

letter (epistle), leter-o; (of the 

alphabet), liter-o. 
lettuce, laktuk-o. 
level, nivel-o; (flat), eben-a. 

library, bibliotek-o; (collection of 

books), librar-o. 
lick, lek-i. 
lie (recline), kus-i (239); (tell 

falsehoods), mensog-L 
Uft, lev-i. 
light, lum-a, hel-a; (not heavy), 

lightning, fulm-o. 
like, sat-i; (similar), simil-a (p. 

206, ftn.) ; see also 250. 

limb, membro; (of a tree), 

limit, lim-i. 

linden, tili-o. 

line, lini-o, vic-o, strek-o. 

linen, tol-o. 



lion, leon-o. 
lip, lip-o. 
liquid, fluid-a. 
listen, auskult-i. 
liter, litr-o (284). 
literal, lauliter-a. 
literature, literatur-o. 

little, malgrand-a; (with slightly 
affectionate sense), et-a (198); 
{adv.), malmulte, iom (217); 
— by —, iom post iom. 

live, viv-i; (dwell), Iog-i(i33). 

load, sarg-i (p. 206, ftn.). 

loan, prunt-i, pruntedon-i. 

local, lok-a. 

lock, slos-i; (fastening), serur-o. 

locomotive, lokomotiv-o. 

lodge, log-i. 

log, §tip-o. 

long, long-a; — for, sopir-i je (p. 

206, ftn.). 
look, rigard-i; — for, serc-i. 

lose, perd-i; (fail to profit), mal- 
gajn-i; — time, malfru-i. 

lot (fate), sort-o. 

loud, lattt-a. 

love, am-i; make — , amindum-i. 

loyal, fidel-a, lojal-a. 

luck, sanc-o; lucky, bonsane-a. 

lull, kvietig-i; (to sleep), lul-i. 

lunatic, lunatik-o. 

lung, pulm-o. 

luxury, luks-o. 


macaroni, makaroni-o. 

macliine, masin-o. 

mad, frenez-a. 

magazine, gazet-o, jurnal-o, re- 

magic, magi-o. 

mail, post-o, enpostig-i; — • box, 

maize, maiz-o. 

majestic, majest-a. 

majesty (term of address), most-o 

make, far-i (see also 214); — mis- 
takes, erar-i; — love, amin- 

malicious, malic-a. 

man, vir-o (p. 154, ftn.). 

manage, administr-i, direkt-i; (a 
household), mastrum-i. 

manner, manier-o; (right or 
wrong), mor-o; in that — , in 
every — , etc., see table, 233. 

mantle, mantel-o. 

manufacture, fabrik-i. 

manuscript, manuskript-o. 

maple, acer-o. 

marble (stone), marmor-o. 

march, marsad-i. 

March, mart-o. 

mark, mark-o, sign-o; (official), 

marmalade, marmelad-o. 
marry (become married), edzig-i. 



master, mastr-o; (of his profes- 
sion or art), majstr-o; — of 
Arts (A.M.), magistr-o. 

match (for fire), alumet-o. 

material, material-o; (cloth), 

matter, afer-o. 

mature, matur-a. 

maximum, maksimum-o. 

May, maj-o; (auxiliary verb), see 
269, 270. 

mayonnaise, majones-a. 

mean, signif-i, intenc-i, mal- 

meaning, seno-o. 

means, rimed-o; by — of {prep.), 
per (64). 

measure (trans.), mezur-i. 

meat, viand-o. 

mechanics, menanik-o. 

medical, medicin-a, kuracist-a. 

medicine (drug, etc.), kuracil-o; 
(science), medicin-o, kurac- 

meet (trans.), renkont-i, traf-i; 
(assemble), kunven-i. 

melody, melodi-o. 

melon, melon-o. 

melt, fluidig-i, fluidig-i, degel-i. 

member, membr-o, an-o (145). 

memory, memor-o; by — , par- 
ker-e, memor-e. 

mend, ripar-i; (patch), flik-i. 

mention, nom-i, cit-i. 

menu, menu-o. 

merely (adv.), nur. 

merit, merit-i. 

merry, gaj-a; make — , festen-i. 

merry-go-round, karusel-o. 

metal, metal-o. 

meter, metr-o (284). 

method, metod-o. 

middle, mez-o, centr-o. 

mien, mien-o. 

mild, mild-a. 

mile, mejl-o. 

milk, lakt-o; (draw the milk of), 

mill, muel-o. 

millimeter, milimetr-o (284). 

million, milion-o. 

mine (coal, etc)., min-o; (posses- 
sive adj.), mi-a (43, p. 221, 

mineral, mineral-o. 

minimum, minimum-o. 

minister (political), ministr-o; 
(clergyman), pastr-o. 

minute (time), minut-o; (adj.), 
detal-a, malgrand-a. 

minutes (of a meeting), proto- 

mirror, spegul-o. 

miserly, avar-a. 

misery, mizer-o. 

miss (fail to reach), maltraf-i; 
(be missing), mank-i; (notice 
the absence of), senti la fores- 
ton de; (young lady), frattlin-o 



mist, nebul-o. 

mistake, crar-o. 

Mister, Sinjor-o (163, 286). 

mix {trans.), miks-i. 

mock, mok-i. 

mode, fason-o, mod-o. 

model, model-o. 

moderate, moder-a. 

modest, modest-a. 

moment, momsnt-o; a — ago, 
(adv.), JUS (p. 116, ftn.; p. 198, 

monarch, monarh-o. 

Monday, lund-o. 

money, mon-o; — box, kas-o; — 
order, mandat-o. 

monk, monah-o. 

monkey, simi-o. 

month, monat-o. 

moon, lun-o. 

moral, moral-a, bonmor-a; mor- 
als, moroj. 

more (adv.), pli (74, 79); (quan- 
tity), pli multe (81); (further), 
plu (p. 190, ftn.); the — , ju 
pli, des pli (84). 

morning, maten-o (93). 

morsel, pec-o. 

most (adv.), plej (74, 79); (quan- 
tity), pie] multe (81). 

mould, sim-o. 

mountain, mont-o. 

mourning, funebr-o. 

mouse, mus-o. 

moustache, lipharoj. 
mouth, bus-o; (of river), enflu-o, 

move (trans.), mov-i; (change 

residence) translog-i. 
much, mult-a (81); (very), tre. 
mud, kot-o. 
murmur, murmur-i. 
museum, muze-o. 
mushroom, fung-o. 
music, muzik-o. 
must, dev-i (247). 
mute, mut-a. 
mutton, safaj-o. 
mutual, reciprok-a (180), ko- 

myopic, niiop-a. 
mystery, mister-o. 


nail (metal), najl-o; (of the finger 

or toe), ung-o. 
naive, naiv-a. 
naked, nud-a. 
name, nom-o. 
narrate, rakont-i. 
nation, naci-o. 
nature, natur-o. 
naught, nul-o; (none), neniona 

near, proksim-a (170); (prep.). 

apud (120, 159). 
necessary, neces-a. 



neck, kol-o. 
need, bezon-i. 
needle, kudril-o. 

negative, ne-a (171); (photo- 
graphic), negativ-o. 

neighbor, najbar-o. 

neither (corej.), nek (31, p. 32, 

ftn.); (pronoun and adj.), 

neniu (220). 

nephew, nev-o. 

nerve, nerv-o. 

nest, nest-o. 

net, ret-o. 

neutral, neiitral-a. 

never (adv.), neniam (226). 

nevertheless (conj.), tamen (p. 

32, ftn.). 
new, nov-a, fres-a; news, novaj-o. 
newspaper, Jurnal-o, tagjurnal-o. 
nice, delikat-a. 
night, nokt-o. 
nine (adj.), naii (136). 
nitrogen, azot-o. 
no (adv.), ne (27, 66, a); (adj.), 

neniu (220) ; — one, — where, 

etc., see table, 235. 

noble, nobl-a, 
nobleman, nobel-o. 
nobody (pronoun), neniu (220). 
nod (the head), balanc-i (la 

noise, bru-o. 

none (adj. and pronoun), neniu 
(220); (a(^i).), neniom (231). 

non-partisan, neiitral-a. 

noon, -tagmez-o. 

nor (conj.), nek (31, p. 32, ftn.). 

north, nord-o. 

Norwegian, norveg-o. 

not (adv.), ne (27, 66, a). 

note, not-o, bilet-o; — book, 

kajer-o; (notice), rimark-i, 

nothing, nenio (233). 

notice, rimark-i, not-i; give — , 

notwithstanding (prep.), mal- 

graii; (conj.), tamen. 
nourish, nutr-i. 

novel, nov-a; (book), roman-o. 
November, novembr-o. 
now (adv.), nun. 
nude, nud-a. 
nullify, nulig-i, neniig-i. 

number (quantity), nombr-o; 
(numeral), numer-o. 

nut, nuks-o. 


oak, kverk-o„ 
(make) oath, ]ur-i. 
oats, aven-o. 
obey, obe-i (265). 

object, objekt-o; (aim), cel-o; 
(oppose), kontraiiparol-i, kon- 
traiistar-i, protest-i. 

objective, objektiv-o. 



obligation (financial), suld-o; 

(moral), dev-o. 
oblige (compel), devig-i; (render 

service), far-i komplezon, 

oblique, oblikv-a. 
observe, observ-i, rimark-i, not-i. 
obstinate, obstin-a. 
obstruct, bar-i. 

occasion, foj-o (127); okaz-o. 
occupation, profesi-o, okup-o, 

occupy, okup-i (p. 206, ftn.). 
occur, okaz-i. 
ocean, ooean-o. 
October, oktobr-o. 
odor, odor-o. 
of (prep.), de (49, 100, 160, 170); 

da (99, loi, 103); el (p. 115, 

ftn. ; p. 118, ftn.) ; (concerning), 

pri (160, 264, c). 
offend, ofend-i. 

offer, propon-i, prezent-i, ofer-i. 
office, ofic-o; (place), ofioej-o. 
officer (of organization or firm), 

oficist-o; (military or naval), 

official, oficial-a. 
often {adv.), oft-e, multfoj-e. 
oh (interjection), ho (273). 
oil, ole-o. 
olive, oliv-o. 
on (prep.), sur; - - account of, 

pro (86). 
once (adv.), unufoj-e; — on a 

time, iam (212); at — , tuj; 

— more, bis. 
one (adj.), unu (136, 137, 180); 

(pronoun), oni (54). See 235. 
onion, bulb-o. 
only, sol-a; (mere), nur-a. 
opera, oper-o; — glasses, lornet-o. 
opinion, opini-o. 
opportune, oportun-a. 
opposed to (prep.), kontrau. 
opposite (converse), mal-o (67); 

(prep.), kontrafl. 
or (conj.), au (p. 32, ftn.). 
orange (fruit), orang-o. 
orchestra, orkestr-o. 
order, ordon-i; (of store, etc.), 

mend-i; (methodical or proper 

arrangement), ord-o: money 

— , mandat-o. 
ordinary, ordinar-a. 
organ (physical), organ-o; musi- 
cal), orgen-o. 
organize, organiz-i. 
original, original-o. 
ornament, ornam-i. 
orphan, orf-o. 

oscillate (intrans.), balancig-i. 
ostracism, ostracism-o. 
other, ali-a; (remaining), cet- 

er-a; — people's, malpropr-a; 

— wise, ali-e. 
out of, el (p. 115, ftn.; p. 118, 

outline, kontur-o; (profile), pro- 

fil-o; (sketch), skiz-o. 



outside {-prep.), ekster (120, 121). 

over {prep.), super; (across), 
trans; (concerning), pri; 
— coat, surtut-o; — shoe, su- 
perSu-o; (adv.), (too), tro. 

owe, §uld-i. 

own, posed-i, propr-a. 

ox, bov-o. 

oyster, ostr-o. 

pack, pak-i. 

pad, rembur-i. 

paddle, padel-i. 

page (of book, etc.), pag-o. 

pail, sitel-o. 

pain, dolor-o; (effort), pen-o; 

take pains, pen-i. 
paint, pentr-i; (material), kolori- 

gil-o; — brush, penik-o. 
pair, par-o. 
palace, palac-o. 
pale, pal-a. 
palisade, palisar-o. 
palm (of the hand), polm-o. 
pamphlet, brosur-o. 
pan, pat-o. 
paper (material), paper-o; news- 

— , jurnal-o. 
paradise, paradiz-o. 
paragraph, paragraf-o. 
pardon, pardon-i (265). 
parallel, paralel-a. 
park, park-o. 

parlor, salon-o. 

parsley, petrosel-o. 

parsnip, pastinak-o. 

part, part-o; of a work or book, 
kajer-o; separate (trans.), dis- 
ir-i, apartig-i, disdivid-i. 

participle, particip-o. 

pass (intrans.), pas-i. 

passage, koridor-o. 

passenger, pasager-o. 

passion, pasi-o. 

passive, pasiv-a. 

past (prep.), preter (p. 139, ftn.); 
(time), estintee-o; (grammati- 
cal), estint-o; (bygone), es- 

paste (glue), glu-i. 

pasteboard, karton-o 

pastor, pastr-o. 

pastry, kukaj-o. 

pasture (trans.), past-i. 

patch, flik-i. 

path, vojet-o. 

patience, pacieno-o. 

patient (ill person), kuraoat-o. 

patty, pastec-o. 

pause, paiiz-i. 

pavement, pavim-o; (sidewalk), 

pay, pag-i; — dues, kotiz-i. 

pea, piz-o. 

peace, pac-o. 

peach, persik-o. 

pear, pir-o 



pearl, perl-o. 

peculiar, strang-a, kurioz-a. 

peddle, kolport-i. 

pedestal, piedestal-o. 

pedestrian, piedirant-o. 

peeling, sel-o. 

pen, plum-o; (enclosure), -ej-o 

pencil, krajon-o; hair — , penik-o. 

penetrate, penetr-i. 

people, popol-o; {indefinite pro- 
noun), oni (54). 

pepper, pipr-o. 

perceive, sent-i; (see), vid-i. 

percentage, procent-o; (of profit), 

perfect, perfekt-a. 

perfidious, perfid-a. 

perform (act), ag-i; (fulfil), ple- 

num-i; (do), far-i. 
perfume, parfum-o; (odor), bon- 


period, period-o; (of time), 
epok-o ;(punctuation), punkt-o. 

perish, pere-i. 

permit, permes-i. 

persecute, persekut-i; (worry), 

turment-i, gen-i. 
persevere, persist-i. 
person, person-o. 
perspire, svit-i. 
persuade, konvink-i. 
pet, dorlot-i. 
petroleum, petrol-o. 

phantom, fantom-o. 

Pharaoh, faraon-o. 

pharmacy, farmaci-o; (shop), 

philosopher, filozof-o. 
photograph, fotograf-i. 
phrase, fraz-o. 
physician, kuracist-o. 
physics, fizik-o. 

pick (choose), elekt-i; (gather), 

pickle, pekl-i. 
picture, bild-o; (portrait), por- 

tret-o; — gallery, pinakotek-o. 

picturesque, pitoresk-a, pen- 

pie, kukaj-o; (patty), pastec-o. 
piece, pec-o. 
pig, pork-o. 
pigeon, kolomb-o. 
(be a) pilgrim, pilgrim-i. 
pillage, rab-i. 
pillar, kolon-o. 
pin, pingl-o. 
pinch, pinc-i. 
pine (tree), pin-o; — for, sopir-i 

pineapple, ananas-o. 
pinnacle, pint-o. 
pioneer, pionir-o. 
pious, pi-a. 

pipe, tub-o; (for smoking), pip-o, 
pitcher, kruc-o. 



pity, kompat-i; (regrettable af- 
fair), domag-o. 

placard, afis-o. 

place, lok-o; (for something), 

-ej-o (ill); (broad, short street 

or open space), plac-o; (put), 

plait, plekt-i. 

plan, plan-o, projekt-o, skiz-o. 
plane, plat-a. 
planet, planed-o. 
plank, tabul-o. 
plant, plant-i; (vegetable growth), 

kreskaj-o, vegeta]-o. 
plate, plat-o; (dish)teler-o. 
platform (railway), peron-o. 
play, lud-i; (music), muzik-i; 

(theatrical), teatraj-o. 
player (theatrical), aktor-o. 
pleasant, agrabl-a, dolc-a, afabl-a. 
please, plac-i (265) ; kontentig-i, 

far-i plezuron al; (iu requests), 

bonvolu, mi petas. 
pleasure, plezur-o; take — in, 

plot, konspir-i. 
plow, plug-i. 
plum, prun-o. 
plumber, plumbist-o. 
plunder, rab-i. 
plural, multenombr-o. 
pneumatic, pneumatik-a. 
pocket, pos-o. 
poem, poem-o. 

poet, poet-o. 

poetry, poezi-o. 

point, punkt-o; (sharp), pint-o; 

— out, montr-i. 
poise (trans.), balanc-i; (of man- 
ner), aplomb-o. 
poison, venen-o. 
pole, stang-o; (shaft of vehicle), 

timon-o; (geographical), po- 

Pole, pol-o. 
police, polic-o. 
polite, gentil-a. 
politics, politik-o. 
polish, polur-i; polished, polu- 

rit-a, glat-a. 
pomp, pomp-o. 
popular, popular-o, popol-a. 
porcelain, porcelan-o. 
porch, verand-o; (stoop), peron-o; 

(balcony), balkon-o. 
pork, porkaj-o. 
port, haven-o. 
portion, porci-o, part-o. 
portrait, portret-o. 
possess, posed-i. 
possible, ebl-a (161, 162); kred- 

ebl-a (270). 
post (pole), stang-o; (mail), 

post-o; — card, postkart-o; 

— paid, afrankit-e. 
postage (cost), postelspezo; — 

stamp, postmark-o. 
poster, afis-o. 
pot, pot-o. 



potato, terpom-o; sweet — , 

pound, pist-i; (measure), funt-o. 
pour (liquids), vers-i; (as in a 

chute), sut-i. 
powder, pudr-o. 
power, pov-o, potenc-o. 
practice, praktik-i. 
praise, laiid-i. 
pray, preg-i. 
preach, predik-i. 
precise, preciz-a, gust-a. 
predestined, fatal-a. 
prefer, preter-i. 
prefix, prefiks-o. 
premium, premi-o. 
prepare, prepar-i. 
prepay, afrank-i. 
presence, ceest-o, apudest-o; in 

the — of (prep.), ce (125), 

present (gift), donao-o; (time), 

estanteo-o, estant-a, nun-a 

(171) ; (in attendance), ceest- 

present, prezent-i, donao-i, don-i. 
preserve (keep), ten-i; (keep 

safe), konserv-i; (food), kom- 

pot-o, konfitaj-o. 
preside, prezid-i. 
president, prezidant-o. 
press, prem-i; (print), pres-i; 

(wardrobe), srank-o; (be ur- 
gent), urg-i. 
pretend (make pretext of), pre- 

tekst-i; (feign), sajnig-i; (lay 

claim), pretend-i. 
price, prez-o, kost-o, 
prick, pik-i. 
priest, pastr-o. 
prince, princ-o, regid-o. 
principal, precip-a, cef-a (p. 221, 

print, pres-i. 

prize, sat-i; (premium), premi-o. 
prized, kar-a, altetaksat-a, sa- 

problem, problem-o. 
process, metod-o; (legal), pro 

proclaim, proklam-i. 
procrastinate, prokrast-i. 

produce, produkt-i; — a result, 
efik-i; (give birth to), nask-i. 

profession, profesi-o. . 

professor, profesor-o. 

profile, profil-o. 

profit, profit-i; (percentage), tan- 

profound, profund-a. 
progress, progres-i. 
project, projekt-o. 
promenade, promen-i. 
promise, promes-i. 
propensity, inklin-o, em-o (192). 
(be) proper, dec-i. 
property, propra]-o, posedaj-o; 

(land), bien-o; (characteristic), 

ec-o (202). 



proportional, proporoi-a. 
propose, propon-i, sugesti-i. 
prose, proz-o; piece of — , pro- 

prosecute, persekut-i. 
prosper, prosper-i. 
protect, protekt-i, gard-i. 
protest, protest-i. 
proud, fier-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
prove, pruv-i; (test), prov-i. 
provoke, incit-i, ekscit-i, kailz-i, 

nask-i, kolerig-i. 
psalm, psalm-o. 
public, publik-o. 
publish, publikig-i, eldon-i. 
pudding, puding-o. 
pull, tir-i. 
pump, pump-i. 
pumpkin, kukurb-o. 
punish, pun-i. 
pure, pur-a. 
purfie, pistaj-o. 
purple, purpur-a. 
purpose, cel-i, intenc-i. 
■push, pus-i; (shove), §ov-i. 
put, met-i; — off, prokrast-i. 

quality, ec-o (202) ; (texture, 
etc.), kvalito. 

quantity, kvant-o; any — , a cer- 
tain — , iom (217); see table, 

quarter (of a city), kvartal-o; 

(fourth), kvaron-o; — ly, tri- 

question, demand-o; (problem), 

problem-o; (doubt), dub-o. 
quick, rapid-a; (lively), viv-a. 
quiet, kviet-a, trankvil-a, silent-a. 
quince, oidoni-o. 
quite (adv.), tut-e. 
quote, cit-i. 


rabbit, kunikl-o. 

race (people), ras-o. 

radish, rafan-o; horse — , armo- 

radius, radi-o. 
rag, cifon-o. 
raging, furioz-a. 
rail, rel-o; — way, fervoj-o; — 

way carriage, vagon-o; — way 

station, stacidom-o. 

rain, pluv-o; — bow, cielark-p. 
raise, lev-i. 
raisin, sekvinber-o. 
rank, rang-o; (grade), grad-o. 
rapid, rapid-a. 
rascal, fripon-o, kanajl-o. 
rasp, rasp-i. 
raspberry, framb-o. 
rat, rat-o. 

rate, taks-i; (schedule of prices), 
tarif-o, prezar-o; (percentage). 



procent-o; at the — of {prep.), 
po (175). 

rational, prudent-a, racional-a. 

raucous, radk-a. 

raven, korv-o. 

ravishing, rav-a. 

raw, nekuirit-a. 

ray (of light), radi-o. 

reach, ating-i; (a goal), traf-i. 

read, leg-i. 

ready, pret-a. 

real, efektiv-a, real-a, ver-a. 

reap, rikolt-i. 

reason (exert the power of reason- 
ing), rezon-i; (cause), kaiiz-o; 
(motive), kial-o; for what — , 
for any — , etc., see table, 235. 

reasonable, prudent-a. 

rebate, rabat-i. 

recall, revok-i; (to memory), re- 
memor-i; (to another's mem- 
ory), rememorig-i. 

receive, ricev-i; (accept), akcept-i; 
(money), enspez-i. 

receipt (for payment), kvitanc-o. 

reckon, kalkul-i. 

recent, nov-a, antatinelong-a(9o). 

receptacle, uj-o (237); (for one 
object), ing-o (i8i). 

recess (alcove), alkov-o; (vaca- 
tion), libertemp-o. 

reciprocal, reciprok-a (180). 

recite, deklam-i. 

recline, kus-i (239). 

recommend, rekomend-i. 
recompense, rekompens-i. 

recover (find), retrov-i; (get 

well), resanig-i. 
red, rug-a; reddish, duberug-a. 
reduction (of price), rabat-o. 
refine, rafin-i. 
refuse, rifuz-i, malpernies-i. 
refute, refut-i. 
regale, regal-i. 
region, region-o. 

register {trans.), registr-i; (let- 
ters), rekomend-i. 

regret, bedailr-i; (be penitent 
for), pent-i. 

regrettable, bedaiirind-a; — af- 
fair (pity), domag-o. 

regulation, regul-o, leg-o. 

reign, reg-i. 

rejoice, goj-i (116, p. 206, ftn.). 

relate, rilat-i (266); (tell), ra- 

relative (person), parenc-o. 
religion, religi-o. 
rely, konfid-i; fid-i (p. 206, ftn.). 
remain, rest-i; remaining (other), 

remember, memor-i; (recall to 
memory), rememor-i. 

render, far-i, ig-i (214); (an ac- 
count), don-i, prezent-i, liver-i. 
renown, fam-o, glor-o. 

rent, lu-i; (let), luig-i; (farm out), 
farm-i; (price), luprez-o. 



repair, ripar-i; (patch), flik-i. 

repeat, ripet-i. 

repent, pent-i. 

report, raport-i. 

repose, ripoz-i. 

represent, reprezent-i. 

reproach, ripro6-i. 

republic, respublik-o. 

repulse, repus-i, repel-i. 

request, pet-i. 

require, postul-i; (need), bezon-i. 

rescue, sav-i. 

reside, log-i. 

respect, respekt-i. 

rest (repose), ripoz-i; (remain), 

rest-i; ( — upon), apog-i sur. 
restaurant, restoraci-o. 
result, rezult-i. 
resume, resum-o. 
return (go back), reir-i; (come 

back), reven-i; (give back), 

revery, rev-o. 

review (magazine), revu-o. 
reward, rekompenc-i. 
rhubarb, rabarb-o. 
rib, rip-o. 
ribbon, ruband-o. 
rice, riz-o. 
rich, rio-a. 
ride, rajd-i; (in veliicle, boat, 

etc.), vetur-i. 
ridicule, mok-i; worthy of — 

(ridiculous), ridind-a. 

right, prav-a; (to something), 
rajt-o; (not left), dekstr-a. 

right-angled, ort-a. 

ring (intrans.), sonor-i; (circlet), 

ringlet (of hair), bukl-o. 

ripe, matur-a. 

river, river-o. 

road, voj-o; (broad roadway), 

roam, vag-i. 
roar, mug-i. 
roast, rost-i. 
rob, rab-i, stel-i. 
robber, rabist-o. 
robe, rob-o. 
Robert, Robert-o. 
roguish, petol-a; (rascally), fri- 

roll (trans.), rul-i; (something 

around something else), volv-i; 

(bread), bulk-o; (list), list-o, 

roof, tegment-o. 
room, cambr-o; (space), spac-o. 
root, radik-o. 
rose, roz-o. 
(by) rote, parker-e. 
round, rond-o; (of ladder), ^tu- 

pet-o; (roundabout) (prep.), 

cirkau (89, 120, 159, 160). 
routine, rutin-o. 
row (boats), rem-i. 
royalty, regec-o; (share of profit) 




rub, frot-i. 

ruin, ruin-o. 

rule, reg-i; (draw lines), lini-i; 

(regulation), regal-o. 
rumor, fam-o; rumored, laudir-a. 
run, kur-i; (of fluids), flu-i. 
Russian, rus-o. 
rust, rust-i. 


sack, sak-o; (plunder), rab-i. 

sacred, sankt-a. 

sacrifice, ofer-i, oferdon-i. 

saddle, sel-o. 

safe, sendanger-a, senrisk-a; 

(chest), monkest-o. 
sail, vel-o. 
salad, salat-o. 
salary, salajr-o. 
salt, sal-o. 
salute, salut-i. 
same, sam-a. 
sample, specimen-o. 
sand, sabl-o. 
sap, suk-o. 
sardine, sarden-o. 
satchel, valiz-o. 
sated, sat-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
satin, atlas-o. 
satisfied, kontent-a (p. 206, ftn.) ; 

(of hunger), sat-a (p. 206, ftn.). 
Saturday, sabat-o. 
sausage, kolbas-o. 

sauce, sauc-o. 

saucer, subtas-o, teleret-o. 

saucy, petol-a, malgentil-a, insul- 

savage, sovag-a. 
save, sav-i; (keep), konserv-i; 

(economize), spar-i; (prep.), 

krom, escepte de. 
saw, seg-i. 
say, dir-i (77). 

scales (for weighing), pesil-o. 
scarcely (adv.), apenau. 
scent (trans.), fiar-i. 
schedule (of rates), tarif-o. 
science, scienc-o. 
scissors, tondil-o. 
Scot (Scotchman), skot-o. 
scoundrel, kanajl-o, fripon-o. 
scrape, skrap-i. 
screen, sirm-i. 
screw, sraiib-o; ■ — driver, Srafib- 

sculpture, skulpt-i. 
sea, mar-o. 
seal, sigel-i. 

season (of the year), sezon-o. 
second (of time), sekund-o; (in 

order), dua; a — time (adv.), 

duafoje, bis. 
secret, sekret-o. 
secretary, sekretari-o. 
section, sekci-o, part-o, er-o 

see, vid-i; — to, zorg-i pri. 



seed, sem-o. 

seek, serc-i; — advice of, kon- 

seem, sajn-i; — ing, sajn-a, kva^ 

seize, kapt-i (p. 206, ftn.). 
select, elekt-i. 

self (reflexive), see 39, 40, 44; 

(intensive), mem (219); see 

also ftn., p. 132. 
self-command, aplomb-o. 
sell, vend-i. 
senate, senat-o. 
send, send-i. 

sense, prudent-o, sag-o; (mean- 
ing), senc-o; (feeling), sent-o. 

sentence, fraz-o; (legal), jug-o, 

separate (intrans.), disig-i, disir-i; 

(distinct), apart-a. 
September, septembr-o. 
serene, trankvil-a. 
series, seri-o, vic-o. 
serious, serioz-a, grav-a. 
serve, serv-i; (be good for), taug-i 

set, met-i; (of the sun), subir-i; 

(type), kompost-i; — free, 

liberig-i; — out (start), forir-i, 

seven (adj.), sep (136). 
several, kelk-aj, kelk-e. 
severe, sever-a. 
sew, kudr-i. 

shade (shadow), ombr-o; (tint) 

nuanc-o; (screen), Mrmil-o. 
shaft (of vehicle), timon-o. 
shake (trans.), sku-i; (oscillate), 

sancel-i; — hands, manprem-i. 
sham, pretekst-i. 
shape, form-o; — ly, beltali-a. 
share, partopren-i, divid-i, part-o, 

sharp, akr-a; (pointed), pint-a. 
shatter, frakas-i. 
shave, raz-i. 
shawl, §al-o. 

she (pronoun), si (32, 37, 42). 
shear, tond-i. 
sheep, laf-o. 
shelf, bret-o. 
shell, sel-o; (of moUusk), konk-o; 

to remove the — , senselig-i. 
shelter, sirm-i. , 

shepherd, paltist-o. 
shield, sild-o; (protect), ^irm-i. 
shin-bone, tibi-o. 
shine, bril-i, lum-i. 
ship, sip-o. 
shirt, cemiz-o. 
shoe, su-o. 

shoot (with gun, etc.), paf-i. 
shop, butik-o. 
shore, bord-o, marbord-o. 
short, mallong-a; — sighted, mi- 

op-a; — hand, st'enografi-o. 
shoulder, sultr-o. 
shove, sov-i. 



shovel, sovel-i. 

show (trans.), montr-i. 

shrill, akr-a, akrason-a. 

shun, evit-i. 

shut (trans.), ferm-i. 

side, flaBk-o; — board, teler- 
mebl-o; — walk, trotuar-o; 
— wise, oblikv-a. 

sift, kribr-i. 

sigh, sopir-i (p. 206, ftn.). 

sign, sign-o; — the name, sub- 

signify, signif-i. 

silent, silent-a (239). 

silk, silk-o. 

silver, argent-o. 

similar, simil-a (p. 206, ftn.). 

simple, simpl-a. 

sin, pek-i. 

since (con].), car, tial ke (83); 
(prep.), de, depost (89); (adv.), 
de tiam. 

sing, kant-i. 

single, sol-a, unuop-a; — man 
(unmarried man), frattl-o. 

sit, sid-i (239). 

six (adj.), ses (136). 

sketch, skiz-i. 

skill, lertec-o; trial of — , kon- 

skin (human), hatit-o; (of ani- 
mals), fel-o. 

skirt, jup-o. 

sky, ciel-o. 

slanting, oblikv-a, klin-a. 
slate (stone), ardez-o. 
slaughter, buc-i. 
slave, sklav-o. 

sleep, dorm-i; lull to — , lul-i. 
sleeve, manik-o. 
slide, glit-i. 
slime, slim-o. 
slipper, pantofl-o. 
sly, ruz-a. 
smear, smir-i. 

smell (trans.), flar-i; (intrans.), 

smile, ridet-i. 
smoke, fum-i. 
smooth, glat-a; (polished), pol- 

sneeze, tern-i. 
snow, neg-i. 

so (conj.), do (p. 32, ftn.); (adv.), 
(thus), tiel (88, 156); (there- 
fore), tial (78) ; — much, tiom 
(104, 164). 

society, societ-o. 

Socrates, Sokrat-o. 

sofa, kanap-o. 

soft, mol-a. 

soil, ter-o; soiled, malpur-a. 

soldier, soldat-o; (professional), 

sole, sol-a; (of foot), pland-o; (of 
shoe), ledpland-o. 

solemn, solen-a. 

some, kelk-a, kelk-e, iom (217); 



— one, — how, etc., see table, 

son, fil-o. 

soon (adv.), baldafi. 
sorcerer, sor6ist-o. 
sort, spec-o, klas-o; (put in order), 

ordig-i, enfakig-i. 
soul, anim-o. 

sound (intrans.), son-i; (of bells), 

sonor-i; (in good condition), 

soup, sup-o. 
sour, acid-a, maldolc-a. 
south, sud-o. 
sow, sem-i. 
space, spac-o. 
spacious, vast-a, grandspac-a, 

Spaniard, hispan-o. 
spare (save), spar-i; (pardon), 


sparrow, paser-o. 

speak, parol-i (77). 

spear, lano-o. 

special, special-a, apart-a. 

specialty, fak-o. 

species, spec-o. 

specimen, specimen-o, model-o. 

spectre, fantom-o. 

speed, rapid-o, rapidec-o. 

spell, silab-i; (witchcraft), sor- 

spend (money), elspez-i; (time), 


speso, spes-o (285). 

spider, arane-o. 

spin, spin-i. 

spinach, spinac-o. 

spite, malic-o; in — of, (prep.), 

malgraii, spite. 
splash (trans.), plaild-i. 
splendor, pomp-o, bril-o, bele- 

split (trans.), fend-i. 
spoil (trans.), difekt-i. 
spoke (of wheel), radi-o. 
spoon, kuler-o. 
spot, makul-i. 
spout (liquids), sprue-i. 
spring (season), printemp-o; (of 

water), font-o. 
sprite, kobold-o, fe-o. 
spruce (tree), pice-o. 
spurt (of liquids), §pruc-i. 
spy, spion-o; (catch sight of), 

ekvid-i; — glass, lorn-o. 
square, kvadrat-o; (public), 

stain, makul-i. 
stair (staircase), stupar-o. 
stag, cerv-o. 

stake (of palisade), palis-o. 
stamp (officially), stamp-i; (with 

foot), piedfrap-i; postage — , 

stand, star-i (239); (endure), 

sufer-i, elport-i. 
standard (model), model-o; (flag), 




Star, stel-o; (any heavenly body), 

starch, amel-o. 

state (condition), stat-o; (politi- 
cal), stat-o; (governed body), 

station (state), stat-o; (railway, 
etc.), staci-o, staoidom-o. 

stay, rest-i. 

steady, firm-a, konstant-a, nemo- 

steal, stel-i, rab-i (252). 

steam, vapor-o. 

steel, stal-o. 

steep, krut-a. 

step, pas-i; (of stairs), stup-o. 

stern, sever-a. 

stew (trans.), stuf-i. 

stick, baston-o; (adhere), al- 

still (silent), silent-a; (adv.), 
ankorau (p. 112, ftn.); jam 
(p. 124, ftn.); (conj.), tamen 
(p. 32, ftn.). 

stimulate, stimul-i, incit-i. 

sting, pik-i. 

stipulate, kondic-o. 

stocking, §trump-o. 

stomach, stomak-o. 

stone, ston-o. 

stoop, klinig-i; (entrance porch), 

stop (intrans.), halt-i; (leave off), 
ces-i; — up, §top-i. 

stopper, stopil-o. 

store (shop), butik-o; (ware- 
house), magazen-o, konser- 
vej-o, tenej-o. 

story (tale), fabel-o, rakont-o; 
(of house), etag-o. 

stove, forn-o. 

straight, rekt-a. 

strange, strang-a, kurioz-a; (for- 
eign), fremd-a. 

strap, rimen-o. 

straw, pajl-o. 

strawberry, frag-o. 

streak, stri-o; make a — , strek-i. 

street, strat-o; — arab, bub-o. 

street-car, tram veturil-o ; — line, 

stress, akcent-o; (force), fort-o. 

stretch (trans.), etend-i; (forci- 
bly), strec-i. 

string, snur-o; (shoelace), la6-o; 
— bean, tazeol-o. 

strike, frap-i, bat-i; (of laborers), 
strik-o; — out, trastrek-i. 

strip (of paper, cloth, etc.), ban- 
derol-o; — off, senig-i (p. 206, 

stripe, stri-o. 

strive, pen-i. 

strong, fort-a. 

struggle, barakt-i. 

student, student-o; (person study- 
ing), studant-o. 

study, stud-i. 

stuff, Itof-o; (furniture, etc.), 



stump, stump-o. 

style, stil-o, mod-o, fason-o. 

subject (theme), tem-o; (gram- 
matical), subjekt-o; (ruled), 

subscribe, subskrib-i; (to maga- 
zine, etc.), abon-i. 

substance, substanc-o. 

succeed, sukces-i; (fare well), 
prosper-i; (follow), sekv-i, 

succulent, suk-a, sukplen-a. 

such, tia (55); (adv.), tiel (88). 

sudden, subit-a, neatendit-a. 

suffer, sufer-i, toler-i; (permit), 

suffice, sufic-i. 

suffix, sufiks-o. 

suffocate (trans.), sufok-i. 

sugar, suker-o. 

suggest, sugesti-i, propon-i. 

suit (of clothes), vest-oj, kom- 
plet-o; (at law), proces-o. 

suitable, konven-a, konform-a, 
taug-a, dec-a. 

suite (of rooms), apartament-o. 

sulphur, sulfur-o. 

sum, sum-o; (total), tut-o. 

summarize, resum-i. 

summer, somer-o; — house, 

summit, pint-o, supr-o. 

sun, sun-o. 

Sunday, dimanc-o. 

superior, super-a; (person), su- 

superstition, superstic-o. 
supply, liver-i, proviz-i. 
suppose, supoz-i, opini-i. 
sure, cert-a. 
surface, supraj-o. 
surprise, surpriz-i. 
suspect, suspekt-i. 
suspend, pendig-i. 
suspenders, selk-o. 
swallow, glut-i; (bird), hirund-o. 
swamp, marc-o. 
swan, oign-o. 
swear, Jur-i. 
Swede, sved-o. 
sweep (floors, etc.), bala-i. 
sweet, dolc-a; — potato, batat-o. 
sweetmeat, bombon-o, sukeraj-o, 

konfitaj-o; be fond of — , 

swim, nag-i. 
swine, pork-o. 
swing (trans.), sving-i; (balance), 

balanc-i (279). 
Swiss, svis-o. 
swoon, sven-i. 
sword, glav-o. 
syllable, silab-o. 
Syracuse, Sirakuz-o. 

table (furniture), tabl-o; (tabula- 
tion), tabel-o. 



tail, vost-o. 

tailor, tajlor-o. 

take, pren-i (p. 206, ftn.); (mag- 
azines, etc.), abon-i; — in 
(money), enspez-i; — place, 
okaz-i; — note of, observ-i, 
rimark-i; — oath, Jur-i; — 
steps toward accomplishing, 
klopod-i; — pleasure in, gu-i; 
— the attention of, distr-i. 

tale, fabel-o. 

talent, talent-o. 

tall, alt-a, altkresk-a, grand-a. 

talon, ungeg-o. 

tap (rap), frapet-i; (faucet), 

tariff, tarif-o. 

task, task-o. 

taste, gust-o, gustum-i. 

tax, impost-o. 

tea, te-o; — caddy, teuj-o (i8i); 

— pot, tekruc-o. 
teach, instru-i. 

tear, sir-i; (of the eye), larm-o. 
tease, turmentet-i, cagren-i. 
tedious, ted-a, enuig-a, laoig-a. 
telegraph, telegraf-i. 
telephone, telefon-i. 
telescope, teleskop-o. 
tell, dir-i, rakont-i (77) ; — lies, 

temper, humor-o; lose the — , 

temple (of the head), tempi-o; 

(building), templ-o. 

tempt, tent-i. 

ten (adj.), dek (136). 

tender, delikat-a, mol-a, kares-a. 

tenor (voice), tenor-o; (course), 

tent, tend-o. 

term (word), termin-o; (condi- 
tion), kondic-o; (time), tem- 

terrace, teras-o. 

territory, teritori-o. 

terror, terur-o. 

test, prov-i, ekzamen-i. 

texture, kvalit-o; (thing woven), 

than (conj.), ol (82, 97, 98). 

thank, dank-i (265). 

that {conj.), ke (53, 83, 105, 259, 
262) ; {pronoun), tiu (56) ; tio 
(233, 234) ; — kind, tia (65) ; 
{adv.), tiel (88, 156); — way, 
tiamanier-e, tiel (88); — 
much, tiel mult-e, tiom (104, 
164); (when) {adv.), kiam 
(155); (because), seep. 222,ftQ. 

thaw {intrans.), degel-i. 

the {article), la (11, 47, 201, 280, 

a); {adv.), ju, des (84). 

theatre, teatr-o. 

theme, tem-o. 

then {conj.), do (p. 32, ftn.); 
{adv.), tiam (73); (after- 
wards), post-e. 

theory, teori-o. 

there {adv.), tie (68); {adv. call- 



ing attention), jen (228, p. 216, 

ftn.); see also 51. 
therefore (adv.), tial (78); pro 

tio, sekv-e. 
they (pronoun), ili (32, 37> 42); 

{indefinite), oni (54). 
thick, dik-a, dens-a. 
thigh, femur-o. 
thing, afer-o, objekt-o, aj-o (227) ; 

any — , what — , etc., see table, 

think, pens-i; (have the opinion), 

(be) thirsty, soif-i. 
this (pronoun), tio ci (233, 234) ; 

(pronoun and adj.), tiu ci(6o) ; 

all — , cio ci. See table, 235. 
thong, rimen-o. 
thorn, dorn-o. 

thou (pronoun), ci (p. 15, ftn., 40). 
though (conj.), kvankam; as — , 

kvazafi (250). 
thousand (adj.), mil (142). 

thread, faden-o; — a needle, 
enkudrilig-i fadenon. 

threaten, minac-i. 

three (adj.), tri (136). 

threshold, S03I-0. 

thrifty, §parem-a. 

throat, gorg-o. 

throne, tron-o. 

throng, amas-o, ar-o (126). 

through (prep.), tra (46, 160); 
(by means of), per (64) ; (be- 
cause of), pro (86), de (170). 

throw, jet-i. 

thumb, dika fingr-o. 

thunder, tondr-i. 

Thursday, jaild-o. 

thus (adv.), tiel (88, 156), tia- 

ticket, bilet-o; — window, gi6et-o. 

tickle, tikl-i. 

tie, lig-i; (shoes, etc.), lac-i. 

tiger, tigr-o. 

tile, kahel-o; (brick), brik-o. 

till (money box), kas-o; (prep.), 
gis (46, 89); — the soil, ter- 

time (in general), temp-o; (occa- 
sion), foj-o (127); (epoch), 
epok-o; (of day), hor-o. 

tin (metal), stan-o; — plate 
(sheet iron covered with tin), 

tinkle, tint-i. 

tint, nuanc-o, kolor-o. 

tire (trans.), lacig-i, enuig-i; 
(pneumatic), pneiimatik-o. 

to (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 252); 
gis (46, 89). 

toad, buf-o. 

toast (bread), panrostaj-o; (senti- 
ment), tost-o. 

tobacco, tabak-o. 

today (adv.), hodiail (93, 171). 

toe, piedfingr-o 

toilet, tualet-o. 

tolerate, toler-i, sufer-i. 

tomato, tomat-o. 



tomb, tomb-o, 

tomorrow (adv.), morgatt (93, 

tone, ton-o. 

tongue (of the body), lang-o; (of 
vehicle), timon-o; (language), 

too (adv.), tro; (too much), tro 
multe, tro. 

tool, il-o (63). 

tooth, dent-o. 

top, supr-o. 

torment, turment-i. 

total, tut-o. 

touch, tus-i; (feel with the fin- 
gers, etc.), palp-i; sense of — , 
palpad-o; — the heart of, 

toward (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 

tower, tur-o; — above, super- 

trace, sign-o, postsign-o. 

trade (occupation), meti-o; (com- 
merce), komerc-o; (exchange), 

train (of cars), vagonar-o; (of 
dress), trenaj-o. 

tram, tram-o; — way, tramvoj-o; 
— car, tramveturil-o. 

tranquil, trankvil-a, kviet-a. 

translate, traduk-i. 

travel, vojag-i; (by vehicle), 

tray, plet-o. 

treacherous, perfid-a. 

treasure, trezor-o. 

treasurer, kasist-o. 

treasury, kas-o. 

treat (in speech or writing), 

trakt-i; (for illness), kurac-i; 

(act towards), kondut-i kon- 

traii; (regale), regal-i. 
treatise, traktat-o. 
tree, arb-o. 

tremble, trem-i; (vacillate), San- 

trial, juga auskultado, esplo- 
rad-o; (of skill), konkurs-o; 
(affliction), malgoj-o, sufer-o; 
(test), prov-o, ekzamen-o; (at- 
tempt), prov-o. 

trifle, bagatel-o. 

triumph, triumf-o. 

tropic, tropik-o. 

trot, trot-i. 

trousers, pantalon-o. 

trunk (chest with lid), kofr-o; 
(of tree), trunk-o. 

trust, fid-i, konfid-i (p. 206, ftn.); 
(financial), trust-o. 

truth, ver-o. 

try (legally), jug-i; (strive), pen-i; 

(attempt, test), prov-i (p. 228, 

tub, kuv-o. 
tube, tub-o. 
tuber, tuber-o. 
Tuesday, mard-o. 



tumbler (for drinking), glas-o; 

(juggler), jonglist-o. 
tune, ari-o, melodi-o. 
Turk, turk-o. 
turkey, meleagr-o. 
turn (trans.), turn-i; (in a series)) 

turnip, nap-o. 
turnstile, gicet-o. 
twilight, krepusk-o. 
twist (trans.), tord-i. 
twitter, pep-i. 
two (adj.), du (136). 
tyrant, tiran-o. 


umbrella, ombrel-o. 

uncle, onkl-o. 

unanimous, unuvoc-a, unuan- 

uncommon, kurioz-a, nekonaun-a. 

unconcerned, indiferent-a (p. 
162, ftn.); nezorgem-a. 

under (prep.), sub (121, 160). 

underline, substrek-i. 

understand, kompren-i. 

undertake, entrepren-i; — initia- 
tive work, klopod-i. 

undeviating, rekt-a. 

unfailing (adv.), nepr-e, cert-e. 

unimportant, indiferent-a (p. 
162, ftn.), negrav-a. 

union, unuig-o, unuig-o, kunig-o, 

universe, umvers-o. 
university, universitat-o. 
until (prep.), gis (89) 
up (adv.), supre, supren (121); 

— to, gis (46). 
upholster, rembur-i. 
upper, supr-a. 
upon (prep.), sur (160). 
upright, just-a (p. 198, ftn.); 

(vertical), vertikal-a. 
urge, urg-i, insiste pet-i. 
upset (trans.), renvers-i. 

utmost, ekstrem-a, ebl-o (161, 
see also 162). 

(be) vacant, vak-i, esti neoku- 

vacillate, sancelig-i. 
vagabond, vagist-o. 
vain (futile), van-a; senutil-a, 

senfrukt-a; (proud), vant-a, 

fier-a; in — , vane. 
valise, valiz-o. 
valley, val-o. 
value (appraise), taks-i; (like), 

sat-i; have the — of, valor-i. 
vanqtiish, venk-i. 
vapor, vapor-o. 
varied, divers-a, malsimil-a. 
vase, vaz-o. 
vast, vast-a, grand-a. 
vaunt, fanfaron-i, vantparol-L 
veal, bovidaj-o (2*7, c). 



vegetable (edible), legom-o; 

(plant growth), vegetaj-o, 

kreskaj-o (227, a). 
vegetarian, vegetar-a. 
vegetate, veget-i. 
veil, vual-o. 
vein, vejn-o. 
velvet, velur-o. 
veranda, verand-o. 
verify, konstat-i, kontrol-i. 
vermicelli, vermicel-o. 
verse, vers-o; (poesy), poezi-o. 
vertical, vertikal-a. 
very (very much) {adv.), tre, tre 

multe; (adj.), sam-a, ident-a, 

(intensive) mem (219). 
vex, cagren-i. 
vibrate (intrans.), vibr-i. 
vice (wickedness), malvirt-o ; 

(prefix), vie-. 
vie, konkur-i. 
village, vilag-o. 
vindication, apologi-o. 
vinegar, vinagr-o. 
violet, viol-o. 
violin, violon-o. 
virtue, virt-o. 
visage, vizag-o. 
visit, vizit-i. 
vivid, hel-a. 
voice, voc-o. 
volume (book), volum-o; (of a 

body), volumen-o. 
vote, vocdon-i, balot-i. 

vowel, vokal-o. 
voyage, vojag-i. 


wade, vad-i. 

waffle, vafi-o. 

wager, vet-i. 

wages, salajr-o. 

wait (wait for), atend-i; — on, 

waiter (in restaurant, etc.), kel- 

waist, tali-o; — coat, vest,-o 
wake (trans.), vek-i. 
walk, mars-i; (for pleasure), 

promen-i; (of park, etc.), ale-o; 

side — , trotuar-o. 
wall, m.ur-o. 
waltz, vals-i. 
wander, vag-i. 
want (need), bezon-i; (desire), 

dezir-i, vol-i; (be lacking), 

mank-i; (extremity), mizereg-o. 

war, milit-i. 

wardrobe (garments), vestar-o; 

(furniture), srank-o, vesto- 

warehouse, magazen-o. 
warm, varm-a; make — , varm- 

ig-i, hejt-i. 
warn, avert-i; (give notice), 

aviz-i, antatisciig-i. 
wash, lav-i. 
waste (prodigality), malspar-o; 



(refuse), forjetaj-o; (desert), 

watch (look at), rigardad-i; 

(timepiece), poshorlog-o; — ■ 

over, gard-i. 
water, akv-o; — color, akvarel-o; 

— fall, kaskad-o. 
wave, ond-o; (flutter, brandish), 

flirt-i, sving-i. 
wax, vaks-o. 

way (manner), manier-o; (cus- 
tom), kutim-o; (method), me- 

tod-o; (means), rimed-o; 

(road), voj-o; — in, enirejo; 

this — , any — , etc., see table, 

we {pronoun), ni (32, 37). 
wear, port-i; — out, elua;-!. 
(be) wearied, enu-i (p. 206, 

weather, veter-o; — cock, vento- 

weave, teks-i; (plait), plekt-i. 
Wednesday, merkred-o. 
week, sema]n-o. 
weep, plor-i. 

weigh (trans.), pes-i; (intrant.), 
(be heavy), pez-i; (meditate 
upon), pripens-i (264, c). 

welcome, bonven-i; bone ak- 
oept-i; you are — , ("no thanks 
needed "), estas nenio, volonte 

well (healthy), san-a; (for water), 
put~o; (adv.), bon-e; (interjec- 
tion), nu (273), bon-e (p. 216, 

ftn.); — informed, kler-a; — 
nigh (adv.), preskaii. 

west, okcident-o. 

wet, malsekig-i, tremp-i. 

whale, balen-o. 

what (pronoun), kio (233, 234); 
(pronominal adj.), kiu (106, 
146); — kind, — way, — 
time, etc., see table, 235. 

wheat, tritik-o. 
wheel, rad-o. 

when (adv.), kiam (125, 15s); 
(while), dum (96). 

where (adv.), kie (118, 151); 
— fore, Idal (129), tial (78). 

whether (conj.), cu (30, 66, a; p. 
38, ftn.). 

which (pronoun), kio (233, 234); 
(pronoun and adj.), kiu (106, 
146); — way, — kind, etc. 
see table, 235. 

while (prep.), dum (120, 159); 
(conj.), dum (96); (conces- 
sive), kvankam; a — , iom 
da tempo. 

whip, vip-i. 

whistle, fajf-i; (hiss), sibl-i. 

white, blank-a; whitish, dube- 

who (pronoun), kiu (106, 143); 
whose, kies (107, 147). 

whole (entire), tut-a (p. 130, 

why (adv.), kial (129), pro kio. 

wicket, gicet-o. 



wide, larg-a; make — , plilargig-i, 

widow, vidvin-o; widower, vidv-o. 

wig, peruk-o. 

wild, sovag-a. 

(be) willing, vol-i. 

willingly, volont-e. 

wilt, velk-i. 

wind, vent-o, survolv-i; (twist), 
tord-i; (a watch), strec-i. 

winding, tord-a. 

window, fenestr-o; ticket — , 

wine, vin-o. 

winter, vintr-o. 

wipe, vis-i. 

wise, sag-a. 

wish, vol-i, dezir-i. 

witch, sorcistin-o; —craft, sorc-o. 

with (prep.), kun (70, 76, 120, 
159, 160) ; (by means of), per 
(64); (agent of the passive), 
de(i69); je (260); — regard 
tc, rilate (266) ; — draw, elir-i, 
forir-i; (= having), havante 

wither, velk-i. 

without (prep.), sen (248); see 
also ftn., p. 193. 

(give) witness, atest-i. 

witty, sprit-a. 

woe, malgoj-o; (interjection), ve 

wolf, lup-o. 

wonder, mir-i. 

woo, amindum-i. 

wood, lign-o. 

wool, lan-o. 

word, vort-o; (spoken), parol-o. 

work, labor-i; (of machinery), 

funkci-i; (literary composition), 

world, mond-o. 
worm, verm-o. 
worship, ador-i; (divine service), 

(be) worth, va!or-i. 
worthy, ind-a (154, p. 206, ftn.). 
wound, vund-i. 
wreath, girland-o. 
wrestle, barakt-i. 
wretch, fripon-o, kanajl-o; — ed, 

mizer-a, ac-a (272). 
wrinkle, sulket-o, faldet-o. 
write, skrib-i; (books, articles, 

music), verk-i. 
wrong, malprav-a, erar-a, mal- 


yawn, osced-i; (open), fendi|;-i. 

year, jar-o. 

yearn, sopir-i (p. 206, ftn.); 

yellow, fiav-a; — ish, dubefiav-a. 
yes (adv.), jes (171). 
yesterday (adv.), hierafl (93, 

171); day before — , antau- 




yet (adv.), ankoraii (p. 112, ftn.); 
jam (p. 124, ftn.); (conj.), 
tamen (p. 32, ftn.). ■ 

yoke, jug-o. 

you (pronoun), vi (32, 37, 

39); see also oni (54). 
young, jun-a; (offspring), id-o 


zeal, fervor-o. 
zenith, zenit-o. 
zero, nul-o. 
zigzag, zigzag-o. 
zinc, zink-o. 
zone, zon-o. 
zoology, zoologi-C 



The references are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. The 
following abbreviations are used: ace. = accusative; adj. = adjec- 
tive; adv. = adverb; expr. = expressed; ftn, = footnote; inf. = 
infinitive; intrans. — intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = 
transitive. For Esperanto words whose use or meaning is specially 
explained, references are given in the Vocabulary. 

Abbreviations, 286; of ordinals, p. 
107, ftn. 

Abstract nouns, 202. 

Accent, 8; of elided word, 280, b. 

Accompamment, 70; distinguished 
from instrumental' ^:y and opposi- 
tion, p. 49. ftn. 

Accordance, expr, by lau, igi. 

Active voice, participles of, 108, 119, 
152; tenses of, see Tenses; synopsis 
of, 267. 

Accusative, ending, 23; of adj., 24; of 
pronoun, 37; of adv., 69, 121; of 
direction, 46, 108; of measure. 139; 
of time, 91; distinguished from 
temporal adv., 94; with temporal 
adv., 93; when avoided, 92; after 
adv., 266; with intrans. verb, 264; 
with nouns expressing motion, 263; 
in composition, p. 132, ftn.; instead 
of prepositional phrase, 265, 266; 
not used after prep., 36, (al, gis, 
tra) 46, (preter) p. 139, ftn.; not 
used with article, 25; not used with 
predicates, 25, 210; "cognate," see 
ace. with intrans. verbs, 264, a. 

Adjectives, defined, 12; ending of, 12; 

formation of, 116, (from adv.) 171, 
(from prep.) 159; attributive, 13; 
ace. of, 24; plural of, 17; agree- 
ment, (with nouns) 17, 21, 24, (with 
pronouns) 33» (with words con- 
nected by nek) 31; comparison of, 
74; possessive, 43, (pronominal use 
of) 45; predicate, 19, (after trans, 
verbs) 210; use of, distinguished 
from adv. with da, 103; demon- 
strative, 65; distributive, 177; 
indefinite, 208; interrogative, 112; 
negative, 224; reflexive poss^sive, 
44; relative, 150; causative verbs 
from roots of, 214, a; intrans. verbs 
from roots of , 232, c; cardinal, 136; 
ordinal, 149. 
Adverbs, defined, 66; primary, 66; 
derived, 79 ; (from prep.) 120 ; 
demonstrative, (He) 68, (Ham) 73, 
(Hal) 78, (Hel) 88, (Horn) 104; inter- 
rogative, (kie) 118, (kiam) 123, (kial) 
129, (kiel) 134, (kiom) 140, (tu) 30, 
p. 38, ftn.; relative, (kie) 151, 
(kiam) 155, (kiel) 156, p. 170, ftn., 
(kiom) 164; distributive, (tie) 182, 
(tiam) 187,' (cial) 188, (diet) 193, 
(Horn) 194; indefinite, (ie) 209, 
(iam) 212, (ial) 213, (iel) 216, (iom) 



217; negative, (nenie) 225, (neniam) 
226, (nenial) 229, (neniel) 230^ 
(neniom) 231, (ne) 27, 66, a; gen- 
eralizing, (ajn) 236; numeral, 158; 
position of, 66, a; expressing direc- 
tion of motion, 69, 121; with ex- 
pressions of time, 93; distinguif le J 
from ace. of time, 94; with ace, 
266; with prep., -87; calling atten- 
tion, (jen) 228; causative verbs 
from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 
232, d; as interjections, p. 216, ftn. ; 
derivation of words from primary, 

Adverbial clauses, p. 168, ftn.; par- 
ticiple, 222, (translating "without ") 
p. 193, ftn. 

Adveraative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. 

Advice, expression of, 257, 259. 

Affectionate diminutives, 283 (also 
198, and ftn., p. 221). 

Affiriaation, 66. 

Affixes, see Prefixes, Suffixes. 

Agency, expr. by de, 169. 

Agreement, of attributive adj., 17, 
(with ace.) 24; of predicate noun 
and ad j . , 21; of adj . with two or 
more nouns, 17; of adj. with words 
connected by nek, 31; of adj. with 
pronouns, 33; of participle, 108; of 
nouns in apposition, 48. 

Alphabet, i. 

Anticipation, expr. by clause, 97; by 
inf. with prep., 98. 

Aoristic tenses, explained, p. 78, ftn.; 
conjugation of, (present) 14, (past) 
35, (future) 55. (conditional) 241, 
(imperative), 254. 

Apposition, 48. 

Argumentative conjunction, p. 32, ftn. 

Article, definite, 11; invariable, 18, 
25; for possessive adj., 47; with 
possessive adj., 45; generic, 201, 
218, b, elision of, 280, a; no indcii- 
nite, II. 

Assumption, defined, 240 ; implied, 

Augmentatives, 122. 
Auxiliary verbs, 109. 

Cardinal numerals, 136; formation of, 

Case, see Accusative, Dative, Nomi- 
native, Possessive. 

(>^usative verbs, 214. 

Cause, expr. by clause, 83; by pro, 86; 
by ke, p. 222, ftn. 

Characteristic, expr. by kun, 76; by 
adverbial participle, 222. 

Clauses, defined, p. 34, ftn.; adverbial, 
p. 168, ftn.; causal, 83; of anticipa- 
tion, 97; of duration of time, 96; of 
imaginative comparison, 250; of 
purpose, 262; of result, 105; subor- 
dinate imperative, 259, 

"Cognate ace," see ace. with intrans. 
verbs, 264. 

Collective nouns, 126. 

Collective sense given by use of da, 

Commands, expression of, 256 ; in 
subordinate clause, 259. 

Complement of prep., 36. 

Complementary inf., 29. 

Comparison, of adj., 74; of adv., 79; 
of words expressing quantity, 81; 
containing ol, 82; ju and des in, 84. 

Composition, see Compounds. 

Compound tenses, explained, 109; of 
impersonal verbs, 179; conjugation 
of, see Tenses. 

Compounds, dependent, 176; descrip- 
tive, 167; possessive, 184. 

Conclusion (of conditions) defined, 
240; (of letters), see Correspond- 

Concrete nouns, formation of, 227, 

Conditional mood, 241 ; compound 
tenses of, 242; in contrary to fact 
conditions, 246; in less vivid condi- 
tions, 243; independent use of, 244; 
of devi, 247; conditional sentences, 
see Conditions. 

Conditions, defined, 240; contrary to 
fact, 246; factual, 240; less vivid, 
243; vivid, p. 189, ftn.; summary 
of, 249. 



Conjugation, 34; synopsis of, 267; of 
tenses, see Tenses. 

Conjunctions, defined, 52; coordinat- 
ing, 52; subordinating, 53t (not 
omitted) p. 34, ftn.; aii, p. 32, ftn.; 
kaj, 26, p. 32, ftn.; ke, (in indirect 
statements), 53» (in causal clauses) 
83, p. 222, ftn.; (in result clause) 
1 05, (in purpose clause) 262, (in 
subordinate imperative clause) 259; 
kvazaii, 250; nek, 31, p. 32, ftn.; 
se, 240; sed, p. 32, ftn.; tamen, p. 
32, itii.;do, p. 32, ftn.; see p. 110, 

Connection, expr. by de, 49; indefi- 
nite, expr. by je, 260. 

Consent, expression of, 257, (in subor- 
dinate clauses) 259. 

Consonants, combinations of, 6; pro- 
nunciation of, 3, names of, 4. 

Contrary to fact conditions, 246. 

Coordinating conjunctions, 52. 

Copulative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. 

Correlative words, 235* 

Correspondence, 278. 


Dates, expr. by ace, 91; expr. by 
antau, 90; expr. by prep., 89; on 
letters, see Correspondence, 278. 

*' Dative," ethical, of reference, of sep- 
aration, p. 197, ftn. 

Definite quantity, nouns of, followed 
by de, 100. 

Degree, advs. of, 66, (tiel) 88, (kiel) 
134, 156; highest possible, 162; see 
also Comparison. 

Deliberation, expression of, 257, (in 
subordinative clause) 2S9. 

Demonstrative, pronoun, (Hu) 56, (ci 
tin) 60, (tio, ti tio) 233; adjective, 
65; adv., see Adverbs. ' 

Dependent compounds, 176. 

Derivation, of adv., 79, (from prep.) 
120; of words from prep., 159; of 
words from primary adv., 171. 

Descriptive compounds, 167. 

Diminutives, 198; affectionate, 283. 

Diphthongs, 5. 

Direct object, defined, 23; inf. as, see 
Complementary inf., 29; clause as, 
53j 259; of complementary inf., 29; 
of participle, 108; of prep., see 
Complement, 36. 

Direction, expr. by ace. (of noun) 46, 
263, (of adv.) 121. 

Disjunctive conjunctions, p. 32, ftn. 

Distributive, prep., see po, 175; pro- 
noun, (.Hu) i73i (.Ho) 233 ; adj., 
177; adv., see Adverbs. 

Double letters, 6, e. 

Elision, 280. 

Emphasis, by et, 66; by /a, 215. 
Emphatic negation, 27. 
Ending, of ace, 23; of adj., 12; of 

adv., 79; of noun, 10; of plural, 16; 

of inf., 28; of indicative, 14, 35, 55; 

of conditional, 241, of imperative, 

254; of participle, see Participles. 
"Ethical dative," p. 197, ftn. 
Exclamations, 115; use of /e in, 260. 
Exhortation, 255. 
Expedience, expressions of, 259. 


Factual conditions, 240. 

Feminine nouns, form.ation of, 59. 

Formation, of words, 116; of oppor 
sites, 67, of feminines, 59; with 
~ig- and -ig-, 239; from primary 
words, 159, 171. 

Fractions, 166. 

Frequentative verbs, 218, a. 

Future participle, (active) 152, (pas- 
sive) 199. 

Future tense, 55, (progressive) 114, 
(passive) 183, periphrastic, 153, 200. 

Future perfect tense, 148, (passive) 

Generic article, 201, 218, b. 
Generalizing adv. ajn, 236. 



Highest degree possible, 162, 


Imaginative comparison, 250. 

Imperative mood, 254; in commands 
and prohibitions, 256 ; in resolve 
and exhortation, 255, in subordi- 
nate clauses, 259;. less peremptory 
uses of, 257; to express purpose, 

Imperfect tense, 113, (passive) 178. 

Impersonal verbs, 50, compound 
tenses of, 179; modifiers of, 141. 

Impersonally used verbs, explained, 
141; modifiers of, 141, 

Inchoative verbs, 232, a. 

Indefinite connection, expr. by je, 260. 

Indefinite, pronoun, (m) 203, {io) 233; 
(personal) 54; adj., 208; advs., see 
Adverbs ; prep. , 260 ; suffix, 268 ; 
quantity, expressions of, with da, 
99, loi. 

Independent use of conditional mood, 

Indicative mood, defined, 241; tenses 
of, see Synopsis, 267. 

"Indirect object," see al. 

Indirect quotation, tenses in, 58; 
statements in, 53; questions in, p. 
38, ftn.; p. 170, ftn* 

Infinitive, defined, 28, 241; ending of, 
28; complementary, 29; as subject, 
29; modifiers of, 130; synopsis of, 
267; with prep., 98; replaced by 
noun, 218, b. 

Instruction, (orders) , requests for, 
257. 259. 

Instrumentality, expr. by per, 64 ; 
distinguished from, accompaniment, 
p. 49, ftn. 

Instruments, formation of names of, 

Intensive pronoun, mem, 219. 

Intention, expr. by clause, 259. 

Interjections, 273. 

International money system, 285 ; 
weights and measures, 284. 

Interrogation, 30, 66, a. 
Interrogative, pronoun, (Jciu) 106, 

{kio) 233; adj., 112; advs., see 

Intransitive verbs, defined, 22 ; no 

passive, p. 122, ftn.; from adj. 

roots, 232, c ; from noun roots, 

advs., preps., suffixes, prefixes, 232, 

d; from trans, verb roots, 232, b, 

(table of), 279. 
Introductory particle, not needed, 50, 

Invariability, of article, 18; of mem, 

219; of verb, 18; of cardinals, 136, 
Inversion, not needed in questions, 30. 


Less peremptory uses of imperative* 

Less vivid conditions, 243. 

Letters, names of, 4; double, pro- 
nunciation of, 6, e; see also Corre- 
spondence, 278. 

Limitation of third personal pronoun, 


Manner, expr. by kun, 76; expr. by . 
■per, p. 53, ftn.; by adverbial par- 
ticiple, 222; advs. of, see Adverbs. 

Material, expression of, 197. 

Means, expression of, 64. 

Measure, ace. of, 139; expr. by /e, 260. 

Measures, weights and, 284. 

Metric system, 284. 

Modifiers of impersonally used verbs, 

Money system. The international, 285. 

Mood, defined, 241; inf., see Infini- 
tive; conditional, 241 ; imperative, 
254; indicative, see 267; in condi- 
tion e, see Conditions. 

Moral obligation, 247. 

Motive or reason, advs. of, see Ad- 
verbs; expr. by clause, 83; expr. 
by prep., 86. . 




Names, of letters, 4; orthography of 
proper, 128. 

Necessity, expression of, 259. 

Negative, pronoun, (neniu) 220; 
(nmio) 233; adj., 224; advs., see 
Adverbs; conjunction, 31. 

"Nominative absolute," how ren- 
dered, p. 169, ftn. 

Nominative case, ending of, (for 
nouns) 10, (for adj.) 12; of predi- 
cate noun and adj., 25, 210; with 
prep., 36, {al, gis, tra) 46. 

Noun, defined, 10, ending of, 10, 
plural of, 16; ace. of, 23; elision of , 
280, b; feminine, 59; numeral, 157; 
participial, 205; predicate, 20, 211; 
possessive case of, 49; expressing 
motion, followed by ace, 263; ex- 
pressing quantity, followed by da, 
99, by de, 100; replacing inf., 218, 
b; replacing participial phrase, p.. 
193, ftn.; from adv., 171; from 
prep., 159- 

Noun roots, causative verbs from, 2I4j 
c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d. 

Number, see Plural. 

Numeral nouns, 157; advs., 158. 

Numerals, cardinal, 136; formation 
of, 142; fractional, 166; ordinal, 
149; abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn.; 
followed by el, 138. 


Object, see Direct object. Indirect 
object, Complement. 

Obligation, 247, (moral) 247. 

Opposites, formation of, 67; of pli and 
plej, 80. 

Opposition, distinguished from accom- 
paniment, p. 49, ftn. 

Order, of word endings, p. 10, ftn.; see 
also Position. 

Ordinal numerals, 149; advs., 158; 
abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn. 

Orthography, of proper nouns, 128. 

Part of the whole, expression of, (after 
noun) 99, (after adv.) loi. 

Participial nouns, 205; advs., 222, 

Participle, defined, 108; agreement of, 
108; adverbial, 222, (translating 
"without") p. 193, ftn.; present, 
108, (passive) 165; past, 119, (pas- 
sive) 189; future, 152, (passive) 

Particle, introductory, not needed, 50, 

Partitive construction, p. 74, ftn. 

Passive voice, agent of, 169; partici- 
ples of, see Participles; tenses of, 
see Tenses; of -ig- formations, 239; 
distinguished from ~i^- formations, 
232, b. 

Past tense, 35, (passive) see Imper- 
fect; past participle, see Participles. 

Past periphrastic future, I53i (pas- 
sive) 200. 

Past inception, present action with, 

Peremptory commands and prohibi- 
tions, 256, 259. 

Perfect tense, 124, (passive) 190; per- 
fect participle, see Past participle. 

Periphrastic futures, 153* (passive) 

Permission, expression of, 269. 

Perplexity, expression of, 257, 259. 

Personal pronouns, 32; ace. of, 37; 
indefinite, 54; reflexive, 39. 4o; 
limitation of third personal, 42; 
position of unemphatic, 274. 

Place, expr. by te, 125; advs. of, see 
Adverbs; expr. by ~e?-, iii; 128. 

Pluperfect tense, 135^ (passive), i95> 

Plural, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 56, 
106, 203, 173, 220; of adj., 16; of 
unu, 137; none of article, 18; none 
of pronouns ending in -o, 233. 
Position, of attributive adj., 13; of 
adv., 66, a; of emphatic negative, 
27; of unemphatic pronoun, 274; 
of interrogative adv., 30* 
Possession, expr. by de, 49, 



Possessive, adjective, 43; reflexive, 
44; article for, 47; ftn., p. 221. 

Possessive case of nouns, 49; of pro- 
nouns, (ties) 62, (kies) 107, 147, 
(dies) 174, (ies) 204, (nenies) 221; 
see also Possessive adjective, 43* 

Possessive compounds, 184. 

"Possessive pronouns," p. 24, ftn. 

Possibility, expression of, 270. 

Predicate, adj., 19, agreement of, 21; 
after trans, verbs, 210; noun, 20; 
agreement of, 21; after trans, verb, 
211; clause as, 259. 

Prefixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; 
intrans. verbs from., 232, d; prep, 
as, 160, 248; adverb as, 71, 167, a, 
interjection as, p. 216, ftn.; bo-, 
277; dis-, 245; duon~, 2y*/; ek-, 
206; eks-, 281; ge-, 271; mal-, 67; 
pra-, 282; re-, 223. 

Prepositions, defined, 36; with inf., 
98 ; with adv. , 87 ; with other 
preps., 87; case use with, 36, 46; 
expressing time relations, 89; as 
prefixes, 1 60 ; word derivation 
from, 159; ad vs. from, 120; causa- 
tive verbs from, 214, c; intrans. 
verbs from, 232, d; making intrans, 
verbs trans., 264, b, c; see also refer- 
ences in Vocabulary. 

Prepositional phrase, ace. instead of, 
26s, 266. 

Present action with past inception , 

Present periphrastic future, 153, (pas- 
sive) 200. 

Present participle, 108, (passive) 165. 

Present tense, 14, (progressive) no, 
(passive) 168. 

Primary adverbs, defined, 66; deriva- 
tion of words from, 171, 

Probability, expression of, 270. 

Progressive tenses, present, no, 
future, 114; passive, 200. 

Prohibition, expression of, 256, 259. 

Pronominal adjective, pos:essive adj. 
as, 45; pronoun as, (tiu) 57, 60, 
(kiu) 106, 146, (tiu) 173, (iu) 203, 
(neniu) 220, (amhaii) 238. 

Pronouns, defined, 32 ; agreement 
with, 33; personal, 32; indefinite 
personal, 54; reflexive, 38, 39» 4o» 
(in composition) p. 132, ftn.; pos- 
sessive, p. 24, ftn.; possessive form 
of, see Possessive case; limitation 
of third personal, 42; position of 
unemphatic, 274 ; correlation of 
predicative or relative, 234; fol- 
lowed by el, 173, p. 115, ftn.; series 
in -o, 233; demonstrative, 56, 60, 
233 ; distributive, 1 73. 233 ; in- 
definite, 203, 233; interrogative, 
106, 233; negative, 220, 233; rela- 
tive, 146; 233; summary, 235; 
arnbau, 238; intensive, 219. 

proper nouns, orthography of, 128. 

Protestations, use of je in, 260. 

Proximity, expr. by ti, 60, 66, p. 229, 

Purpose, expr. by inf., 98; by im- 
perative, 262; by prep., 95. 


Quantity, construction with nouns ex- 
pressing, 99, 100; construction with 
advs. expressing, loi; advs. of, 
(Horn) 104, (kiom) 140, 164, (tiom) 
194, (iom) 217, (neniom) 231; com- 
parison of advs. expressing, 81. 

Questions, 30; indirect, p. 38, ftn., p. 
170, ftn.; of deliberation, perplex- 
ity, or for instructions, 257, 259. 

Quotations, indirect, 53, 58. 


Reciprocal expressions, 180. 
Reference, expr. by al, 251. 
Reflexive pronouns, of first and second 

persons, 39; of third person, 40; 
with substantival inf., 130. 
Reflexive possessive adjective, 44. 
Reflexive verbs, 41 ; distinguished 

from verbs in -ig-, 232, b. 
Relative pronoun, (kiu) 146, (kio) 233; 

not omitted, p. 106, ftn. 



iRelative adjective, 150; relative ad- 
■ verb, see Adverbs. 
jRelative clause, see 146, 233, (tem- 
poral) 155, (of manner) 156, (quan- 
j titative) 164. 

(Request, expression of, 257, 259; for 
' instructions, 257, 259. 
jResolve, expression of, 255, 
iResult, clauses of, 105. 
iRoot, defined, p. 42, ftn. 
iRoute, expression of, 191, 


Salutations, 115. 

Separation, expr. by de, 170; expr. by 

al, 252; by for, 71; by dis-, 245. 
Situation, expr. by te, 125; by adverb- 
ial participle, 222. 
Source, expr. by de, 170, 
Statements, indirect, 53; tenses in, 58. 
Subject, defined, 15; preceded by 
! verb, 51; inf- as, 130; clause as, 
I 141, 259; of adverbial participle, 
I 222. 

I Subordinate clause, defined, 53; im- 

j perative in, 259, 262; conditional 

I in, see Conditions, 243, 246. 

I Subordinating conjunctions, ke, 53t 

' IDS, 259, {tialke) 83, p. 222, ftn.; (por 

I ke) 262; (not omitted) p. 34, ftn.; 

;' se, 240; kvazaii, 250; 6u, p. 38, ftn. 

1 Substantive, defined, p. 71, ftn.; inf. 

j as, 98, 130; clause as, 53, 259. 

i Substitution, expr. by prep., p. 63, 

J ftn.; expr. by prep, with inf., 98; 

of noun for inf., 218, b, p. 193, ftn. 

; Suffixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; 

I intrans. verbs from, 232, d; -ad-, 

I 218; -a^-, 272; -aj-, 227; -an-, 145; 

I -ar-, 126; -tj-, 283; -ehl-, 161; -ec-t 

I 202; -eg-, 122; -ej~, rii; -em-, 192; 

I -er-, 276; -estr-,25Z't ~et-, 198; -id- 

207; ~ig~, 214, 239, 275; -ig-, 232, 

239, 279; -il-, 63; -in-, 59; -ind-, 

154; -ing-, 237; -ist-, 172, p. 154, 

ftn.; -n/-, 283; -06K 186; -on-, 166; 

-op-, 261; -WJ-, 181; -u?-, 132; -um-, 


Summary of conditions, 249. 

Superlatives, (adj.) 74, (adv.) 79; fol- 
lowed by el, 75. 

Syllables, 7. 

Synonyms, apparent, {diri: paroli: 
rakonti) 77, (koni: scii) 117, (tempo; 
fojo) 127, {logi: vivi) 133, (antikva: 
maljuna: Tnalnova) p. 128, ftn., 67, 
{&iu: tuta) p. 130, ftn., {indiferenta: 
nezorga) p. 162, ftn., (provi: peni: 
jugi) p. 228, ftn., {guste: juste: jus) 
p. 198, ftn., {ankoraii: jam) p. 124, 
ftn., p. 112, ftn., {trovigi: sin trovi: 
kuH: sidi) p. 217, ftn. 

Synopsis of the verb, 267. 

System, correlative, 235; metric, 284; 
of money, 285. 

Temporal clauses, 96, 155. 

Temporal adverbs, 66, (tiam) 73, 
(kiam) 123, 155, (6iam) 187, (mm) 
212, {neniam) 226, (jam) p. 124, ftn. 
(ankoraii) p. 112, ftn., (jus) p. 116, 

Tenses, aoristic, p. 78, ftn. ; com- 
pound, 109; (of impersonal verbs) 
179; in indirect quotations, 58; in 
conditions, 249 ; of inf., 267 ; of 
conditional, 241, 242; of impera- 
tive, 254; present, 14, (progressive) 
no, (passive) 168, past, 35, (pas- 
sive) 178; future, 55, (progressive) 
114; (passive) 183; imperfect, ii3» 
(passive) 178; perfect, 124, (pas- 
sive) 190; pluperfect, 135, (passive) 
195; future perfect, 148, (passive) 
195; periphrastic, 153, (passive) 
200; synopsis of all, 267. 

Terminations, see Endings. 

Terms of address, 163; affectionate, 
283, p. 221, ftn. 

Time, of day, 185; expr. by prep., 89; 
expr. by ace, 91; expr. by clause, 
96, 155; expr. by adverbial partici- 
ple, 222; advs. of, see Temporal 

Titles. 163; use of mo^to, 258. 



Transitive verbs, defined, 22; formed 
by -ig-, 214; frora intrans. roots, 
264, b, c; list of some, 275. 


XJnemphatic words, position of, (nega- 
tive) 27, (pronoun) 274. 


Verbal nouns in -ad-, 218, b, p. 193, 

Verbal roots, causative verbs from, 
214, b. 

Verbs, mood of, 241; invariable, 18; 
causative, 214; frequentative, 218, 
a; inchoative, 232, a; impersonal, 
50; reflexive, 41; trans., defined, 
22; trans, from intrans. roots, 275; 
intrans., defined, 22; intrans. from 
trans, roots, 332, b, 279 ; from 

prep., 159; from adv., 171; con- 
jugation of, 34, (synopsis) 267, pre- 
ceding the subject, 51; as inter- 
jection, p. 216, ftn.; implied, (in 
comparisons) 82, 156, 250; (in salu- 
tations) 115, (in exclamations) 115, 
228; with prepositional phrase con- 
taining da, 102. 

Vivid conditions, p. 189, ftn. 

Vowels, pronunciation of, 2. 


Way, expression of, (manner) 76^ 
(route) 191. 

Weights and measures, 284. 

Wish, expression of, 257, 259. 

Words, correlative, 235; formation of, 
116; from prepositions, 159; from 
primary advs., 171; composition of , 
see Compounds; order of, in ques- 
tion, 30; see also Position.